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F.R.SS. L. & E., F.L.S., 













1 . The First Lines of Morphology and Organic Development, 
Geometrically considered. By Dr Macvicar, Moffat, 
N.B. . . . : ,-. • • • 1 

2 On the Production of Mist. By John Davy, M.D., F.R.S. 

Lond. and Edin., &c, . . . .16 

3. Description of a Method of Reducing Observations of 

Temperature, with a view to the Comparison of Cli- 
mates. By Professor J. D. Everett, King's College, 
Windsor, Nova Scotia, late Secretary to the Scottish 
'Meteorological Society, . . . .19 

4. On certain Species of Permian Shells said to occur in 

Carboniferous Rocks. By Professor William King 
(Queen's College, Gal way), Queen's University in 
Ireland, . . . . . .37 

5. Notes on Ancient Glaciers made during a brief Visit to 

Chamouni and Neighbourhood, in September 1860. 

By David Milne-Home, Esq. of Wedderburn, . 46 



6. On the Discovery of an Ancient Hammer-head in certain 

Superficial Deposits near Coventry. By the Rev. 

P. B. Brodie, M.A., F.G.S., . . .62 

7. The Flora of Iceland. By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.L.S , F.R.G.S., &c, . . .64 

8. On a Rise of the Coast of the Firth of Forth within the 

Historical Period. By Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.E., 
F.G.S., 102 

9. On Natro-boro-calcite and another Borate occurring in 

the Gypsum of Nova Scotia. By Henry How, 
Professor of Chemistry and Natural History, King's 
College, Windsor, N.S., . . . .112 

10. On Gyrolite occurring with Calcite in Apophyllite in 
the Trap of the Bay of Fundy. By Henry How, 
Professor of Chemistry, &c, King's College, Windsor, 
Nova Scotia, . . . . .117 


1. The Quadrature of the Circle : Correspondence between 

an Eminent Mathematician and James Smith, Esq., 118 

2. The Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow, D.D., 

Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. Edited for 
Trinity College, by W. Whewell, D.D., Master of 
the College. 1860, . . . .121 

3. Attractions, Laplace's Functions, and the Figure of the 

Earth. By John H. Pratt, M.A., Archdeacon of 
Calcutta. Second Edition, . . .128 



4. The Past and Present Life of the Globe, being a Sketch 
of the World's Life System. By David Page, 
F.G.S. Blackwood and Sons. 1861, . . 129 


Royal Society of Edinburgh, . . . .133 

Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, . . .150 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh, . . . .154 



1 . On the Geology of the Country between Lake Superior 

and the Pacific Ocean (between 48° and 55° paral- 
lels of latitude), explored by the Government Ex- 
ploring Expedition under the command of Captain 
J. Palliser (1857-60). By James Hector, M.D., 159 


2. On the Prevalence of certain forms of Disease in con- 

nection with Hail and Snow Showers, and the 
Electric Condition of the Atmosphere. By Dr 
Thomas Moffat, F.G.S. 3. Tweeddale Prize for 
Meteorological Observations. 4. Stephens on Me- 
teorological Phenomena. 5. On the Temperature 
of the Earth's Crust as exhibited by Thermometri- 
cal Observations obtained during the sinking of 
the Deep Mine at Dukinfield. By W. Fairbairn, 
LL.D., ..... 160-163 



6. On the Alleged Practice of Arsenic Eating in Styria. 
By Dr H. E. Roscoe. 7. Dr Livingstone and his 
Researches. 8. The Victoria Falls, . 164-168 


The Rev. John Stevens Henslow, . . .169 

Publications received, .... 172 



1, Notes upon the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses. By Hugh 

Cleghorn, M.D. (Plates I., IL, III.), . .173 

2. On some of the Stages of Development in the Female 

Flower of Dammara australis. By Alexander 
Dickson, M.D. Edin. (Plate IV.) . ,183 

8. Observations upon Sixteen Ancient Human Skulls found 
in Excavations made on the Kirkhill, St Andrews, 
1860. By Joseph Barnard Davis, F.S.A., &c. 
(With a Table of Measurements). Communicated to 
the Literary and Philosophical Society, St Andrews, 191 

4. Ancient British Caves. The Bee-hive Cave at Chapel 

Euny, and the Longitudinal Cave at Chyoyster, each 
built with overlapping stones. By R. Edmonds, 
Esq., . . . . . .201 

5. Notes on Earthquakes and Extraordinary Agitations of 

the Sea. By R. Edmonds, Esq., . . .203 

6. On the Geographical Distribution of the Coniferse in 
Canada, By the Hon. William Sheppard, D.C.L., 
F.B.S.C., of Fairymead, Drummondville, Lower 
Canada, ...... 206 




The First Lines of Morphology and Organic Development, 
Geometrically considered. By Dr Macvicar, Moffat, N. B. 

Astronomy, though so old a science, is even to the present 
day content with being able to understand and to proclaim the 
laws by which the forms and orbits of the heavenly bodies 
are regulated. There are only a very few astronomers who 
have ventured on inquiries as to the mechanism by which 
these laws are realised and worked out ; and that, by general 
consent, with very uncertain success. But naturalists, even 
already, although their science, compared with astronomy, is 
still in the period of its childhood, seem disposed to reverse 
this order of procedure. Naturalists, even previously to the 
discovery of the laws of biology, are bent on the discovery of the 
mechanism by which the forms and structures of living beings 
are determined, and by which they come to be what we find them. 
But in this undertaking, though gifted minds have bestowed 
themselves upon it, very little progress has been made ; and any 
solution of the problem of life in this way in the present day 
seems to me quite hopeless. In the following communication, 
the method of astronomy, the discovery and the application 
of laws, is retained. Nor the method only, the grand instru- 
ment of astronomical investigation, is also retained. It is 
proposed to explain the elementary forms and transformations 
of orgasms and organised beings by the aid of elementary geo- 
metrical principles. Ultimately an appeal to these principles 
is inevitable, and I think that the sooner it is entertained the 


2 The First Lines of Morphology 

better. It is inevitable, because wherever there is a form or 
a transformation, there is a phenomenon taking place in the 
field of geometry ; and with regard to organic forms, as with 
respect to all others, there is only one alternative possible ; 
either they must be shaped in accordance with geometrical 
principles and proprieties, or else in violation of them. There 
is no neutral ground in reference to form, on which the prin- 
ciples of geometry may be simply ignored, or their silence 
secured, if they be violated. Neither are these two geome- 
tries, one, for instance, for the heavens, and another for the 
earth. Two are not possible. All geometrical principles and 
propositions whatsoever, do form, and must form, part and 
parcel of one and the same consistent code of doctrine. It is, 
indeed, but a few only of the simpler facts in geometry which 
have been deciphered by human intelligence; but it is certain 
that those which transcend the reach of our minds are con- 
sistent with those which we know. Geometry is, in fact, simply 
the expression of intelligence operating upon pure space, 
developing the pure forms which are possible to its parts, and 
discovering and describing the properties which necessarily 
attach to these forms. Nor can there be more satisfactory 
evidence that a Perfect Intelligence has framed the universe, 
expanded as it is in space, or that a Perfect Intelligence 
presides continually over it, than the discovery that geometri- 
cal principles are everywhere respected and acted upon in it. 
Other interests, indeed, besides those of form, may have to be 
attended to ; and other interests obviously are attended to in 
the economy of nature — the interests of sensibility, for in- 
stance. And respecting sensibility, there is no assurance a 
priori that its laws are the same as the laws of form. We 
ought, therefore, to hold ourselves prepared for finding that 
possibly in certain regions of nature the principles of geometry 
are kept in abeyance by other, and it may be higher princi- 
ples. But this we are not warranted to regard as a fact until 
we find it to be so ; for in assuming it we are gratuitously 
limiting a priori the infinite resources of Almighty power. 
And if it be ascertained, as undoubtedly it has been, that the 
forms and movements of the heavenly bodies (those of light 
and heat included, to which nature owes everything) are ex- 

are explained by Geometry. 3 

quisitely geometrical ; and if it be certain, as it is, that the 
proprieties and improprieties belonging to geometrical forms 
and principles are the same universally, whether applied to the 
forms and courses of stars or of atoms, of plants or of ani- 
mals, we are called upon, in the absence of evidence to the 
contrary, to anticipate that the forms and movements, whe- 
ther of the intimate structures of orgasms or of entire organ- 
ised beings, however much more elaborate and varied they 
may be than the forms or movements of the stars, are yet, 
equally with them, cases of applied mathematics. 

Proceeding on this principle, which, if it receive mature 
consideration, cannot but secure the reader's acquiescence, I 
proceed to show that a few simple and well ascertained geo- 
metrical facts and relations, when viewed in reference to the 
media in which orgasms live, explain the most characteristic 
forms and phenomena of orgasms, for which, so far as I am 
aware, science has hitherto had no explanation to give. 

The problem, in its most general terms, may be thus con- 
ceived. Given — as the highest generalisation which the 
observation of organic nature has supplied — the idea of a 
being which shall live, that is, a being which shall change 
continuously from within in a determinate manner, or accord- 
ing to law ; given also the general conditions of its existence, 
it is required to explain the primary elements of the form and 
structure, and course of life of such a being. The problem is 
legitimised by the same fact which legitimises all philosophy, 
viz., that "our minds are curious, and our eyes are bad;"* — 
our curiosity attested by the great number of the students of 
nature ; and the badness of our eyes by the fact that, after 
the much which the microscope has been made to reveal, still 
all the most exquisitely plastic fluids (white of egg, serum of 
blood, &c.), and all the most important tissues (intercellular 
substance, the walls of cells and tubules, elastic and contractile 
tissue, &c), look as if they were perfectly structureless and 
homogeneous. Whence, also, we may understand at what a 
distance Nature keeps our organs of sense from her actual 
laboratory, and how altogether dependent we are upon the eye 
of the mind, the use of reason, if we are to find admittance 

* Fontenelle's Plurality of Worlds, First Evening. 

4 The First Lines of Morphology 

at all. Oar position would indeed be altogether hopeless, were 
it not for the fact, which indeed alone renders any scientific 
inquiry possible, and sanctions it, namely, the uniformity of 
nature. But this uniformity is so great, that not only does it 
hold good in securing the recurrence of the same phenomena 
when the same conditions of existence recur ; but, inasmuch 
as the Architect of nature is one, the same style of architec- 
ture prevails from the simplest to the most elaborate of all 
Nature's works. Moreover, there can be no doubt that the 
problem would be utterly insoluble by us, did we not see it 
actually solved in nature. Nor could we proceed were we 
without the principle that the normal form, structure, and 
course of life in every orgasm and living being must he in 
harmony with the conditions of its existence. The great value 
of this fact as a canon of biological research was first shown by 
Cuvier, and it has been generally acknowledged since his day. 
But it is possible to carry it now much farther than it could 
be carried then, and also to simplify its application. Thus, in 
order to ascertain the most general principles of morphology, 
it is not necessary to take into detailed consideration all the 
conditions of existence of living beings. It is enough to take 
into consideration the bearings upon life of the ambient 
medium in which an orgasm or living being is appointed to 
live, and by which it is constituted a member in the system of 
nature, and enters into the economy of nature. Hence, also, 
it is not necessary to consider even the ambient medium, in 
reference to its intimate constitution, or otherwise than in 
reference to the changes to which it is subject. Nay, it is not 
necessary to consider even these changes in detail, or in their 
relations among themselves, but only in their bearings upon 
the life which they touchi In a word, it is enough to regard 
them under one or other of the three categories within one or 
other of which they must all be comprised, viz., (1.) Changes 
which are unfavourable to the development of life ; (2.) 
Changes which are favourable ; and (3.) Alternations from 
either of these to the other, such as are constantly occurring 
during the vicissitudes of protracted existence. Now, the 
forms corresponding to these various states of the ambient 
medium, we may, in the meantime, provisionally designate as, 

are explained by Geometry. 5 

(1.) Forms of hybernation ; (2.) Forms of development ; and 
(3.) Perfected or matured forms. What, then, are the teach- 
ings of geometry with respect to all of these % And first as 

Forms of Hybernation. 

The ambient medium, from some cause or other which is not 
inquired into, is supposed to be unfavourable to the deploy- 
ment of life in it ; the form of the orgasm or living being, 
which is the object of thought, is supposed to be as yet unde- 
termined ; and the problem to be solved is supposed to be the 
construction of a form within which life may be best protected 
from the unfavourable action of the ambient medium, and 
best conserved until some favourable change take place in 
this respect, either in the .medium where the orgasm is, or in 
the orgasm itself, by change of place. Suppose, for instance, 
that an orgasm or living being (in whose interior liquid water 
is, of course, necessary to the continuance of its life) is to have 
a bed of snow assigned to it as the medium which it is to ani- 
mate. Or suppose an orgasm is to have, as its present abode, 
an ambient medium consisting of the same substances as itself, 
and from which it has just been separated or secreted, and into 
which, consequently, it cannot but tend to return by reabsorp- 
tion and assimilation again, the question is, what form shall be 
assigned to it that shall best protect it from the unfavourable 
condition of the ambient medium, and preserve its being and 
its life till better times ? Now, this is a definite problem in 
applied mathematics, and the solution is equally simple and 
explicit. In the circumstances described, an orgasm ought 
obviously to be moulded into that form which exposes the 
smallest number of its parts or particles to the ambient medium, 
and which, consequently, secludes and protects the largest 
number from it. It should obviously be moulded into that 
form which has the smallest surface and the largest interior or 
solidity. Now, what is this % Geometry finds no difficulty with 
the answer. Plainly it is the sphere. Wherever, therefore, 
the construction or the conservation of orgasms or living forms 
in a medium unfavourable to the deployment of their life is the 
aim of nature, and whether we view nature as the creation of 
Intelligence, or as itself instinct with intelligence, we should 

6 The First Lines of Morphology 

look for spherical forms as those dominant in the orgasms in 
it, or, at all events, for such forms as show that, but for the 
presence of influences either preventing the development of the 
spherical, or causing departures from it, they would have been 
spherical. This is our first landing place. 

And let us, in a few words, show how nature verifies this 
deduction. And, in order to this, we may consider two cases — 
(1.) That in which the difference between the medium and the 
orgasm in it is not sufficiently great for the full enjoyment of 
life ; and (2.) that in which the difference is too great. That 
a difference, greater or less, between nearest neighbours is the 
condition of all life, and, indeed, of all molecular action except 
that of simple gravitation, is the teaching equally of all che- 
mistry and of all biology. The difference must not be too 
great and urgent, indeed, otherwise a rapid solution or dissolu- 
tion of the orgasm is the consequence. But neither must it be 
too small ; for all vital, all molecular action, consists in an 
endeavour to lessen an initial difference by an exchange of 
particles ; and all molecular action, all life, ceases when assi- 
milation has been completely effected. Hence it immediately 
appears that, when the difference between an orgasm and the 
ambient medium is too small, the conditions of existence, 
though they may be favourable to the conservation of life, 
are yet unfavourable to the deployment of life. 

Now, the difference between an orgasm and the medium in 
which it exists cannot but be very small when that orgasm 
consists of the same kind of molecules as the medium in which 
it appears, and in which it has been merely individualised. 
Orgasms thus generated, therefore, we are to expect to possess 
spherical or hybernating forms, so far as mechanical pres- 
sures, modes of nutrition, and specific types permit. Now, in 
this category are obviously included all ova, seeds, spores, 
granules, and cells of all those kinds of which so many are pro- 
duced in the plastic fluids and tissues of living beings. But 
of all these, it will be admitted that they tend to assume a 
spherical form. They therefore fully verify our theory. 

Nor is it only while they are in a hybernating state that 
ova and seeds verify our theory. When, through influences 
more or less remote, they are forced to develop themselves, 

are explained by Geometry. 7 

still, so long as they remain in their matrix, they are devel- 
oped in forms far more rounded than those which they imme- 
diately assume on changing their medium and coming out into 
the world. From the simplest entozoa (Ascaris acuminata) to 
the chick in ovo and mammalian embryos (foetus in utero, &c), 
this fact is illustrated. To the same category also there obvi- 
ously belong those orgasms which, though not produced within 
the parent tissue, are yet retained in such union with it that 
the deployment of individual life in them is prevented. Such 
are gems, buds, tubers, &c. And of these it is not to be denied 
that the sphere is the typical form. And so in other cases. 

Here also the entozoa present themselves. They exist in a 
medium too similar to themselves to admit of a full development 
of life and of those expanded organs which, as we shall after- 
wards see, places a living creature in harmony with a favour- 
able medium. Now, though it may be said that the entozoa 
tend to form an animal kingdom of themselves, and, as far as 
is possible, to represent all forms in the animal kingdom, yet 
they are very unsuccessful. In so far as they are truly 
simple, and neither compressed nor lengthened by currents 
plying along the walls to which they are attached, they tend 
to be eminently spheroidal (Acephalocystis, Gregarina, &c.), 
usually giving, as a departure from the spherical, only such 
head and neck as are necessary to secure their position (Ech- 
inococcus, Cysticercus, &c.) But among such animals there 
is no reason why their simple forms may not be repeated in 
continuity in the position in which one individual has suc- 
ceeded in establishing itself, so as thus to give species of a 
higher order to nature, species composed of self-repeating 
parts either loosely jointed (tape-worms, &c), or compactly 
annulated and unified (ascarides, &c). 

As to those conditions of existence in which the difference 
between the orgasm and its ambient medium is too great 'for 
the deployment of life, while yet it is not so great as to dissolve 
or destroy the orgasm, they are manifold, but they always 
sanction the same principle of morphology ; they always give 
the spherical as the typical form of the orgasm or living being 
so situate. Such a living being may venture out perhaps, and 
even show a tail (Amaroucium proliferum), or it may try a 

8 The First Lines of Morphology 

succession of forms (many Acalephae) ; but amid the over- 
action of the ambient medium, life is safe only by its having 
the power of reverting to the spherical form when things are 
at the worst. As a case of great difference between the 
orgasm and the ambient medium, we may instance that in 
which the latter is too cold. Life is compatible even with 
a bed of snow ; but as to the form of the characteristic orgasm 
found in such a medium, its generic name Sphserococcus 
sufficiently indicates what it is. And generally, given any 
orgasm or living being which in a genial medium possesses 
an expanded form, or form furnished with expanded parts, 
such as tentacula or limbs, and let it be exposed to cold, does 
it not immediately shrink up into as rounded a form as it can ? 
All the forms of hybernation, whether of the vegetable or 
animal kingdom, compared with their summer forms, are 
rounded. The same fact is also illustrated by such living 
beings as can adapt their forms from time to time to the 
ambient medium as it changes. Be it cold or hunger, or 
danger (provided they do not try to flee from it), or be it any 
other influence unfavourable to the deployment of life that 
assails them, they let fall, draw in. shrink up, coil round, and 
in a thousand ways attempt sphericity of form. And this form 
some of them, even quadrupeds — the hedgehog, for instance — 
successfully attain. Let only the conservation of life for 
future deployment, when the conditions of existence may be- 
come favourable, be the aim of Nature, then, even though that 
favourable change should never come, still Nature does her 
part in the meantime to secure under a spherical contour what 
of life exists. The back of the sick man falling into years may 
never be able again to support an erect figure, the bosom of 
the healthy virgin may never be called upon to give forth 
milk to an infant, still, in the meantime, as the form of con- 
servation, both are rounded ; and both being in the harmony 
of things, both being a homage to the same principle, both an 
obedience to a " law which is ordained unto life," both have 
a peculiar beauty, each its own ; for beauty is universally 
the language of law triumphant* Let it not be thought that 

* See " The Philosophy of the Beautiful," by the author. Edmonston and 
Douglas, Edinburgh. 

are explained by Geometry. 9 

it is an argument against the law of morphology which I am 
now insisting upon, that in all such cases as I have mentioned 
a spherical form is obviously a necessity imposed by some 
physical force, or in itself the most fit. These are beautiful 
facts, anything but adverse to the theory now advocated. 
They take their rise in this, that the physical forces have 
been shaped by the Creator so as to be the prime ministers of 
a pure geometry, the architects of a pure morphology, shaped 
so as to work out and to realise the behests of Omniscience, 
manifesting itself in the segmentation by matter of space and 
time, according to the laws of form, magnitude, and number. 
What particular feature, among the many eminent properties 
of the sphere, shall be fixed upon in discourse as the deter- 
mining reason of its being given to nature, depends entirely 
upon the naturalist's point of view. The point of view of 
this communication is the ratio of the superfices of the sphere 
to its volume. But that does not forbid others. 

Forms of Development. 
Let us suppose, next, that the conditions of existence have 
become quite favourable to the deployment of life, whether it 
be that the living orgasm has abandoned a medium essentially 
unfavourable, or that the medium in which it has remained 
has become favourable ; the question now, therefore, is, what 
is the form which is suitable to this new condition of exist- 
ence 1 And here the answer is obviously as explicit, if not 
quite so simple, as before. The problem is now, in fact, exactly 
the converse of the former. Obviously the orgasm or living 
form now, instead of exposing to the surrounding medium the 
smallest number of particles, the smallest extent of surface, 
ought to expose the greatest extent, the largest number pos- 
sible. Thus are we led to ask, what is that geometrical form 
which, in reference to its interior, has the largest superficies ? 
Now, to this the answer is, that there may be a form which is 
all superficies. This, in fact (in a general and physical sense), 
applies to many forms, not all equally fulfilling it, indeed, but 
all legitimately included under it. Thus a circular disk, in 
contact with the ambient medium all around, is all superficies. 
Still the circumference of a circle in reference to its area being 


10 The First Lines of Morphology 

a minimum, the disk will have a larger periphery, and will 
expose a larger number of parts or particles to the ambient 
medium, when from circular it becomes elliptical, oblong, 
lanceolate, and ultimately linear. Nor does the transforma- 
tion stop here. If the medium be wholly favourable to the 
full deployment of life, then, in order that the given quantity 
of matter may come in contact and bask to the utmost in that 
medium, the linear form must become jointed, and break up 
into separate elements, each free in the medium, and all so 
small, that each is all surface and no interior, that is, all of 
them mere physical points and centres of force. Let, then, 
divisible matter be created or given, and let space in any 
region be, by an adequate power, willed or made to be wholly 
favourable to the deployment of life in that region, Intelli- 
gence meanwhile presiding, and proceeding on the principles 
of geometry, and that divisible matter, in obedience to that 
Will and that Intelligence, must be divided more and more, 
and ultimately resolved into such a medium as the aether is 
commonly believed to be. In that case, Fiat Lux is the first 
word of a purely scientific genesis. 

And thus we are able to understand how the forms of the 
stars, whose containing cell is heaven itself, no less than the 
forms of granules of starch or oil in the microscopic cell of 
living tissue, fall under the theory which is advanced in this 
paper. The forms of the heavenly bodies are generally held 
to be sufficiently accounted for when they are shown to be the 
inevitable product of gravitation. Now, that they are, there 
can be no doubt. But gravitation, in determining them into 
spherical forms, is merely the finger of Intelligence imparting 
to them that form which is most suitable to the conditions of 
their existence, that form which possesses this, among other 
valuable properties, that bodies under it present a minimum of 
superficies to the ambient medium. 

But to proceed. Let there be an orgasm located in a medium 
which is at first unfavourable to the deployment of life, but 
afterwards becomes favourable, either by a change in the 
orgasm or in the medium, we obtain from reason both an 
initial form for that orgasm, and a course of development. 
The initial form has for its type, as has been shown, the solid 

are explained by Geometry. 11 

sphere. And the forms of development are either (1) discoid 
or membranous ; (2) axial or filamentary ; (3) a combination 
of both, such as stellate ; or if still kept in the massive state, 
then (4) granular, by the segmentation of a homogeneous- 
ness, whether spherule, membrane, or filament. 

Now, these deductions are so fully verified by all observa- 
tion, that I do not think it necessary to dwell upon this part 
of the subject. Thus a vegetative spherule, when placed in 
environments favourable to the deployment of its life, gives 
either a filamentary or a discoid frond, or one combining both. 
And when it has become full sized according to the hereditary 
type of the species, and the conditions of existence, conse- 
quently, are no longer favourable to the further deployment of 
life, then spherical forms are developed in it again which also 
tend to divide by segmentation into smaller grains, often in a 
very beautiful and geometrical manner (in algae; pollen, &c), 
whereby the spore is reproduced and the species preserved. 
Seeds also, and the same is true of buds and tubers when the 
conditions of the ambient media become favourable, develop 
into plants which are wholly composed of parts that are either 
discoid or linear, or of the nature of leaf and stem. Nor is 
it in the vegetable kingdom only that we find this law verified. 
The inner fabric of animals is entirely composed either of 
membranes or of fibres. And even as to their external forms, 
very many of them are discoid or radiant, and very many of 
them are linear. But here, it may be remarked in reference 
to the entire forms of animals, that geometrical properties of a 
higher order prescribe limits to the granting to them of simple 
and elementary forms. And, moreover, since even the simplest 
plant or animal consists of parts and particles, each of which 
has attained a perfected or matured form for itself, it is alto- 
gether necessary to determine the latter, before attempting to 
explain the forms of entire organised beings. 

Forms of Maturity. 

In the preceding investigation we have assumed that the con- 
dition of existence, at least in so far as the ambient medium 
is concerned, is either wholly unfavourable or wholly favour- 
able to the deployment of life ; and the only change that we 

12 The First Lines of Morphology 

have supposed is from the former to the latter. But it so 
happens, in the actual circumstances of our world, that there 
are many alternations both ways, and always one, at least, in 
the course of every day. We have therefore still to investi- 
gate, and if possible to determine, that form which shall be 
the most successful compromise between both — .which shall be 
most safe during unfavourable vicissitudes, and most open to 
take advantage of every favourable change. Now, such a 
form we obviously obtain, when the solid sphere, the form of 
hybernation, (1) in opening into a membrane as the form of 
development, does so in such a way as to issue in a hollow 
spherical membrane pervious to the ambient medium, or (2) 
when extending into a filament it turns round upon itself as 
a helix, and thus generates a hollow spherical form by a spiral 
filament. Thus, as the perfected or matured form of an ele- 
mentary orgasm, we reach 

{a simple membrane, "J 
I or both, 
a spiral filament, J 

Moreover, it follows, from our principle, that when the con- 
dition of existence is favourable to life, this spherical cell 
must tend to grow and increase to the utmost limits of size 
.which it can without falling to pieces ; for it must tend to be- 
come more and more pervious and fenestrated, so as to place 
its interior as much as possible in a condition as favourable as 
its exterior, with respect to the ambient medium. But when 
the relations of the ambient medium change, and become unfa- 
vourable, then it must tend to diminish the extent of surface 
exposed to that medium ; it must tend to contract ; whereby 
not only will the extent of the external surface be lessened, 
and that surface so far secured from injury, but the fenestrse, 
pores or mouths, also, may possibly be closed, and thus the 
ambient medium excluded from the interior altogether. 

Thus, as the most perfect and mature organic element 
which our method enables us to reach, we obtain a pervious 
spherical cell capable of growth, and of expanding or con- 
tracting according as the conditions of existence are favour- 
able or unfavourable to the deployment of life. Now, in 
reference to this result, still more than in reference to the two 
which have preceded, it is surely unnecessary to enlarge by 

are explained by Geometry. 13 

illustration. It may be safely affirmed, that the grand dis- 
covery of modern times consists in this, that the mature 
structural elements of orgasms and living beings consist uni- 
versally in cells which are pervious, and perform functions 
represented, so far as is known, by the reasoning above. 

The Transformation of Cells. 

The first fit of life, then, may be said to result in the trans- 
formation, by a variety of causes, of solid spheres, molecules, 
granules, and grains of various sorts, into hollow spheres or 
cells. It is obvious, however, that the course of life cannot 
stop here. During that same phase of the ambient medium 
which developes the cell out of the granule, cells previously ex- 
isting must tend to undergo the same series of changes which 
the granule does, though not so urgently. Thus a cell, how- 
ever pervious its wall, can never expose its interior surface to 
the ambient medium so fully as it exposes its exterior sur- 
face. It can never, in this respect, possess all the advantages 
which are possessed by an open tube or annulus of the same 
extent of surface, or by a filament which has no interior at 
all. Hence, under conditions of existence which are still 
more favourable to the deployment of life than those in which 
primordial cells were generated, we are to expect that such 
cells will be transformed into other forms analogous to those 
which we have traced in reference to solid grains or granules. 
They will also be nearer the region of visibility, if not actu- 
ally within it. These transformations may be thus indicated : 
— (1.) a. Single cells will be transformed into annuli, which 
may be found in suitable positions, as in the interior of more 
persistent cells (see Vegetable Anatomy, Tradescantia, Musa, 
&c.) b. Each cell in a series may open in opposite regions, 
so as to constitute a short cylinder or bead, and so that a 
line of such two-mouthed cells will constitute a moniliform or 
variously constructed cross-barred cylindrical tube or annular 
duct. (For illustrations of this, also, in abundance, see vege- 
table anatomy, and the current theory as to the genesis of the 
capillaries in animal bodies.) But without opening by larger 
mouths than those on which their permeability depends, cells, 
when the ambient medium is favourable to the deployment of 
life, will tend to depart from the spherical form ; for of that 

14 The First Lines of Morphology 

form the surface in contact with the medium is a minimum. 
Thus, c, they will be lengthened into spindle-shapes (see ele- 
ments of many woods and muscles) ; for in such forms, when 
of the same volume as spheres, there is a larger surface, both 
external and internal, to enjoy the favourable conditions of 
existence, d. The spindle may become a tubule (as in many 
algae and fungi, pollen on stigma, &c.) e. The lengthening cell 
may be spun out into a filament or fibre so small as to have 
no interior, and thus escape again into the region of invisi- 
bility, after having been already in it (Oscillatoriacese, &c.) 
/. But all these lengthened forms, when not prevented by 
attachments, must ever tend to reproduce the spherical, and 
therefore to turn round upon themselves, giving to nature 
twisted forms and spirals in abundance (found even among 
the simplest Algae, Spirogyra, &c.) (2.) The cell, under con- 
ditions of existence still favourable, may also extend its sur- 
face to the benignant influence of the ambient medium by 
depressing itself in the line of some one axis, and thus be- 
coming, g, lenticular (as in blood-cells, &c), or h, discoid (as 
in epithelial cells, &c), or k, stellate or radiated, that is, discoid 
at the centre, filamentary at the margin (as in pith of rush, 
&c.) ; Z, the spiral tendency showing itself in the filamentary 
part (as in antherozoids, &c.) In short, the ways in which a 
cell may vary its form so as to embrace more fully the ambient 
medium, when the condition of that medium is favourable to 
the deployment of life, are almost endless. 

The same phenomenon — an opening of cells to the ambient 
medium — must also tend to ensue when, instead of a single 
cell, or a linear series of cells, there is a cellular mass. The 
interior of such a mass is, in fact, in a great measure secluded 
from the ambient medium altogether. It is only after perme- 
ation of the outer cells that the ambient medium can reach 
the inner cells. If, then, a single cell tend to open into an 
annulus or element of a tubule, so as to give ingress into its 
interior to the ambient medium when that medium invites to 
the deployment of life, much more will the cells forming the 
periphery of a cellular mass tend to do so. In order to pro- 
tect them, therefore, from this opening power of the medium, 

are explained by Geometry. 15 

and to preserve them as cells, they will require to have a more 
stable structure than cells in general. In a word, on surfaces 
exposed to an ambient medium which is favourable to life, an 
epithelium is called for. 

Nevertheless, in those regions in which the ambient medium 
presses most urgently upon the cellular mass, we are to ex- 
pect the cells to open and to admit the ambient medium to 
the interior. And thus, on the single principle on which the 
whole of this paper has been reasoned, we shall have in cel- 
lular masses, when the conditions of existence are favourable 
to the deployment of life, intercellular passages, lacunae, and 
vessels which, when the external pressure is local, and the 
cells easily transformable, will be conical as they retire from 
the region of maximum pressure, and tend to ramify. 

A Dermal System. 
It is easy to perceive, however, that the limit of this process 
of vessel-formation, and of the admittance of the ambient 
medium to the interior of a cellular mass, is the complete 
solution of the cells which first formed the interior of that 
mass, and the reduction of the entire orgasm to a dermal body, 
pervious, by one or more openings, to the ambient medium. 

Viscera, §fc. 
But as fast as this process of cell digestion proceeds in the 
interior of the mass, a peculiar liquid must be generated 
therein — a liquid composed of cell-material. Hence, we are 
only to expect that, within the persistent dermal envelope, 
new cellular structures will be formed, and differentiation 
proceed, special organs being modelled according to the type 
of the species. Thus far we can go on a single principle — and 
that, an element of pure geometry. But to explain the multi- 
plication of cells, as also the morphology of compound forms 
generally, another law must be invoked — the Law of Assimi- 
lation. This, however, it forms the principal theme of a 
special work * to unfold, and I need not touch upon it here. 

* The First Lines of Science Simplified, and the Structure of Molecules 
attempted. Sutherland and Knox. Edinburgh, 1860. 


On the Production of Mist. By John Davy, M.D., F.R.S. 
Lond. and Ed., &c. 

One cause has commonly been assigned for the production 
of mist, viz., the access of cold air and its admixture with 
warmer air saturated, or nearly saturated, with moisture, such 
as that resting on the surface of great bodies of water — the 
sea, for instance, lakes, and large rivers — and so strikingly 
exemplified in our autumnal and early winter fogs, when the 
bodies of water alluded to, owing to the heat absorbed during 
the warm summer season, are of much higher temperature 
than the inflowing air, especially if the wind be from a nor- 
therly quarter. 

Another cause, and one which has had less attention paid 
to it, is of an opposite kind, and acting mostly at a different 
season — viz., a mild moist air coming in contact with a colder 
air, equally humid, incumbent on cold surfaces, whether of 
water or land, towards the end of winter and the beginning 
of spring. The production of mist in this way, at the times 
mentioned, may often be seen, especially during a thaw 
with a change of wind from the north and north-east to the 
south and south-west. In the Lake District. I have fre- 
quently observed it, when passing along Windermere under 
the circumstances described, and when, on trying the tem- 
perature of the water of the lake and the air over it, that of 
the former has been found to be ten or more degrees lower than 
that of the latter. In the same district, under the like condi- 
tions, the formation of mist on the hills is often to be witnessed 
— their surface-temperature at the time being many degrees 
below that of the mild moist air impinging on them. 

One of the peculiarities of this later mist — if it may be so 
distinguished from the earlier — is, that it is low, rising but 
little above the surface, and never occurring at least over water, 
except with the gentlest breeze. Associated with this pheno- 
menon is another, and one more noticeable — the precipitation 
of moisture on walls and flagged floors so situated as not to 
have had the benefit of fire, and consequently liable to ac- 
quire, during any severity of cold in winter, a low temperature. 

Dr John Davy on the Production of Mist. 17 

I need hardly advert to the vulgar opinion, that the moisture 
in question is an exudation from the stone itself — a belief 
implied in the term " sweating," used to express it. 

This precipitation of moisture and production of mist are 
most conspicuous in such situations as are exposed to great 
and sudden transitions of temperature, such as Constantinople 
situated between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean ; the 
towns on the shores of the Adriatic, especially of its upper 
portion ; the islands of the Mediterranean most exposed to 
the warm and damp sirocco, such as Malta ; and in England, 
the towns on the south-west coast of Dorset and Devon. 

A dread of it amongst the inhabitants of Constantinople 
has led them to give the preference to wooden houses, notwith- 
standing the constant danger of destruction from fire to which 
they are exposed, and from which they have so often suffered. 
Stone houses they consider unwholesome ; and to a people such 
as the Turks, trusting chiefly to clothing for protection from 
the cold of winter, they can hardly be otherwise. In England, 
it is to feared, that amongst the poorer class, who cannot afford 
to keep their dwellings warm by fires, their health may suffer 
from this cause.* And, granting this, does it not follow, that 
the natives of the wilder parts of Scotland, the Highlands and 
Isles, and of the similar parts of Ireland, have reason on their 
side in keeping to their warm turf-built huts, preferring them 
to the cold stone-built slated houses 1 

Not only in relation to health and comfort is the subject of 
interest ; it is hardly less so in relation to the well-keeping of 
objects which are liable to suffer from damp. And how few are 
there which are not ! Moisture, which is essential to vitality, 
is, as is well-known, equally essential to decay. In Upper 
Egypt, the climate of which is so remarkable for its dryness, 
works of art are perdurable. In our moist climate, how great 
is the contrast ; how few of our stately buildings, even though 

* The health of prisoners is endangered from the same cause, when their 
sleeping cells, of massive masonry, are detached from the main building with- 
out the means of being warmed. This last winter, in a county house of correc- 
tion, I have been informed that tha inner walls of some of the cells were not 
only wet from precipitated moisture, but were in the morning actually covered 
with ice, the breath of their inmates corresponding in quality to the moist and 
warm sirocco. 


18 Dr John Davy on the Production of Mist. 

recently erected — witness the Houses of Parliament — are not 
in progress of deterioration ! Even within doors, unless due 
precautions be taken, articles of the greatest value, such as 
pictures and books, are liable to suffer from damp, especially 
the damp in question. I remember visiting an esteemed col- 
lection of pictures in the south of Devon, belonging to a noble- 
man not residing, and the rooms in which they were without 
fires, and being disappointed of an expected pleasure, owing to 
a precipitation of moisture on the paintings, almost completely 
obscuring them — the wind at the time blowing from the 
south, succeeding a continuance of cold weather with the wind 
from the opposite quarter. 

Nor is it undeserving of attention in relation to the appear- 
ances in nature and in connection with climate — and this irre- 
spective of the general consideration, that the aqueous por- 
tion of the atmosphere is the only one of its elements which is 
variable in a marked degree, and that were it not for this one, 
the aspects of the sky would be immutably the same. Not 
only are the low creeping mists of our valleys referrible to it, 
but also the clouds capping our mountains ; indeed, the latter 
especially exemplify it : — 

" The south wind wraps the mountain top in mist." 

So Homer sang as translated by Cowper. The same effect is 
witnessed at the present time in Greece ; as soon as the south- 
east — the moist warm sirocco — blows, all the mountain tops are 
hid, and more than that, a veil is, as it were, spread over the 
mountains themselves, either concealing them entirely, or 
allowing them to be seen dimly, like indistinct shadows through 
the vapoury air. The setting in of the same wind, often be- 
ginning very gently, is anticipated at Constantinople, by a 
dense fog appearing low over the surface of the Sea of Mar- 
mora, so low that whilst the hulls of ships becalmed in it are 
hid, their top-masts may be seen in the clear air above. 

To it, too, may be referred the large proportion of rain that 
falls in mountain districts, increasing in a certain ratio with 
the elevation of the mountains exposed to the impulse of warm 
or mild damp winds, of which we have so striking an instance 
in the Lake Districts of England ; where, in one spot, Scath- 
waite, in Borrowdale, in the midst of the higher ranges of hills, 
the average fall of rain yearly is as much as 129*97 inches. 


Description of a Method of Reducing Observations of Tem- 
perature, with a view to the Comparison of Climates. By 
Professor J. D. Everett, King's College, Windsor, Nova 
Scotia, late Secretary to the Scottish Meteorological 

The climate of a place, as regards temperature, involves 
three elements — mean temperature, range, and date of phase.* 
The first of these is subjected to measurement wherever 
meteorological observations are taken ; the other two, and 
especially the third, have not received equal attention. These 
three elements appertain alike to daily and to annual varia- 
tions, but we shall confine our remarks to the latter. 

Annual range (t. e., the range that occurs within the year) 
has been measured in various ways. Sometimes it is assumed 
as the difference between the two extreme readings which 
occur within the year; sometimes as the difference between 
the two extremes of daily mean temperature ; sometimes as 
the difference between the mean temperatures of the warmest 
and the coldest calendar month ; sometimes as the difference 
between the mean temperature of a certain number of the 
warmest calendar months, and that of an equal number of the 

The two latter assumptions are defective in point of accu- 
racy, because the times of maximum and minimum are not the 
same for all places. It is obvious that the range, if estimated as 
the difference between the mean temperatures of two calendar 
months, will (cceteris paribus) appear greatest when the maxi- 
mum and minimum fall precisely in the centres of the two 
months ; and if this condition is more nearly fulfilled at one 
of two places compared than at the other, the comparison will 
be unequal. The same remark applies when the mean of 
three (or any other number of) warm months is compared 
with that of the same number of cold ones, and the ratio of 

* Phases are the successive states of an element which undergoes continual 
change. By " date of phase," I mean the earliness or lateness of the phases 
generally ; in other words, the earliness or lateness of the seasons, upon th8 
whole, as regards temperature. 

20 Professor J. D. Everett's Description of a Method 

the error to the deduced range will be upon the average the 
same in both cases.* 

The element of " date," which thus interferes with the de- 
termination of range from monthly means, is for its own sake 
well worthy of careful investigation ; but meteorologists 
generally content themselves with loose estimates of its 
amount, and I am not acquainted with any meteorological 
work which contains directions for computing it. 

The design of the present paper is to supply this deside- 
ratum, j- by describing a convenient method of deriving both 
'' range" and. " date of phase" from the mean temperatures of 
the twelve calendar months. I shall not enter into the 
mathematical investigation on which the method rests (for 
which I may refer to two papers, by Professor W. Thomson 
and the Author, read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
on the 30th April 1859), but shall confine myself to a brief 
account of the principle of procedure, with full details of its 
practical application. 

The method virtually consists in removing the irregularities 
which characterise the actual curve of temperature for any 
place, so as to obtain in its stead a regular curve which can 
be expressed by a simple mathematical formula. In the re- 
duced curves thus obtained for two places, we have a definite 
measure both of the interval of time by which the phases of 
temperature are on the whole earlier at one place than at the 
other, and of the annual range at each place, as deduced 
from a comparison of the warmer half of the year with the 

* If the variations of temperature conformed to the simple curve of sines, 
the difference between the mean temperatures of two equal and opposite por- 
tions of the year, of given length, would vary directly as the difference between 
the temperatures of their respective centres. 

t [This cannot be called a desideratum, for the method here spoken of has 
been in familiar use among meteorologists for thirty years or more. It has 
been published in Kamst's Meteorology, is noticed by Sir John Herschel in the 
article " Meteorology" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and is specially adopted 
by Principal Forbes in his article on the climate of Edinburgh, in the last 
volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. These authors 
have fully adopted it, and pointed out the significance of the three constants 
for— 1. Mean Temperature; 2. Range; 3. " Date of Phase."— Editor Edin. 
N. Philot. Journal.'} 

of Reducing Observations of Temperature. 21 

The curve which is adopted as the standard of reduction is 
what mathematicians call a " simple harmonic curve," or " the 
curve of sines," and is expressed by the equation* 

y = A + a. sin (x + e), 

where A will denote the mean temperature of the year, a the 
amplitude or greatest departure of the curve from the mean, 
which will be the same above as below, and will therefore be 
equal to half the annual range, and e is expressive of the 
" date of phase," the phases of temperature being earlier or 
later according as e is greater or less. The curve has one 
maximum and one minimum in the year, which are precisely 
half a year asunder ; and exactly midway between these, are 
the two points where the curve intersects the line of mean 
annual temperature, corresponding to those- two days in the 
year, one in spring and the other in autumn, whose mean tem- 
peratures are the same as that of the year. 

The curve for a year will consist, in fact, of four precisely 
similar portions, the part which is above the line of mean 
temperature being precisely similar to that which is below, 
and each of these halves being divided symmetrically, at 
the points of maximum and minimum temperature respec- 

It is not, of course, pretended that the actual temperature 
of any place fulfils these conditions ; but that when a uniform 
standard of reduction is to be applied to a number of places 
(in the temperate or frigid zones), such a curve as we have 
described is adapted to the purpose. While possessing the 
necessary amount of uniformity, the curve, at the same time, 
admits of infinite variety in respect of its amplitude (i.e., the 
extent of its departure from a straight line), which may be 
increased or diminished, without limit, according as we wish 
to represent a climate where the annual range is great or 

It is not necessary that the curve should actually be drawn. 

* Some of our most important results will remain true if the temperature 
through the year be supposed to conform to the expression 
t/=A + a 1 . sin (a? + e,)-f a 2 . sin (2x-\-e 2 ). 
We shall indicate these in their place. 

22 Professor J. D. Everett's Description of a Method 

It will be sufficient to calculate the values of a and e, and the 
mode of doing this is shown in the subjoined example, in 
which the proposed method of reduction is applied to the 
monthly mean temperatures of Stornoway for the average of 
the three years 1856-7-8, as contained in the Report of the 
Scottish Meteorological Society, for the quarter ending June 
30th, 1859:— 














— 3-6 
+ 5-6 
+ 11-7 


+ 5-6 

— 3-6 

s 3 

s 2 


— 9-4 


— 6-5 

— 7-6 

— 3-6 


s 2 


= tan. 7 

5° 34' 

6)— 52'2 
P= — 8-70 

Q. sec. 6 33.- 

-8-99 = 


Q = 




The numbers at the head of the columns are simply for 
reference in the present description. 

Column 1 contains the temperatures of the six months 
January to June, and column 2 those from July to December. 

By subtracting the numbers in column 2 from those opposite 
to them in column 1, the numbers in column 3 are obtained, 
and the two last of these are written in reverse order in the 
second and third lines of column 4. 

By subtracting the numbers in column 4 from those oppo- 
site to them in column 3, as far down as the fourth line, we 
obtain the numbers in column 5. 

The symbols S 3 , S 2 , S 1? S 0> in the next column, denote re- 
spectively the natural sines of 90°, 60°, 30°, and 0°, which are 
1, -8G6, J, and 0. Multiplying the numbers in column 5 by 
these quantities, we obtain the numbers in column 7, which 
are then added and their sum divided by 6. The quotient is 
called P. 

Column 8 is obtained by adding the numbers in column 3 
to those opposite to them in column 4. The numbers in 
column 8 are then multiplied respectively by S , S v S 2 , and 
S 3 , and the products form column 10, which must be summed 
and divided by 6. The quotient is called Q. 

of Reducing Observations of Temperature. 23 

The angle whose tangent is equal to P divided by Q is e, 
the "epoch" or "date of phase;" and Q multiplied by the 
secant of this angle is a the amplitude in degrees of tempera- 

. In finding a and e by logarithms, it will be sufficient to 
carry these to four places of decimals. 

A check against large errors in determining a is afforded 
by knowing that if P and Q are the sides of a right-angled 
triangle, a is the hypotenuse. 

If the year be supposed to consist of 360°, then e represents 
the interval from that day in autumn which forms the boun- 
dary between the warm and cold halves of the year to the 
15th of January. The amplitude a is approximately equal 
to the difference between the mean temperature of the year 
and that of the warmest or coldest group of thirty days. 
More accurately,* it is proportional (but not equal) to the 
difference between the mean temperatures of the warm and 
cold halves of the year, bearing to this difference the constant 
ratio of 1 : 1*2879. In speaking of the warm and cold halves 
of the year, I suppose the year divided at two opposite points 
in such a manner, that the greatest possible amount of heat 
shall be contained in one half, and (consequently) the greatest 
possible amount of cold in the other. 

I shall now give instances of the comparison of climates. 

The subjoined table (Table I.) exhibits the results of the 
proposed method of reduction, as applied to all those stations 
of the Scot. Met. Soc. whose observations embrace the three 
years 1856-57-58. The data are the mean temperatures of 
the stations for each calendar month on the average of the 
three years above named, as contained in the Society's report 
for the quarter ending June 30th, 1859. 

* This definition, and also that above given for e, are very close approxi- 
mations to the truth as regards the actual temperatures, being true not only 
for a simple harmonic curve, but also for that more complex curve whose 
equation is given in the note, page 3. The first definition here given of a is 
only true for a simple harmonic curve. 

24 Professor J. D. Everett's Description of a Method 
Table I.— Results from Three Years, 1856-57-58. 


Values of 

earlier, -f- 
later, — 



Warm and 



a. e. 

than mean. 

Cold half. 




75° 34' 






80° 57 

+ 1-6 


Elgin, . 



79° 24' 

+ -1 


Castle Newe, . 



80° 29' 

+ 1-2 


Brae mar, 



79° 6' 

- -2 





78° 50' 

- -5 


Fettercairn, u 



83° 22' 

+ 4-1 





79° 53' 

+ '5 


Barry, . 



78° 24' 






80° 39' 

+ 1-3 


Callton Mor, . 



80° 37' 

+ 1-3 





76° 37' 






80° 28' 

+ 11 





77° 6' 






79° 25' 

+ -1 


E. Linton, 



76° 16' 






71° 43' 



Yester, . 



83° 56' 

+ 4-7 


Thirlestane, . 



80° 46' 

+ 1-4 


Milnegraden, . 



78° 43' 

- »6 


Bowhill, . . 



82° 9' 

+ 2-9 


Makerstoun, . 



77° 22' 



Drumlanrig, . 



81° V 

+ 1-7 


Kirkpatrick, . 



81° 5' 

+ 1-8 




79° 20' 

Table II.- 

-Results from Single Years. 

Values of e. 

Values of a. 










59° 41' 

73° 43' 




• . • 

62° 2' 

75° 49' 




Tongue, . 

72° 29' 

84° 19' 




81° 50' 

72° 3' 

73° 27' 


9 4 



80° 29' 

74° 56' 

87° 25' 




E. Linton, 

76° 4' 

68° 27' 

84° 2' 




70° 56' 

62° 10' 

82° 40' 




Yester, . 

87° 4' 




of Reducing Observations of Temperature. 25 

The names of stations are entered in the order in which 
they occur in the Society's Reports, being nearly that of lati- 
tude, proceeding from north to south. 

The first column of numbers contains the values of A, or 
the mean annual temperature obtained in the usual manner. 

In the second and third columns are the values of a and e 
(amplitude and epoch) determined in the manner already ex- 

The fourth column shows the number of days and tenths of 
a day by which each station is earlier or later (as regards the 
phases of its temperature) than the mean of all ; days earlier 
than the mean being denoted by + , and days later by — . 

The fifth column exhibits the difference between the mean 
temperatures of the warm and cold halves of the year. 

The numbers in the 4th column have been obtained from 
those in the 3d, by taking the difference from the mean value 
of e for all the stations (79° 20'), and converting it into days 
at the rate of 1° to l T ^d day. (Since 360 : 365 : : 72 : 73). 

The numbers in the 5th column are proportional to those 
in the 2d, and have been obtained from them by the formula 
log. a + -1099 = log. n. (Since -1099 is the logarithm of 

To find the centres of the warm and cold halves of the year, 
we may proceed as follows. The mean value of e for all the 
stations is 79° 20'. To reduce to the beginning of the year, 
subtract 15°, since our reckoning has been taken from the 
middle of the first month. This leaves 64° 20', which is the 
interval from the beginning of the cold half to the end or 
beginning of the year. The complement of this, or 25° 40', 
is the interval from the beginning of the year to the centre of 
the cold half, which again is 180° distant from the centre of 
the warm half. 

25° 40' corresponds to 26 days (nearly.) 
205° 40' „ 209 

The 26th and 209th days of the year are January 26th and 
July 28th, which are therefore the centres of the cold and 
warm halves of the year for the mean of the stations. The 
corresponding dates for any particular station will be earlier 
or later than these by the amount shown in column 4. 


26 Professor J. D. Everett's Description of a Method 

By taking the sum and the difference of A and a, we shall 
obtain approximately the mean temperatures of the warmest 
and coldest groups of 30 days respectively at each of the 
stations ; or if the difference between the warmest and coldest 
group is required, it can be found by simply doubling a. 
These determinations will, however, be inferior in accuracy 
to those which the table contains, and this is my reason for 
omitting them. (See note, page 23.) 

With the joint purpose of testing the powers of the method, 
and comparing different years, I have calculated the values 
of a and e for single years for a few of the Society's stations, 
including three which are not contained in the first table. 
The results are given, without any reservation, in the follow- 
ing table (Table II.). Bressay (Shetland) appears to be the 
latest of the Society's stations, being about 13 days behind 
the mean of the 24 stations included in the first table. 
Sandwick (Orkney) precedes Bressay by about 2 days, and 
this interval is preserved nearly constant from 1857 to 1858, 
although the absolute times differ by nearly a fortnight. The 
amplitudes are also less for these two stations than for any 
others, the amplitude (and consequently the range) at Bressay 
being only about four-fifths of the average derived from the 
24 stations. The extreme lateness of Thurston (near Dun- 
bar) seems to be borne out by the results from single years, 
as appears from a comparison with the neighbouring station, 
East Linton. The extreme earliness of Yester cannot be so 
satisfactorily tested, as the interpolations (in defect of actual 
observations) at this station for the years 1857-58 are too 
numerous to admit of any safe inferences being drawn from 
these two years. In 1856 (which year is entirely free from 
interpolations), Yester appears to have been 16 days earlier 
than Thurston, and 11 earlier than East Linton, a remark- 
able difference, considering that all three places are in the 
same county (East Lothian). Comparing one year with an- 
other, it appears that the seasons were latest in 1857, being 
fully a week later than in 1856. The greatest difference 
appears at Thurston, where it amounts (in comparing the last 
two years) to nearly 21 days. All the inferences as to date, 
contained in this paragraph, are derived from mere inspection 

of Reducing Observations of Temperature, 27 

of the values of e, bearing in mind that a degree nearly cor- 
responds to a day, and that the phases are earlier in propor- 
tion as e is greater. 

As an instance of the convenience afforded by the present 
method, for comparing the climates of different countries, I 
subjoin the values of A, a, and e, for Edinburgh and Pictou, 
(Nova Scotia), the former derived from the monthly means of 
the late Mr Adie's observations, embracing a period of 40 
years, for which I am indebted to a paper by Principal Forbes, 
as epitomised in the " Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal;" 
the latter from 11 years' observations by Mr Henry Poole, 
manager of the Albion Mines. 

The monthly means themselves are : — 

For Edinburgh. 

3669 37-99 40-61 4483 50-27 5566 58-27 57'44 
53-73 47*47 41-21 38-60. 

For Pictou. 

1985 19-90 27-41 37'38 4858 58-14 66-10 6519 
56-05 46-28 3559 24-47. 

From which are derived the following values of mean tem- 
perature, amplitude, and epoch, or A, a, and e : — 

A. a. e. 

Edinburgh, . . 46-9 10-8 83° 27' 
Pictou, N. S., . . 42-1 23-0 78° 13' 

Hence, cleared of technicalities, the relation between the 
two climates may be expressed by saying, that Pictou is on 
the average of the year about 5° colder than Edinburgh, that 
its range is rather more than double, and that its seasons are, 
on the average, 5 days later. No such definite information 
is obtained by inspecting the monthly means. 

At Isle Jesus, nine miles from Montreal, the values of A, a, 
and e are about 40-9, 29*4, and 85° 56'. Ihe range at this 
place is therefore nearly three times as great as at Edinburgh, 
and the phases of temperature are two or three days earlier. 

With a view to satisfy myself of the accuracy of results 
obtained by the present method, I have examined two points 
which seemed open to suspicion. 

I. If, in the process for finding the coefficients, we had 

28 Professor J. D. Everett's Description of a Method 

commenced with some other month instead of January (e.g., 
if we had written the temperatures of the months February to 
July in the 1st column, and those of August to January in the 
2d), would the results have been affected by the change % 

I have made the trial in the case of the Edinburgh and 
Pictou temperatures above given, and have obtained the fol- 
lowing results :— ■ 



For Edinburgh, 


with Dec. 


53° 29' 





83° 27' 





113° 28' 

For Pictou, 




48° 13' 





78° 13' 





108° 13' 

The successive differences in the value of e ought to be pre- 
cisely 30°, since a month corresponds to 30° ; and this condi- 
tion is exactly fulfilled for Pictou, while for Edinburgh the 
greatest discrepancy amounts to only 2', or about a thirtieth 
part of a day, a difference which may be neglected in com- 
paring the phases of annual temperature, The differences of 
the values found for a are also very small, not exceeding 0*02. 
These results may therefore be pronounced sufficiently coinci- 
dent. If we had commenced with any other month, the arith- 
metical process would have been throughout the same as in 
one of the above three cases. 

II. What is the amount of error produced by assuming the 
calendar months to be all of equal length ? 

In order to test this point, I found from Principal Forbes* 
table of Edinburgh daily temperatures the mean temperatures 
of January, February, and March — 

1st, When the last two days of January and first two days 
of March are reckoned part of February, giving February 
33 days, and leaving January and March only 29 days each. 

2d, When the last three days of February are reckoned part 
of March, so that January will have 31 days, February 26, 
and March 34. 

3<2, When the last day of January and first of March are 
reckoned part of February, so that January will have 30 days, 
February 31, and March 30 ; the resulting values of A, a, and 
e, are as under — 




83° 37' 


83° 19' 


83° 33' 


83° 27 

of Reducing Observations of Temperature. 29 


Jan. 29 Feb. 33 March 29 gives 4691 

„ 31 „ 26 „ 34 „ 4688 

„ 30 „ 31 „ 30 „ 46-90 
Calendar months give . . 46*90 

Hence, I think we may conclude that the probable error pro- 
duced by using the calendar months as twelfth parts of a year 
is about a tenth of a day in phase, and about a hundredth of a 
degree in amplitude. These differences are rather greater than 
those which were detailed in last paragraph ; but they are not 
peculiar to the present method, and will generally tend to de- 
stroy one another in making comparisons. 

Apart from this small source of error, the conclusions de- 
duced from monthly means are as accurate as those from daily 
means. Practically they will be found more accurate, because 
the comparative steadiness of monthly means renders their 
treatment more easy and certain. 

Supposing the operations to be correctly performed, the value 
of e will be the same from daily means as from monthly, and 
that of a will be greater in the constant ratio of 1*0115 to 1, 
as I have ascertained by a mathematical investigation.* 

The labour of computation involved in the present method 
is so small, that when the monthly means have been written 
down, the values of a and e can be found in 10 minutes. 

It is not necessary that I should show in detail the advan- 
tages which meteorology may be expected to derive from the 
extensive application of the method of redaction here pro- 
posed. The superiority of definite measures to mere general 
estimates is universally recognised by those who have to deal 
with statistics ; and yet no such measure has been usually, if 
at all, applied to the important element "date of phase;" and 
the measures which are usually applied to determine range 
are subject to an error which affects different places very un- 
equally. Some such method as the present is therefore de- 
manded by the requirements of science, f 

* [Professor Everett seems not to have seen Principal Forbes' paper in which 
a similar correction is made for the annual range. — Editor Edin. New Phil. 

f [The " Date of Phase" was calculated by the same method by Kamst and 
Herschel, and was lately calculated by Principal Forbes for each of the forty 

30 Professor J. D. Everett's Description of a Method 

In the physical department of meteorology the determina- 
tion of " date of phase" will furnish a measure of the precise 
amount of retardation which is caused by the sea, as well as 
by different kinds of soil. It is obvious that the interchange 
of heat between the soil and the air must have a tendency to 
retard the phases of temperature in the latter, since the soil is 
more slowly heated and more slowly cooled than the air above 
it ; but I am not aware that comparison has ever been made 
between the retardations produced by different qualities of 

Or again, if it be required to determine whether the changes 
of temperature in the sea precede or follow those of the air 
(a question which was recently discussed with regard to the 
sea on the coasts of Scotland), the present method will afford 
an easy solution of the question. 

The laws which connect date of phase with extent of range 
also offer an interesting field of investigation. Generally 
speaking, the causes which retard the former diminish the 

In the application of meteorology to agriculture, date of 
phase cannot, without serious error, be overlooked. The earli- 
ness of crops at one place, as compared with another, must 
necessarily depend upon this element as well as upon mean 
temperature and range, and it will be interesting to ascertain 
how much of the effect is due to each of these causes. 

I will not further enlarge upon the importance of the ele- 
ments determined, as the design of the present paper is rather 
to show how the determination may be affected than to specu- 
late as to its ulterior uses. 

Concluding Note. 
The following theorem, which comprehends several of those 
above enunciated, will possess an interest for the mathematical 
reader. Let the expression for the mean temperature of the 

^th part of a year be — 

Y = A + A 1 sin (x + EJ + A 2 sin (2as + E 2 )+ .... + A- sin 
(nx + E„) 
years of Adie's Observations, as given in the "Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh." — EDITOR Edin. New Phil. Journal.'] 

of Reducing Observations of Temperature. 


where x is the time for the centre of the part ; and let the 
corresponding expression for the — th part of a year be — 

y =za Q + a x sin (oc + e^ + a^ sin (2a? + e 2 ) + . . . . + a» sin (nx + e n ) 
then the following relations will exist : — 

A T4/T • #* ^" » TIT ' ^^ • ^^ 

A, : a, : : M sin — : m sin — , A : a • : M sin -^p- : m sm 
11 M m * z 


A n : a n : : M sm -r— : m sm — -. 
M m 

If M = 2, the coefficients A 2 A 4 A 6 , &c. vanish (since sin «• 
= sin2<r=sin 3*= .... =0). Hence the mean temperature 
of a half year is independent of the terms which involve these 


If M is infinite, we have A n : a w : : n<x: m sin — ■. which is the 


relation between instantaneous and mean temperatures. 

Demonstration of Theorems stated in Paper on Reduction 
of Observations of Temperature. By Professor J. D. 

Definition. — A simple harmonic curve is one which is 
capable of being expressed by the equation y = a. sin w, 
where a is a constant. The general equation of such a curve 
referred to any origin, but without changing the directions of 
the axes, is 

y = a o + a i sm ( x + e i)- 






/M \ / 


The form of the curve will be as here represented, and the 
curve will extend indefinitely in both directions, continually 
repeating itself. The portion KQLSM of the curve con- 
tains an entire period, during which the quantity x + e l goes 

32 Professor J. D. Everett's Description of a Method 

through all values from to 2<x, so that sin (x 4 e x ) goes 
through all values which a sine can possibly have. 

Our unit of length must be taken, such that the straight 
line KM = 2<r, where « is 344159, &c. 

Then if O be the origin of co-ordinates, ON is a and KN 
is e v The maximum ordinate QT is a v and corresponds to 

that value of x which makes x 4- e x = ~. 

When the annual curve of temperature is compared with a 
simple harmonic curve, 2a* must be taken to represent the 
length of the year, and the portion KQLSM of the curve 
will represent one year's temperature, the point K corre- 
sponding to the vernal mean, Q to the summer maximum, L 
to the autumnal mean, S to the winter minimum, and M to 
the vernal mean again. (By vernal and autumnal mean are 
here meant the days whose mean temperature is the same as 
that of the year.) 

Definition 2. — By a harmonic series is meant a series of 
the form a + a x sin (x + e x ) 4- a 2 sin (2x 4- e 2 ) 4- a z (sin 
Sx 4- e z ) 4- &c. The quantity 2x 4- e x goes through all 
values between and 2$r, while x goes through all values 
from to ^r; and since it represents half a year, the term a 2 
sin (2x 4- e 2 ) will go through its cycle of values in that period. 
It is therefore called the half-yearly term. 

The term a z sin (Sx 4- e 3 ) is the third-yearly term, and 
goes through its cycle of values in one-third of a year ; and so 
on for the other terms. 

The constants a x a 2 a 3 , &c, are called the amplitudes of the 
respective terms, and the constants e v e 2 * £ 3 * &c., the epochs. 
A little reflection will show that if the epoch of a term receive 
a small increase, the term will take its maximum just so much 

Theorem I. — If a simple harmonic curve be represented by 
the equation y — a sin x, the area intercepted between two 
ordinates, whose mutual distance is given, varies directly as 
the length of the ordinate drawn midway between them. (In 
the annexed figure, the area PQRS varies directly as TN. 
Areas below the axis of x must be considered negative). 

Proof — Let the abscissa of N be x, and let the given dis- 

of Reducing Observations of Temperature. 


tance between the ordinates be 2c, then the abscissae of Q and 
R will be x — c and x + c. 

P T 

P T S 

The area PQRS is the integral of ydx between the limits 
x — c and x + c 

= a cos | (x — c) — cos (fo + c) i = 2a sin a? sin c = 2 sin c . y 

if y be the middle ordinate. 
Hence the area varies directly as y. — Q. E. D. 

Theorem II. — If the equation to the annual curve of tem- 
perature be y — a sin x, the mean temperature of any - th 

part of a year varies directly as the temperature of its middle 
day. The value of m may be either integral or fractional. 

Proof — Let QR in last figure represent the - th part of a 


year, then we have 2c = OR = — . • . c = - • 
47 ^ m m 

The mean temperature of the period represented by QR is 

the mean height of the figure PQRS ; in other words, is the 

quotient of the area PQRS by the breadth QR. 



2 sin c . y -r- 2c = 

sin c 

y = 


Hence the mean temperature of any — th of a year is to the 


temperature of its middle day as sin — : — 
r J m m 

If m = 12, this ratio becomes 1 : 10115. 

It obviously follows by transformation of co-ordinates, that 

if the equation to the annual curve be 

y = a Q + a x sin (x + c t ), 

the mean temperature of any — th part of a year is 


34 Professor J. D. Everett's Description of a Method 

. IT 

sin — 

a o + a i • sm ( x + e i) 


Hence the amount by which the mean temperature of any -th 

part of a year differs from that of the whole year, is always 
less than the amount by which the temperature of its middle 
day differs from the mean temperature of the year, in the 

ratio of sin - : -. 
m m 

This proves the second note of my paper. 

Next, let the equation to the annual curve of temperature be 

y = a Q + a x sin (x + e ± ) + a 2 sin (2a? + e 2 ) 

The mean temperature of any - th part of a year will be, as in 


the previous case, the integral of ydx from x — c to x + c, 

where c = — . 

ydx =z a Q dx + a x sin (as -f e x ) dx + a 2 sin (2x + e 2 ) dot. 
I ydx = a Q x — a x cos (x + e x ) — \ a 2 cos (2a? + c 2 ), 
which between the limits is 

a Q I (x + c) — (as — c) 1 — a x \ cos (x + c + e x ) — cos (x — c + e L ) I 

— \a 2 I cos (2x + 2c -f « 2 ) — cos (2a; — 2c -f c 2 ) 1 

= 2a c -f 2a x sin (a» -f e x ) sin c + a 2 sin (2a? + c 2 ) sin 2c. 

The mean temperature is the quotient of this by 2c, which is 

sin c . . - . sin 2c . ,-• 

a o + a \ "7~ sin (a? + e x ) + « 2 . -^- sm (2a; + e 2 ) ; 

or substituting for c its value — 

. «■ . IV 

sm — sin — 

= a + a x sin (a? + «]) + « 2 • ~"6 ' sm i 2 '* 3 + e 2J' 

m in 

If m = 2, we have for the mean temperature of the half-year 
whose centre is x, the expression 

of Reducing Observations of Temperature, 35 

sin — 

2 . sin v , 
+ a sin (x + e x ) + a 2 sin (2* + e 2 ) 

2 • / 
= % + ~ a i ™ (® + «i) 

since sin - = 1 and sm it = 0. 

Hence the mean temperature of a half year is independent 

of a 2 and e 2 , and is completely determined by finding a Qi a v 

and e v 

In the expression a Q + - ^ sin (a? + gj), 


the coefficient - a, is the difference between the mean tem- 
*• l 

perature of the warmest or coldest half-year and the mean of 

the year ; hence its double, or - a v is the difference between 

the mean temperatures of the warmest and the coldest half- 

Since the amplitude for monthly means is less than a x in 

the ratio of sin -r- : —-, it follows that the difference between 

JL-i L-i 

the warmest and coldest half-year will be obtained by multi- 

plying this amplitude by , or | cosec j^, which is 

* sin T2 
1-2879, as stated in my paper. 

To prove the concluding note. 
Let the expression for the temperature at time no be 
a + a x sin (x + gj + a 2 sin (2x + s 2 ) + . . . + a n sin (nx + *,). 
It may be proved in the same manner as before, that if y and 
Y denote the mean temperatures respectively of the -th and 

the ^rth parts of a year, cc being the centre of the parts, 

. « . 2cr 

sm - sin — 

ithen y = a Q + a, sm (x + «J + a 2 -^ sin ( 2a; + V 

m m 

36 Method of Reducing Observations of Temperature. 

. nit 
sin — 

t- . . . + a n sin' (nx -f e n ) 


Sln ™ Sln ^f 
M M 
and Y = « + ctj s i n (x + 6l ) + a 2 —= sin (2x + i 2 ) 

M M 

. w*r 

Sin ™ 

f ♦ . . . + a n sin (nx + 6 J 


Comparing these with the expressions contained in the note, 
viz. — 

y = a o + a i s ^ n (# + e i) + « 2 SU1 (2a? + « 2 ) + . . . + a n sin (n# + e n ), 
Y = A + A x sin (a? + EJ + A 2 sin (2a? + E 2 ) + . . . + A n 
sin (nx + E n ), 
we see that 

sin =r= sin — 
A, : a • : : : : M sin — : m sin — 



. 2v .2* 

sin —-sin — n 

A M m- ,.. . 2v . 2at 

A 2 : a s : : — s : — ^ I '• -M- Sln tt : »» Sin — 

2 2 2*r 2a- M m 

M ~m 

. nir . n<i: 

sin rr-z- sin — 

A M m .,.««•. «r 

A n : a n : : . : : M sin -rr : msm — 

w$r w$r Mm 

M rn 

also that a as a Q = A , « 2 =. * t = E p e„ = f rt = E, 

Q. E. D. 


On Certain Species of Permian Shells said to occur in Car- 
boniferous Bocks. By Professor William King (Queen's 
College, Gal way), Queen's University in Ireland. 

In the " Geologist" (vol. iii. p. 19, Jan. 1860), Mr Thomas 
Davidson has appended a foot-note to a paper of his " On 
Scottish Carboniferous Brachiopoda," in which he affirms the 
probability that the Carboniferous fauna included the follow- 
ing Permian species, — Dielasma sufflata, Martinia Clanny- 
ana, Spiriferina cristata, Camarophoria Schlotheimi, C. 
globulina, and Lingula Credneri. 

Shortly after the appearance of Mr Davidson's paper, a 
communication from Mr J. W. Kirkby was read before the 
London Geological Society,* " On the Occurrence of Lingula 
Credneri, Geinitz, in the Coal-Measures of Durham ; and on 
the claim of the Permian Rocks to be entitled a System." In 
this paper, the following species are added to the number 
given by Mr Davidson, — Cy there elongata, C. ornata, Bairdia 
gracilis, and Gyracanihus formosus. With regard to most 
of these-— the Entomostraca — Mr Kirkby, however, does not 
refer to them with much confidence, as " their determinations 
are certainly not so conclusive as those of the Brachiopoda" 
named. In the same paper, Mr Kirkby states, — " Through 
the critical and most elaborate researches of Mr Thomas 
Davidson, several of the Permian Brachiopoda have been 
proved to be recurrents from the Carboniferous fauna. 
Some of these had long been suspected by other palaeontolo- 
gists to be very closely related to, if not identical with, Car- 
boniferous species." My share in this work is noticed in a 
foot-note, appended to the last passage, by a reference to the 
"remarks" on one species, viz. Dielasma sufflata, in my 
" Monograph of the Permian Fossils of England," p. 150, 
and in the " Introduction," p. xxv., to it ; but it will be seen, 
by the following observations on the so-called " recurrents/' 
that I have done a little more than might be concluded from 
simply reading the passage and reference above quoted. 

* Vide " Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society," vol. vi. part i. 
p. 412, &c. 

38 Professor King on certain Species of Permian Shells 

Dielasma sufflata — Terebratulites sufflatus,* Schlotheim. . 

In my Monograph (1850), it is stated that this species " ap~ 
pears to be identical with a shell found in the mountain-lime- 
stone of Bolland, probably hitherto considered a variety of D. 
sacculus — a distinct, though closely allied species. The latter 
differs from the former principally in having the front decidedly 
emarginate; both appear to graduate into each other" (p. 150). 
Referring to this same species in the Introduction to the work 
cited, I state that it " undoubtedly lived in the Carboniferous 
epoch " (p. xxi.) ; and in my " Notes on Permian Fossils — 
PalliobrancMata" {Annals of Natural History ; April, 1856), 
the following remarks occur : — " I have been led to re-examine 
the * shell found in the mountain-limestone of Bolland,' and I 
cannot but say that it agrees most remarkably with some 
specimens of the Permian species, particularly the testiferous 
one represented under figure 7, plate vii. of my ' Monograph.' 
On the other hand, there are specimens figured on the same 
plate closely approximating to true forms of I), sacculus in its 
mesial depression and emarginate front. The only difference 
I perceive between the Bolland shell alluded to, and the Per- 
mian fossil quoted, is, that on the former there are faint traces 
of a few longitudinal lines on the anterior half of the valves. 
I perceive nothing of the kind on any of the Permian forms, 
nor do I recognise any on normal specimens of D. sacculus. 
There appears to be no difference between them in their histo- 
logical perforations." 

On referring to Mr Davidson's remarks on Dielasma 
sufflata in his " Monograph of British Permian Brachiopoda," 
which contains all his published observations on the subject, I 
do not find anything more than the above passages (which he 
has fully acknowledged by reproducing them) calculated to 
prove that the Permian species is identical with the Carboni- 
ferous D. sacculus. Nay, it would appear that he considers 

* The allied Permian species, Terebratulites elongatus, Schlotheim, forms the 
type of the genus Dielasma, so named at first in my " Historical Account of the 
Invertebrata occurring in the Permian Rocks of the North of England." — 
Effingham Wilson, 1859 ; and afterwards described in a paper which was read 
before the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association. — Vide 
u Natural History Review," vol. i. 

said to be found in Carboniferous Rocks. 39 

the former to be merely a variety of another Permian species 
(D. elongata) not yet admitted by him to belong to the Car- 
boniferous fauna, it being in his opinion " certainly specifi- 
cally distinct " from D. hastata — a carboniferous species. Mr 
Davidson divides Dielasma elongata into two varieties, viz., 
genuina and sufflata, the latter being the species under con- 

Martinia Clannyana, King. 

Regarding this species, I have stated that it " closely re- 
sembles the Devonian A trypa unguicula of J. de G. Sowerby, 
as figured by Professor Phillips in his ' Palaeozoic Fossils of 
Cornwall' (pi. xxxvii., p. 19)" — a species, the identity of 
which with Martinia Urei Mr Davidson considers as "highly 
probable (if not perfectly certain)" (vide "Scottish Carb. 
Brach.," Geologist, vol. iii. p. 19). While preparing his 
" Monograph of British Permian Brachiopoda," Mr Davidson 
took some trouble in working out the relation of the last- 
named shell to the Permian species, and he then observed 
— " I am still uncertain whether it is in reality distinct, or 
simply a variety or race slightly modified by time" (p. 16). 
In a later publication, the one referred to in the " Geologist," 
he expresses himself more decidedly in favour of their identity ; 
but I do not find that he has adduced any further evidence 
to support the view he has taken : on the contrary, I think if 
any point is proved, it is that Martinia Clannyana and M. 
Urei are quite distinct. 

Mr Davidson, wishing to have my opinion as to the rela- 
tionship of the two species, sent me several specimens of M. 
Urei from Carluke, for comparison with M. Clannyana from 
near Sunderland. I replied to him as follows : — " Urei and 
Clannyana are, I am decidedly of opinion, distinct species, 
though apparently closely allied to each other. Urei differs 
from Clannyana in being a wider shell ; it has the umbone 
more incurved ; the area of the small valve not so deep ; the 
small valve flatter, and more excavated, as it were, towards 
the posterio-lateral angles ; the spines decidedly less nume- 
rous ; and the median sulcus more pronounced in both valves." 
The above, with a slight oversight, is inserted in Mr David- 

40 Professor King on certain Species of Permian Shells 

son's " Monograph." My opinions on these two species are 
unchanged ; so I cannot admit that either one or the other 
was common to both the Carboniferous and Permian periods. 

Spiriferina cristata, Schlotheim. 
It is stated in my " Monograph," p. 128, that this fossil 
H closely resembles one or more so-called species found in the 
Carboniferous and other formations, particularly the Sp. octo- 
plicata of J. Sowerby. Having examined in Mr J. de C. 
Sowerby's collection the originals (from Derbyshire) of the 
figures in the ' Mineral Conchology,' the only difference I 
could perceive is, that they are wider than any examples 
which have occurred to me of the present species. Specimens 
bearing the name of Spirifera insculpta, in the Gilbertsonian 
collection of the British Museum, appear to be undistinguish- 
able from Sp. cristata. The Jurassic fossil which Zeiten 
has identified with the Sp. octoplicata is another closely 
analogous species." I have also stated in the Introduction, 
p. xxi., that " Sp. cristata is closely related to, if not iden- 
tical with, the Carboniferous Sp. octoplicata." Mr Davidson, 
speaking of " a remarkable and unusually large individual 
obtained at Tunstall Hill by Mr Kirkby," observes, — " So 
closely did this specimen resemble some of Mr Sowerby's 
typical examples of the Carboniferous Sp. octoplicata, that it 
is very probable, if not entirely certain, that Sp. cristata is 
at most but a variety or race, slightly modified by time and 
circumstances, of the Carboniferous species. In the Permian 
period it was, however, in general a smaller shell, the number 
of ribs likewise frequently less numerous" (vide Mon. Brit. 
Perm. Brack., p. 18). And on a later occasion, describing 
Sp. octoplicata, he says, " I am also still inclined to maintain 
the opinion expressed in my ' Monograph,' namely, that the shell 
under description bears so close a resemblance to the Permian 
Sp. cristata of Schlotheim that it cannot be specifically sepa- 
rated, and could not in any case claim more than a varietal 
distinction" (vide Geologist, vol. iii. p. 21, Jan. 1860). Mr. 
Davidson, it will be seen, has advanced no more evidence than 
myself to prove that these Carboniferous and Permian fossils 
are specifically identical. 

said to be found in Carboniferous Rocks. 41 

Camarophoria Schlotheimi, Von Buch. 

This species, I have remarked, " closely resembles the C. cru- 
mena of Martin, which appears only to differ from the former 
in being narrower and more acuminated behind. Occasion- 
ally, however, a variety of the present species occurs which 
can scarcely be distinguished from C. crumena ; in short, both 
species apparently merge into each other so completely that 
many would be inclined to consider them as specifically in- 
separable. The Lamarckian might very reasonably instance 
them as proving proximate species to be modifications of each 
other ; while, at the same time, his opponent might with equal 
reason contend for their being the result of a single specific 
creation. There is another species, undescribed, occurring in 
the Carboniferous limestone of Weardale, Durham, and having 
a still closer resemblance to C. Schlotheimi in form ; but its 
spatula-shaped process is decidedly more curved — so much so, 
that its termination is not far removed from the anterior end 
of the arch of the large valve." And in a foot-note appended 
to the above, it is stated, — " The Gilbertsonian collection in the 
British Museum contains a card labelled Terebratula plica- 
tella, Dalman, and mounting nine specimens with from three 
to five ribs in the sinus. No locality is given : they are un- 
doubtedly Carboniferous. My note states that they are iden- 
tical with C. Schlotheimi ; but I now suspect them to be the 
same species as the one noticed in the text, found in Weardale, 
Durham" (vide " Monograph of Permian Fossils of England," 
pp. 119 and 120). Mr Davidson has not alluded to the 
relationship between the two species named in his " Mono- 
graph of British Permian Brachiopoda ;" but I perceive he 
has united them in his " Scottish Carboniferous Brachiopoda"* 
under Martin's name crumena. Observing in the paper last 
noticed a reference to an unpublished part of the former work, 
I wrote to Mr Davidson, requesting him to favour me with a 
copy of his observations, if printed, on Camarophoria crumena. 
He in the kindest manner sent them to me by return of post. 1 
perceive he has quoted most of the passages just extracted from 
my " Monograph," and has followed them up by these obser- 

* Vide Geologist, vol. iii. p. 34, Jan. 1860. 

42 Professor King on certain Species of Permian Shells 

vations, — " With all this evidence before me, I considered it 
necessary to ascertain what was really the Anomites crumena 
of Martin, and whether the Permian C. Schlotheimi does really 
occur in the Carboniferous limestone ; and it was not until 
after much comparison and investigation that 1 became con- 
vinced that not only was the Carboniferous specimens alluded 
to by Professor King* and others specifically identical with 
the Permian Camarophoria, but that it was impossible to 
distinguish the last from A. crumena of Martin" (p. 114). 

There is very little difference between Mr Davidson and 
myself. I have no doubt, considering the " nine specimens" 
I observed in the " Gilbertsonian Collection of the British 
Museum," that C. Schlotheimi occurs as a Carboniferous 
species. Besides, I find a confirmation of this belief in the 
following memorandum written in an interleaved copy of my 
Monograph, — " I observed some specimens of C. Schlotheimi^ 
mounted on a tablet in the Collection of the Museum of Prac- 
tical Geology, which were found in the mountain limestone of 
Dovedale in Derbyshire. Mr Salter named them as above 
at my suggestion. August 1851." But I do not agree with 
Mr Davidson in his conclusion that Anomites crumena is the 
same species. 

In stating that A. crumena differs from C. Schlotheimi " in 
being narrower and more acuminated behind," I was guided 
by Martin's figure of the former species, and by the fossil 
represented under fig. 3, plate Ixxxiii. of the "Mineral Con- 
chology," and identified by Sowerby with the same species. 
As stated in a foot-note in page 119 of my " Monograph," it 
was in the autumn of 1848, while looking over the type spe- 
cimens figured in the " Mineral Conchology," that I observed 
Martin's fossil to be a Camarophoria. t I was informed that 
it " originally belonged to Mr Martin." This circumstance, 
and the close resemblance of the specimen to the figure in the 
"Petrifacta Derbiensia" (pi. xxxv. fig. 4), led me to express 

* Mr Davidson appears to have overlooked the Weardale species. I purpose 
describing it on another occasion. 

t"The other specimens represented in the 'Mineral Conchology,' plate 
Ixxxiii., figs. 2, 2*, belong to a very different species, and evidently to the 
genus Rhynchonella/' This is stated in the foot-note referred to. 

said to be found in Carboniferous Rocks. 43 


little doubt" of its " being the original of the figure just 
cited." Possibly I am wrong on the last point, as I find that 
Mr Davidson does not believe Martin's original specimen 
could have been made use of by Sowerby for fig. 3, plate 
lxxxiii. of the " Mineral Conchology" (Brit. Carb. Brachiop., 
pp. 113 and 114). 

The question next arises, — Is the original of Martin's Ano- 
mites crumena a Camarophoria or a Rhynchonella X* Mr 
Davidson evidently believes that it is a species of the former 
genus ; but, unfortunately, mere belief does not settle the 
point, since immature, and occasionally mature, specimens of 
some Carboniferous Rhynchonellas have so close a resemblance 
to the external form of a Camarophoria, that they might 
readily be mistaken for one. But admitting that Martin's 
figure represents a Camarophoria, I certainly now feel con- 
siderable hesitation in believing it to represent C. Schlotheimi; 
for whether we examine specimens of the latter species from the 
Magnesian limestones of Durham, or the Zechsteins of Ger- 
many, they will be found to agree, allowing varietal excep- 
tions, in being wider, much shorter posteriorly, and in having 
more sharply angulated ribs than the shell delineated, evidently 
with much care, by Martin.f I need only refer to the figures of 
C. Schlotheimi in my " Monograph" (plate vii. figs. 10-21), and 
to those in Mr Davidson's (Brit. Perm. Brachiop., plate xi., 
figs. 17-22), as well as to the one by Martin (Pet. Derb., plate 
xxxvi., fig. 4), to bear out the differences just pointed out. 

As regards the specimen which I examined in Mr Sowerby's 
collection, although I am disposed to give it up as being the 
original of Martin's figure, I cannot think of relinquishing it 
as a Camarophoria. j Further, I am strongly inclined to be- 
lieve that it too is distinct from C. Schlotheimi, from the 
following consideration: — I examined the " nine specimens" 
of Carboniferous C. Schlotheimi, in the Gilbertsonian Collec- 
i tion within a day or so of my seeing Mr Sowerby's specimen. 

* I have no doubt of the original of fig. 3, plate lxxxiii., "Mineral Con- 
chology," being, as stated in my " Monograph," a true Camarophoria. 

t I am indebted to Mr Davidson for a careful tracing of Martin's figure. 

| I am sorry to learn, through Mr Davidson, that Mr Sowerby's specimen ap- 
pears to have got mislaid. 

44 Professor King on certain Species of Permian Shells 

It therefore appears to be extremely improbable that I was 
able to perceive an identity in the former case and none in the 
latter. It must not be supposed that at that time I was un- 
acquainted with all the varietal forms assumed by the Per- 
mian species. 

I have gone somewhat into detail on the subject of Martin's 
Anomitts crumena, to show that there are strong reasons 
against admitting it to be the same as Camarophoria Schlo- 
theimi. Indeed, all circumstances considered, it appears to me 
that Martin's shell will have to be put down as an apocryphal 
species. All that can be said with any safety is, that C. 
Schlotheimi existed both in the Permian and the Carboni- 
ferous period. 

Camarophoria globulina, Phillips. 

Very little is stated in my " Monograph" on the relation of 
this species to any Carboniferous shell, except that it " has a 
close resemblance" to " the Spirifer nucleolus of Kutorga, 
found in the mountain limestone of Sterlimatak." Mr David- 
son, having far more materials to work on than I had, expresses 
himself as follows in his " British Carboniferous Brachiopoda:" 
— " After a lengthened comparison of numerous specimens of 
Phillips' Terebratula rhomboidea and T.semiluna, it appeared 
to me evident that the last was nothing more than a young age 
of the first, and that neither could be distinguished from the 
Camarophoria globulina of Phillips. The resemblance was in- 
deed so great, that having mixed several specimens of each it 
was with some difficulty that they could be afterwards sepa- 
rated" (p. 116). 

I cannot but express my agreement with Mr Davidson in 
this case, — of course with some reservation, founded on con- 
siderations elsewhere stated in this paper. At the time my 
remarks on this species were written, I had not an opportunity 
of consulting Phillips' figures of C. rhomboidea in his " Geo- 
logy of Yorkshire:" besides, looking at the figures (the only 
ones I was then able to consult) in his " Palaeozoic Fossils" of 
a shell therein identified with this species (PI. xxxv. fig. 158, 
a b), it will readily be explained how it happened that I had 
not arrived at the same conclusion as Mr Davidson. The 

said to be found in Carboniferous Rocks. 45 

figures last referred to seem to represent a fossil having some 
resemblance to the ribless varieties of C.ScJilotheimi. 

Lingula Credneri, Geinitz. 

All the merit in connection with the Carboniferous age of 
this species is due to Mr Kirkby ; and I am ready to admit 
that the specimens which he has found in the coal-measures 
" at the Ryhope winning, near Sunderland," belong to it.* 
I may be allowed, however, to retain some slight reservation, 
as it is well known that many species of Lingula, from 
widely separated formations, are with difficulty distinguished 
from each other. 

It would be a waste of time to go further into a discussion 
on the Permian species referred to in the previous pages, be- 
cause it is clear Mr Davidson and myself are not in agree- 
ment on first principles. His groups are more comprehensive 
than mine. Many groups, which I consider to be equal to 
genera or species, are regarded by Mr Davidson as mere sub- 
genera or sub-species. I have elsewhere stated my objections 
with reference to the latter view on genera ;t I may now be 
permitted to make a few observations in the same sense with 
regard to species. 

(To be continued.) 

* When mentioning the localities of this species in my " Monograph," I 
added the following : — " Professor Johnston informs me" (I received the infor- 
mation from him first verbally and afterwards by letter) " that he has pro- 
cured specimens of a Lingula in the underlying freestone (Rothe-todte-lie- 
gende) near Ferry Hill " (p. 84). Every one acquainted with the high scien- 
tific reputation of the author named, on reading the following remarks by Mr 
R. Howse, must have felt at least surprised. " I may be allowed to question 
the occurrence of this or any other species of Lingula in the underlying red sand- 
stone, as stated in King's ' Monograph' on the authority of Profossot* Johnston, 
as this sandstone is a true coal-measure stratum" (An. Nat. Hist., 2d Series, vol. 
xix. p. 44). They will be gratified to learn, however, that not only may " this 
or any other species of Lingula" occur, as stated in the " Monograph," but that 
specimens, identified by Mr Kirkby with Lingula Credneri, have actually been 
found by him in a " true coal-measure stratum," occurring at a depth of 951 feet 
below the surface ! (Vide Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. vi. Part I. pp. 412, 413.) 

t Vide my Paper in " Nat. Hist. Review," vol. i. 

46 David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 

Notes on Ancient Glaciers made during a brief Visit to 
Chamouni and neighbourhood, in September 1860. By 
David Milne-Home, Esq. of Wedderburn. 

1. — Valley of Chamouni. 

1. On reaching Inn of Montanvert, situated on left side of 
Mer de Glace, and about 240 feet above it, first thing noticed, 
was accumulation of granite blocks, about 100 to 150 feet 
higher up hill, resting on schistose rocks. That these blocks 
transported thither and deposited without violence, evident 
from their position on slope of hill. 

2. Whilst descending to glacier, observed the rocks on both 
sides of valley smoothed and scratched, at a height of about 
250 to 300 feet above glacier. The scratches mostly horizon- 
tal, but some inclined downwards towards north. 

3. On reaching glacier and crossing it to the Chapeau, saw 
old lateral moraines on each side. Examined more particularly 
those on the right bank. There found two very distinct, 
evidently formed at different periods. They were both more 
or less covered with vegetation ; the largest, next the valley 
side, more so than the other. The former was about 120 feet 
above level of glacier, the other about 90 feet — both evidently 
composed of blocks of stone, none very large, and most of 
them pretty well rounded. There was an entire absence of 
stratification or arrangement according to size. 

The relative position of the phenomena described in fore- 
going paragraphs shown by sketch in fig. 1. 

Was at first rather at a loss to explain how these lateral 
moraines formed. That they were formed by glacier when its 
level much higher than at present, had no doubt. The conclu- 
sion I came to was, that the materials consisted of debris from 
the mountains forming the sides of the valley, brought down by 
streams, and rains, and frost. These accumulate between the 
steep sides of the valley and glacier. At place inspected by 
me, this interval is in breadth from 200 to 350 yards. If the 
glacier were to rise and swell by increased cold beyond 

David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 47 

usual limits, its sides would press against these debris and 
raise them into the form of an embankment similar to what 
now presented. 

Fig. l. 

The two lateral moraines in question would of course repre- 
sent two periods when the glacier had swelled laterally beyond 
usual limits. 

4. Proceeded to near foot of glacier on east side, where a 
face of hard rock, almost perpendicular, and quite smooth, for 
about 80 feet in height and 60 or 70 in length. The ice 
of glacier is seen pressing against lower part of this rocky 
face. Walked on the ice where it was in contact with rock, 
and also looked under glacier at several places where it was 
resting on the rocks forming the bottom of valley. 

Multitudes of hard blocks of stone between the ice and 
rocks, both at side and at bottom ; had no doubt that the 
smoothing of the perpendicular wall, though about 80 feet 
of it now exempt from glacier action, produced by glacier 
rubbing and pressing on rocks as it flowed northwards. 

Noticed several natural joints or cutters in this rocky face, 
alongwhich, as usual in such cases, portions of rock broken off, 
and which had originally formed little projections. In most 
instances these projections had been all smoothed down, so as 
to bring both sides of joint to one uniform surface. In some 
cases the projections remained, but only where these looked 
northwards, and had thus escaped the grinding action of the 

48 David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 

Took notice also of the innumerable scratches and ruts 
which are over the whole face of rock ; the most distinct being 
those low down near glacier. Had not least doubt that 
these formed by sharp-pointed hard stones pressed on rock 
by glacier. 

These scratches not always parallel ; but all were more or 
less inclined, some as much as 11° and 12° to horizon, and run- 
ning N.W. by compass, corresponding with the movement of 
glacier at this point of valley. 

In some parts of smooth face of the rock there were de- 
pressions or cavities, apparently natural to the rock, from 
2 to 3 inches diameter, and half inch deep. The inner sur- 
face of these cavities rough. My attention directed to this 
circumstance by Auguste Balmat, the well known guide, to 
whom I had received an introduction from Principal Forbes. 
He said that when water the agent which smooths rocks, the 
inner surface of these shallow cavities smoothed also ; when 
ice the agent, the inner surface rough. 

5. Examined the great heap of debris near Les Tignes 
which has been described by De Saussure, and also by recent 
travellers, as an ancient moraine of Mer de Glace. Found 
the height of it by sympiesometer to be from 580 feet at its 
south end, to 400 feet towards the north, above the adjoining 
plain to the westward. It had evidently reached across valley 
to hill called La Flegere, thus blocking up valley. It is now 
cut through by the turbulent Arve, and thus its internal 
organisation can be studied. It is composed of primitive 
rocks, some of the granite blocks being of enormous size. 

On Flegere hill, right opposite to the Mer de Glace valley, 
there is a band of blocks, at a height of from 2500 to 2700 feet 
above Chamouni, and which, most probably, have been trans- 
ported by glacier, when it smoothed rocks near the Mont- 
anvert, and deposited the blocks there already referred to. 

6. The next part of valley examined, about six miles west- 
ward, down the course of the Arve, near a village called Les 

Ascended a hill, opposite to small glacier of Taconnay, 
which my guide called Chavant. It is reached by a stone 
bridge over the Arve. 

David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 49 

Almost the whole of this hill, which slopes upwards to 
north, presents smoothed rocks. 

These appearances are the most interesting in the small 
intersecting ravines on the hill side, as the rocky sides of 
these ravines are smoothed also, especially the west sides 
looking towards Chamouni. Some of the smoothed rocks face 
different ways, principally, of course, due south, but occasion- 
ally also S.W. and S.E. They slope upwards, principally 
at an angle of about 15° or 20°, but occasionally they are 
nearly perpendicular. Nevertheless all are smoothed. In 
some places, the appearances before described, caused by 
natural joints of the rocks, occur, the projections, when 
there are any, uniformly facing north, showing that the 
glacier, which has moved up the face of this mountain has 
passed from south. By sympiesometer I made the height 
of it, above the channel of Arve, which washes its base, 
about 1030 feet, and about 790 feet above Chamouni. The 
smoothness of rocks does not reach quite to top, at least not 
there so striking. 

The ruts and scratches on smoothed rocks of themselves 
form a separate and very interesting study. They begin 
about 50 or 60 feet above the channel of the Arve ; where 
near the bridge, they run W.N.W. by compass, about half 
way up hill N.W., and near top N.N.W. 

These directions quite intelligible on supposition that a 
glacier filled the whole valley, and flowed towards north. A 
sketch in fig. 2 shows that the valley, a little below point 
referred to, takes a rapid turn towards north ; and therefore, 
as the general mass of the glacier, supposing it to have filled 
valley, would move towards north, the higher parts of the 
glacier must have moved more exactly in that direction, 
as higher parts of the hill would obstruct less than lower 

Hence, also, resistance being greatest in the lower parts, 
the rocks there show the greatest marks of smoothing and 

These appearances, better understood after an examination 
of the valley on opposite or west side, at a place about two 
miles below Les Ouches, called Hameau of Le Grange. There 



David Milne-Homo on Ancient Glaciers. 

I found an oblong plateau of rock about half a mile long by a 
few hundred yards wide, flattened and smoothed most singu- 
larly. Had been advised by Professor Favre of Geneva to 
visit this spot, and was amply rewarded. 

Fig. 2. 

The rocks here of soft schist, the strata running vertically 
about N.E. by compass. In many places they are flattened 
and smoothed over extensive areas, of which advantage is 
taken for the erection at these places of cottages — the floors 
consisting of these smoothed rocks. The rocks, besides being 
smoothed, are occasionally marked by deep grooves or furrows, 
and also by sharp ruts or scratches, all parallel, and running 
N. and S. by compass — intersecting, therefore, the edges of 
strata. The grooves or furrows extend continuously some- 
times 30 or 40 feet — the scratches 6 or 8 feet. Some of 
former I measured, and found to be 2 or 3 inches deep, and 
5 or 6 inches wide. 

Noticed particularly that in some places these furrows or 
grooves interrupted by veins of hard quartz, in the schist 
rocks. The agent which had ground down the schist had 
been unable to make any impression on the quartz. At these 
veins, accordingly, the furrows stopped, and always on south 

David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 51 

side. On opposite or north side of the veins, not only was 
furrow not continued, but the general surface of the schist 
rock not so low — having been protected, as it were, by the 
quartz veins. 

It seemed very plain that these appearances indicated the 
passage and pressure of ice, and ice of an enormous weight 
and mass to produce such general smoothing, and also such 
extensive groovings or furrows ; whilst the interruption of 
these by the quartz veins showed unequivocally that the 
glacier moved northwards down the valley. 

The height of this spot, judging roughly by sympiesometer, 
was 1300 feet above Chamouni, and therefore 4725 feet 
above the sea. 

On this, the west side of valley, there is an elongated hill, 
running north and south about 1500 feet higher — the general 
direction of which is parallel to the furrows and scratches. 

It occurred to me, that reason why these deep furrows 
formed in this locality, and not in any of the other places be- 
fore mentioned, where rocks found but slightly scratched, was 
that here the whole weight of glacier was pressing on the 
rocks ; whereas at the hill of Chavant, on opposite side of 
valley, the weight of glacier on the rocks not so great, in 
consequence of the slope upwards. When under the Mer de 
Glace, I observed that the glacier was not one solid mass of 
ice, but that it consisted of great blocks, very irregular in 
size and shape ; and therefore the glacier would not press on 
the rocks with equal force at all points. Hence furrows 
would be formed in different places. 

Observed here several of the natural cavities or depressions, 
to which Balmat had referred, with the inner surfaces quite 
rough, as if not abraded or touched by the glacier. 

7. In this part of valley of Chamouni, erratic blocks of 
prodigious size abound. On hill of Chavant they reach to 
top, and in some places rest on smoothed rocks. This is case 
also on rocky terrace just described on west side of valley. I 
account for their position by supposing that as the glacier 
shrunk back over its bed to its present limited dimensions, it 
left these blocks where we now find them on the smoothed rocks. 

Of course, when glacier was passing over and smoothing 

52 David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 

the rocks, it must Lave been transporting blocks on its sur- 
face, and at a great height above its bed, and depositing these, 
in its downward course, at convenient spots. 

I was unfortunately prevented from continuing my researches 
down the valley ; but I learnt from my guide, that the moun- 
tains enclosing it, on each side, are at great heights strewed 
with blocks, almost all along course of Arve to Geneva. I see 
that Professor Neckar, in his " Etudes Geologiques dans les 
Alpes," speaks of several groups of granite blocks at Servoz, 
St Gervais, Sallenches, Mayland, Clases, and other places, 
along this valley ; the group at St Gervais being stated by 
him to be at a height of 4812 feet above the sea. 

Had however an opportunity, when at Geneva, of examin- 
ing an immense accumulation of blocks, at lower extremity 
of the same valley, on Petit Saleve mountain. This moun- 
tain which reaches to a height of 2800 feet above the sea, is 
situated on west side of the Arve ; it slopes towards the E., 
S.E., and S., whilst to the N. and W. it is precipitous. Its 
E. and S.E. slopes, consisting of limestone strata, are covered 
with alpine blocks to the very top ; even on edges of the 
crags facing Geneva, there are blocks perched, in apparently 
a very precarious position. On west side is the valley of 
Monetier, which separates the Petit from Grand Saleve. It 
is rather important to remark, that in this valley there are 
no blocks except at its south and north extremities ; and that 
the only parts of the mountain covered with blocks are those 
parts facing the valley which descends from Chamouni. On 
south slope of the Grand Saleve, situated about a mile to the 
west, there are very few blocks ; but then there is a hill on 
the south, which to a great extent prevents any glacier de- 
scending by the Arve valley, abutting on the Grand Saleve. 

I had no doubt that the blocks on the Petit Saleve must 
have been lodged there by a glacier which descended from 
Chamouni by Les Ouches, St Gervais, and Sallenches, a dis- 
tance of from thirty to forty miles. 

8. Before leaving Chamouni valley, let me advert to some 
remarkable traces of ancient glaciers in higher parts, at en- 
trance to Val Orsine. 

(1.) Just above village of Argentier, there is an oblong heap 

David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 53 

of detritus, undoubtedly deposited as a moraine by glacier of 
Argentier. Its situation, height, and extent, bear to that 
glacier exactly same relations as the hill of Lisboli does to 
the Mer de Glace. The height of this old moraine I found 
to be from 250 to 300 feet above adjoining plain. At present 
it terminates in middle of valley, as Lisboli does, with the 
Arve washing its northern extremity. But it had evidently 
crossed valley, as there is on north of Arve another heap of 
detritus which exactly corresponds in position, direction, and 

(2.) Still more undoubted traces of an ancient glacier to be 
seen in the smoothed sides of rocky pass close to the moraine 
now described, and which leads north into Yal Orsine. Be- 
yond this pass there is a col or summit, about a mile distant, 
called by my guide Moente, and the height of which I made 
out to be (by sympiesometer) about 600 feet about valley of 
Argentier. On the north side of this summit, valley slopes 
down to north, and is strewed by granite blocks of enormous 
size, and exceedingly angular in shape. This village opens 
into the greater valley of the Rhone, a little below Martigny. 
* The supposition is, that the glacier which formerly passed 
this way was no other than that now known as the Argentier 
Glacier. In this opinion I concur ; and I believe also that the 
glacier of La Tour, which is a few miles east of Argentier, 
must have united with latter to pass the same way. 

Since my return home, I became acquainted with a paper 
by my friend Mr R. Chambers, in which he expresses rather 
strongly his doubts as to probability of the Argentier Glacier 
having passed through the Val Orsine. He admits that it 
was, like all the alpine glaciers, on a much larger scale at a 
former period, but thinks that it must have descended by 
Chamouni. The levels, however, are repugnant to this view. 
We have seen that when the Mer de Glace choked up the 
valley and abutted on the hill of Flegere, it must have reached 
a height there of at least 2700 feet above Chamouni. Now the 
pass into the Val Orsine is only 1250 feet above Chamouni, 
so that this valley afforded both a more direct and a more 
easy outlet for Argentier and La Tour Glaciers, than the 
other route suggested. 

54 David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 

II. Valley of Iihone. 

1. In noticing the blocks found on the Saleve mountains 
near Geneva, I mentioned that there are few upon the south 
slopes of the Grand Saleve. The case, however, is different 
with the N.W. slopes of that mountain, for on them a great 
many blocks of granite and puddingstone occur, which Swiss 
naturalists have identified as belonging to the mountains 
situated to the eastward of Chamouni, and which they are all 
agreed must somehow or other have been brought down the 
valley of the Rhone. The blocks now mentioned, on the 
Grand Saleve, are at a height of about 3235 feet above the 
sea. I regretted very much not having had it in my power to 
visit these blocks, — or those equally interesting mentioned by 
De Luc as resting on the N.N.W. slopes of Sion and Vouaches, 
situated still farther west, and close to the defile between these 
mountains and the Jura, through which Rhone flows. They 
are described as forming zones or bands on these mountains, 
at a height of about 2435 feet above the sea. 

I allude to these facts, ascertained by very careful observers, 
and long well known to Swiss geologists, because they appear 
to me to throw light on a few observations which I happened 
to make during my brief visit, and which I shall now proceed 
to notice. 

2. In various places along valley of the Rhone, I saw 
unequivocal tokens of a glacier which once filled it, down to 
the Lake of Geneva. Between St Maurice and Pissevache, 
the rocky and steep sides of the valley are smoothed and 
scored at heights from 150 to 350 feet above flat through 
which the Rhone wanders. 

Where the sides of the valley come nearer to each other than 
usual, the scratches or ruts slope upwards to the north, — indi- 
cating that the glacier there could pass in its contracted channel 
only by rising like a tidal wave in similar circumstances. 

3. In several places, as on south side of Monthey and at 
Bex, I observed great accumulations of detritus, apparently 
portions of ancient moraines. But the most striking pheno- 
menon of this kind is presented by the celebrated blocks of 
Monthey. Many of them are the size of cottages ; and on 

David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 55 

one of them a good-sized summer house has been built. They 
are heaped one upon another in such a way as to suggest very 
vivid ideas of the stupendous power which was here at work. 
I found about twenty masons employed in mercilessly blasting 
these gigantic blocks, in order to convert them into gate- 
posts and window-soles. The people seemed well acquainted 
with the spots where the blocks occur, and assured me that 
whilst there were none to the south of Monthey, they ex- 
tended all the way to near the Lake of Geneva, a distance 
of about three miles, and at about the same height above the 
Rhone, viz., 300 feet. The hill at Monthey faces the S.E., 
and is so situated that any glacier descending the valley 
would abut upon it. 

4. There is one circumstance connected with the erratic 
blocks which much arrested my attention, and which I think 
has not received sufficient consideration. I refer to the enor- 
mous accumulations of sand, gravel, and clay existing in 
Low Switzerland, and to the fact that very many of the blocks 
are buried in these pleistocene strata. The well-known granite 
blocks of SteinhofF, near Soleure, which I visited, are evi- 
dently imbedded in these strata, in that neighbourhood largely 
developed, as may be seen from the numerous quarries of sand 
and gravel. Along lakes of Bienne, Neufchatel, and Geneva, 
there are whole hills of sand, gravel, and clay, with reference 
to which I made following notes : — 

Bienne Lake. — The little island of St Pierre is a recent de- 
posit of clay, reaching to a height of at least eighty feet above 
level of lake. In the recent cuttings along north bank for 
railway, beds of gravel are cut through containing alpine 

Neufchatel Lake. — A few miles west of the town of Neuf- 
chatel, near Columbier station, there are stratified beds of sand 
and gravel to a height of about 500 feet above lake, which 
cover smooth beds of Jura limestone. These beds contain 
occasionally large alpine blocks, most of them rounded. At 
Gorgier, and various other places between Neufchatel and 
Iverdon, these appearances repeated. 

In district between the lakes of Neufchatel and Geneva, 
i there are on south side of railway several hills of fine gravel 

56 David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 

and sand, at least 200 feet in height. At the west end of a 
railway tunnel, large portions of limestone rock were being 
tirred of the stratified gravel beds lying over them, which 
showed extensive smoothings. Near Bussigny and Cossonay, 
hills of sand and gravel occur, containing great blocks of 
granite, and in several places there are deposits of fine clay, 
from which bricks are made. 

To the north of Lausanne there is a hill called the Signal, 
2000 feet above the sea, near the top of which beds of sand 
and gravel occur, some of them 20 feet thick. Similar deposits 
are seen at Auborme and to the east of Nyon ; at this last men- 
tioned place, imbedded schistose blocks are very numerous. 
West of Nyon there are brick-works. 

Along the south side of Lake of Geneva great cliffs may 
be seen, even from the deck of the steamboat, of fine clay, 
sand, and gravel, with occasionally boulders protruding ; and 
there are immense numbers of these along all the shores of 
lake, partly covered by the water, which have probably fallen 
out of these pleistocene cliffs when undermined. These super- 
ficial deposits along south bank rise in level towards the east, 
and form a slope which had previously attracted my atten- 
tion when looking across the lake from Lausanne. It can be 
distinctly observed extending from Meilliere, near the valley of 
the Rhone, towards Geneva. I afterwards discovered that Mr 
Neckar had, in his " Etudes Geologiques," taken notice of this 
deposit ; and he mentions that at its east end it rises to a height 
of about 1900 feet above the lake, or 3235 feet above the sea. 
Near Boisy, which is more than half way from Meilliere to 
Geneva, Mr Neckar mentions that the height of this diluvial 
deposit above the sea is about 2277 feet, where it consists 
entirely of " alternate beds of fluviatile sand, gravel, and pri- 
mitive blocks/' Near St Julien, which is three miles west of 
Geneva, there are diluvial terraces about 182 feet above the lake, 
and 1517 feet above the sea ; and Mr Neckar mentions that 
there are similar terraces a little S.E. of Geneva, which are 
162 feet higher ; thus proving that the whole of the south side 
of the valley presents a series of pleistocene deposits, which, 
at the mouth of the valley of the Rhone, are at a height of 
3300 feet above the sea, and slope gradually down towards the 

David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 57 

west, where at a distance of about thirty miles, they are only 
1500 feet above the sea. Now, it is important to remark, that 
Mr Neckar describes these deposits as not only containing 
large alpine blocks, but as composed of rounded pebbles and 
gravel, also alpine in their origin. He also adverts to the 
circumstance, that the lowest pleistocene deposits of the district 
are beds of gravel and sand, arranged generally in horizontal 
beds, and which seem to have been deposited in currents of 
water. In these lowest beds, no erratic blocks are ever found. 
It is in the upper set of deposits that they occur, and the 
lowest of which generally consists of finely comminuted clay, 
on which are situated the numerous brick-works before alluded 
to on both sides of the lake. 

There is another important fact to be kept in view in the 
consideration of this matter, that it is towards the east end of 
the Lake of Geneva, and near or opposite to the mouth of the 
valley of the Rhone, that erratic blocks occur of great size, 
in great numbers, and at apparently the greatest altitudes. 
Mr Neckar describes many on the north-west of Neufchatel 
Lake as occurring at a height of 3575 feet above the sea, and 
at the east end of the Lake of Geneva at a height of 3550 feet, 
whilst on the south side they occur at the height of 3265 feet ; 
all of which altitudes, it will be observed, are greater than 
those given for the altitudes of the blocks to the west of 

III. Inferences. 

1. After what I saw of the mechanical effects of the Mer de 
Glace on the adjoining rocks, I formed a very decided opinion 
that the evidence is undeniable of the existence of a glacier, 
which in ancient times filled the whole valley of Chamouni, 
and, descending along the present course of the Arve, was 
capable of depositing on the Petit Saleve and intervening 
mountains the alpine blocks which are now strewed over them. 

If this was the case with the valley of the Arve, I canno* 
hesitate to admit that the larger valley of the Rhone must 
have been occupied by a glacier of corresponding size, which, on 
emerging from that valley would pass across to the plains of the 
Jura, and then turn towards the west and lower extremity of 


58 David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 

the valley, where the Grand Saleve and other mountains are 
situated, whose northern slopes have alpine blocks scattered 
on them. The relative height of these blocks in the different 
parts of this great valley point clearly to such a result. 

The blocks of Monthey, which are only about 300 feet above 
the Rhone, form no ground of objection to this view, because 
they were most probably left by the Rhone glacier as it was 
shrinking to its present dimensions, in which case they would 
not have travelled so far from their parent hills as others ; a 
supposition corroborated by the appearance of the blocks 
themselves, all of which are much more angular than the 
generality of the blocks in lower parts of the country. 

2. The great difficulty, of course, is how to account for such 
a change of climate as would produce glaciers on so much 
greater a scale than at present. The question is too large 
to be discussed in all its bearings in this paper. It may be 
sufficient to mention that two causes have been suggested — 
one of which would affect the whole of Europe simultaneously, 
and the other one would affect Switzerland alone. Ac- 
cording to the first hypothesis, a great elevation of land took 
place in northern Europe, in virtue of which (to use the words 
of Sir Charles Lyell, who suggests it) " nearly the whole sea, 
from the Poles to the parallel of 45°, would be frozen over." 
Switzerland, however, being in latitude 46°, would scarcely 
be reached by such a cause ; and there are other objections. 
According to the second hypothesis, this district of Europe 
alone may have been elevated, and elevated to such a level 
that the Chamouni and Rhone glaciers would require to 
descend to the low country about Geneva before they could 
reach their melting point. 

With reference to this last hypothesis, it may be asked, 
What amount of elevation would be required to produce the 
required extension of these glaciers ? 

They melt now at an average elevation of 4400 feet above 
the sea ; and as Geneva is 1335 above the sea, the difference 
of these two levels, i. e., 3065 feet, gives the height to which 
Low Switzerland would require to be raised, to cause such a 
temperature there as to enable glaciers formed in the Alps to 
reach Geneva before melting. 

David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 59 

This conclusion is also arrived at by comparing the mean 
annual temperature of Geneva with that of the localities where 
the glaciers now melt. Thus (as has been shown by Princi- 
pal Forbes) the mean annual temperature of the Arveiron, 
where the Mer de Glace terminates, is 38J° Fahr., whilst 
that of Geneva is 48°, being a difference of about 10° ; and 
assuming the usual rate of 1° Fahr. for every 300 feet, these 
10° correspond roughly to a height of 3000 feet. 

I am quite aware that the view which I have adopted, of 
supposing this part of Europe to have stood 3000 feet higher 
above the sea than at present, is rejected by De Charpentier, 
who, I believe, is the latest Swiss geologist who has gone 
deeply into this subject ; and it seems rather presumptuous to 
offer an opinion at variance with so great an authority. His 
way of accounting for the lower temperature necessary for the 
production of extended glaciers is by supposing (I quote his 
words) " a long series of seasons, similar to the rainy and 
cold seasons which succeeded one another from the year 1812 to 
1818" (Charpentier " Sur les Glaciers," p. 319). And he adds, 
that a very long continuance of such ungenial seasons should 
be no objection, considering that in the explanation of any 
geological phenomenon, it is allowable to assume as much time 
as may be necessary. I confess, however, that the reason 
thus assigned by De Charpentier for his theory is not satis- 
factory to my mind ; for during the cold and rainy years re- 
ferred to none of the alpine glaciers extended more than a 
few hundred feet beyond their usual limits ; and therefore, 
to cause a glacier to grow to the length of 80 to 100 miles 
beyond its present dimensions, it would require ages of 
unfavourable years, which cannot be adopted without admit- 
ting a permanent change of climate, and of course such a 
permanent change in the earth's surface as would cause that 

No doubt it is at first sight startling to suppose that this 
part of Europe stood 3000 feet higher than now. But it 
should be remembered that there is conclusive proof from 
other sources, that Switzerland, even in comparatively recent 
times, underwent several movements both of elevation and 
depression. The period immediately preceding the transpor- 

60 David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 

tation of the erratic blocks was characterised by the formation 
of the Molasse, a deposit which Agassiz has compared to the 
well-known Till of Scotland. Now this clay deposit in Swit- 
zerland consists of two beds, the lower bed containing fresh- 
water fossils, the upper bed containing marine remains ; which 
last fact implies submergence beneath the sea. Then it ap- 
pears from the researches of Professor Favre of Geneva, that 
since the deposition of these molasse beds there was an exten- 
sive upheaval of some of the mountains, and especially of the 
Saleve hills, on whose sides these molasse beds were deposited ; 
for instead of being horizontal, as they must originally have 
been, or at all events sloping at a low angle, these molasse 
deposits are in some places now inclined at angles from 35° 
to 45°, and at one place dip in opposite directions. 

Therefore, immediately antecedent to the transportation of 
the erratic blocks, this district sank beneath the sea, and sub- 
sequently rose up, dislocating these molasse beds — implying, 
therefore, an upheavel of the Western Alps. 

But it can also be shown, that, immediately after the same 
period, another depression of this region, and a submergence 
in deep waters, took place ; for how else can those strati- 
fied beds of gravel, sand, and clay have been formed which 
now lie over the molasse, and which we have seen occur in all 
parts of Low Switzerland up to the height of 3000 feet and 
more above the present level of the sea \ It is quite impossible 
to account for the formation of sand-hills and gravel-beds 
200 feet thick, composed of regular layers, mostly horizontal, 
except on the supposition of their having been formed in the 
waters of a sea, not subject to much violence, but agitated by 
ordinary tides and currents. 

I infer that this depression and submergence took place at 
a period posterior to the transportation of the erratic blocks, 
because these blocks (as I have shown) are in many instances 
enveloped in the heart of the stratified beds. 

Then this submergence was followed by a re-elevation of 
the country to its present levels. 

Thus, immediately before the transportation of the blocks, 
the country was successively depressed and elevated; and 
immediately after that event these operations were repeated, 

David Milne-Home on Ancient Glaciers. 6L 

so that there need be little reluctance in adopting the view 
suggested for explaining the extension of these ancient 

My view, then, of the sequence of events is as follows : — 

1. This district of Switzerland stood above the sea 3000 
feet higher than at present. Glaciers then filled the valley of 
Chamouni, passing over the hill of Chavant, producing the 
scratches and furrows mentioned in a previous part of this 
paper, and descended as far as the Saleve mountains, depo- 
siting blocks in its course and at its termination. Glaciers 
filled also the whole valley of the Rhone, and reached the 
basin now occupied by the Lake of Geneva ; and then 
turning westward towards Geneva, spread everywhere loads 
of alpine detritus, and lodged huge blocks on the mountain 

2. Next came a period when the land gradually sunk, and 
when, of course, the temperature rose, so that the glaciers 
shrunk back to the higher parts of the valleys. 

The land was then submerged beneath the waters of a deep 
sea, and the glacial deposits were arranged into the stratified 
beds before referred to ; but these deposits were not so en- 
tirely rearranged as to lose all the outward features of their 
glacial origin. In particular, they still retained the gradual 
slope from the mouth of the Rhone towards the west, which 
they must have had when deposited by a glacier. 

During this period of submergence, when, as we have seen, 
the land was lower than at present by so much as 3000 feet, 
the climate of Switzerland was probably better than it has 
been since ; in which case we obtain a better explanation than 
has yet been given of the discovery of the bones of elephants, 
antelopes, and some other animals, requiring a mild climate, 
in quarries of gravel in different parts of Low Switzerland. 

During this period the glaciers must have been very much 
smaller than at present, and many of them would not exist. 

3. Then followed the last movement, when the country rose 
up to its present levels, and when, of course, the glaciers would 
again enlarge, but to a more limited extent. 

This last movement may have been gradual, or it may have 
been sudden. Of course, the more sudden it was, the more 

62 On the Discovery of an Ancient Hammer-head 

easily can we account for the removal of detritus from the 
valleys, which has taken place to a great extent, as is well 
marked by the terraces along the course of the Arve and 
the Rhone. 

On the Discovery of an ancient Hammer-head in certain 
Superficial Deposits near Coventry. By the Rev. P. B. 
Brodie, M.A., F.G.S. 

As the occurrence of the remains of works of human art in 
beds of gravel, at greater or less depth, associated with the 
remains of extinct mammalia, has lately excited much attention 
among geologists, the following particulars relative to the dis- 
covery of an ancient stone hammer which was found in certain 
superficial deposits near Coventry, maybe generally interesting. 
The details were, at my request, kindly communicated to me 
by my friend Mr J. S. Whittem of Cownden, near that town, 
on whose land it was dug up, and who first drew my attention 
to it. It is one of the most ancient relics of human art, far older 
than the Celtic, and belongs to what archseologists call the " stone 
age." It is a stone implement, either used as a hammer or a 
weapon of war. It is somewhat water-worn, and looks as if it 
had been used. The stone of which it is made resembles mill- 
stone-grit, or some hard igneous rock; butlcould not speak deci- 
sively on this point. In its present condition, it is impossible to 
determine this without breaking it. It was procured in drain- 
ing, in the parish of Sowe, about two feet six inches from the 
surface, lying in the midst of the detritus about to be described. 
This consists chiefly of red marly clay, of varied thickness, 
from three to nine feet, mixed with sand and pebbles, and 
fragments of rock, which are rather thinly dispersed amongst 
it. Many of these are angular, others rounded and almost 
polished as if by friction. Amongst them are various ancient 
rocks, such as granite, greenstone, and syenite. The fossili- 
ferous portions differ much in size, and belong chiefly to the 
mountain limestone. A few are decidedly oolitic and contain 
shells, amongst which was a piece with shells resembling 

in certain Superficial Deposits near Coventry. 63 

cyclas and mytilus, remarkably like some of the Purbeck 
beds ; a cardium and a lima in brown oolitic limestone ; 
oolitic stone with rhynchonella, the surface of which is smooth 
and almost polished as if rubbed ; there was also a remnant 
of chalk with the cast of a pecten and a small bit of coal. 
Flints are not uncommon, and some are of considerable size.* 
Generally speaking, these fragments do not seem to have un- 
dergone so great an amount of attrition as that which usually 
characterises the ordinary detritus in this neighbourhood. 
They are, on the contrary, in most cases very angular, and Mr 
Whittem refers to an angular fragment of syenite not in the 
least abraded, and another fragment of rock not only worn, 
but very smooth and grooved ; and therefore, on the whole, 
the inference would seem to favour the idea of their having 
been carried by icebergs, and if so, the age of the deposit may 
be considered to belong to " the glacial period," and the ham- 
mer-head to all appearance was conveyed with them. The 
polished surface of many of the stones also favours this 
assumption. The term " drift" is certainly inapplicable to 
this deposit. There is nothing to indicate that this relic was 
buried on the spot, for the soil had not the least appearance 
of having been disturbed, and there were no roots or peaty 
matter such as prevail in bogs, the spot being table land of 
some height, with an inclination on three sides at least. No 
bones of any extinct animals were found with it, and I never 
heard of any being noticed in the neighbourhood. If, then, 
we are correct in assuming that this hammer-head was depo- 
sited with the superficial accumulations above referred to, it 
is clear that the human race must have inhabited the earth 
during this more recent geological epoch ; a subject of great 
interest and importance, but I am unwilling to hazard any 

* In the parishes of Hatton and Hazeley, three miles N.W. of Warwick, there 
is a bed of gravel with numerous flints of all sizes (some very large), many of 
which are as fresh and angular as if they had just been dug up from a chalk- 
pit, and some of the neighbouring fields are covered with broken flints, inter- 
spersed with numerous small rounded pebbles of ancient and other rocks. Ice 
seems to be the only agent by which these flints could be conveyed in such a 
condition, and this stratum was perhaps coeval with the one near Coventry. 
This accumulation of flints may be traced for a considerable distance across the 
country, along a narrow and limited tract. 

64 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland, 

decided opinion in this matter, wishing rather to draw atten- 
tion to the facts which seem to be correct, and the more so 
as these were carefully noted on the spot by Mr Whittem 

Note. — Near Warwick, and the district which lies to the north and north- 
west, there are at least three pleistocene deposits of different age, — 

1. Flints interspersed with numerous small rounded pebbles of ancient and 
other rocks belonging to the glacial period. 

2. The great northern drift, generally and widely distributed over a con- 
siderable area. 

3. Certain gravel-beds near Warwick, and along the valley of the Avon, 
containing occasionally mammalian remains. 

The Flora of Iceland. By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., 
F.R.S.E., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., &c. 

A visit to Iceland in June 1860 gave me an opportunity of 
becoming acquainted with some of the general features of its 
Flora ; and a residence of eight days in Reykjavik, its capi- 
tal, further enabled me to collect details as to its vegetation 
from its principal naturalists, as well as to study the litera- 
ture of the Icelandic Flora in the archives of the National 
Library. Since my return, I have availed myself of the pub- 
lic libraries of Edinburgh, &c. ; of correspondence with various 
British botanists, whose names will hereafter appear ; and of 
catalogues of foreign works on botany, with a view to discover 
all the floras of Iceland, or works of any kind containing 
lists of its plants, hitherto published. My inquiries at home 
have not enabled me to add many to the works, which, I ascer- 
tained in Reykjavik, contain lists of Icelandic plants. An 
enumeration of all the works — both British and foreign — 
bearing on the Icelandic Flora, so far as I am aware, hitherto 
published, and some only of which have been accessible to me, 
will be found in a bibliographical appendix to this paper. The 
general result of my investigations is, that our present know- 
ledge of the plants of Iceland is not so satisfactory as is de- 
sirable, and as the number of lists of such plants would lead 
one at first to infer ; that there is no full list, accurate as to 
names and number, up to the present day; and that it is im- 
possible, short of re-collecting and re-naming from fresh speci- 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 65 

mens actually collected anew in Iceland, to draw up a perfectly 
accurate and reliable Flora of Iceland. Dr Hooker, than whom 
there is no more competent authority on such a subject, either in 
Britain or out of it, informs me that " we have no good Flora 
of Iceland? This arises from a variety of causes to which 
I would direct attention. So far as I am aware, the only 
separate volume on the Flora of Iceland is that of Dr Hjalta- 
lin, published in 1830. It is written in Icelandic by a native 
Icelander now dead. He was one of the provincial or district 
surgeons of Iceland, appointed to office by the Danish Govern- 
ment; a brother of the present Physician-general of Ice- 
land, my friend Dr Jon Hjaltalin ; and I was informed in 
Reykjavik, not only an enthusiastic but an accomplished 
botanist, and an accurate observer, whose statements may be 
relied on. His volume gives the native Icelandic names of 
the plants described, and he enters fully on the subject of their 
economic uses. It is to be presumed that this volume con- 
tains, as it purports, a full list of the plants of the whole 
island, as known up to the date of publication in 1830; and 
also that due advantage had been taken in its compila- 
tion of the lists published by previous observers — British or 
foreign. This work of Hjaltalin seems to be quite unknown 
in Britain. I do not find it mentioned in foreign catalogues 
of works on botany or natural history ; and from inquiries 
made by me there, it appears to be equally scarce in Iceland 
and Denmark. I was fortunate enough, however, to have 
the loan of a copy from the National Library of Reykjavik 
during the whole period of my stay in that town, and I availed 
myself of the opportunity of transcribing the names of all the 
plants mentioned therein. 

The list of the plants of Iceland most familiar to British, 
and apparently also to continental botanists, is that of Sir 
William Hooker, who visited Iceland in 1809, and whose 
" Journal" was published in 1813. This list was repro- 
duced in Sir George Mackenzie's " Travels," which were 
published in 1811. Sir "William Hooker appears to have 
incorporated in his list that of Zoega, which was published 
in Olafssen and Povelsens Travels in 1772; and, doubtless, 
he also availed himself of the lists of Mohr, Palsson, and 


66 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

others of his predecessors. The latest published full list of 
the plants of Iceland is that of Vahl, contained in Gaimard's 
narrative of the voyage of "La Recherche" (1840). The 
volume of this magnificent work which treats of mineralogy 
and geology (Part L), contains chapters on — (1.) The General 
Vegetation of Iceland ; and, (2.) General Considerations on the 
Coldness of the Climate in its relation to Vegetation, by M. 
Eugene Robert, who appears to have accompanied Gaimard in 
the conjoint capacities of mineralogist, geologist, and botanist. 
Before setting out, his attention was specially directed by M. 
Adolphe Brongniart, Professor of Botany in the Museum of 
Natural History, Paris, to such points in Icelandic botany as the 
following : — 1. Is Pyrus domestica really a native \ 2. Are 
there no other native amentaceous plants than those mentioned 
by Sir William Hooker \ 3. Is there no conifer save Juniperus 
communis ? 4. What are the limits of growth on the moun- 
tains of such genera as Betula, Juniperus, Salico, Erica, and 
Vaccinium f 5. General geographical distribution of plants 
of Iceland. 6. Presence or absence of particular plants. 
7. Collection of Cryptogams, with a view, for instance, to a more 
complete list of Algse, &c. M. Robert traversed the greater 
part of the island during the years 1835-36, and collected, he 
says, the greater number of its plants. Throughout his tour, 
he states that he paid minute attention to the points indicated 
by Professor Brongniart. At his request, too, it was that M. 
Vahl, a Danish botanist, who had resided long in Greenland, 
revised all former published lists of Icelandic plants, especially 
that of Hooker, and drew up a fresh list corrected up to that 
date (1835-40). This list is added as an appendix to M. 
Robert's chapters on the Botany of Iceland (p. 337). With 
Vahl's enumeration M. Robert compared his own collec- 
tanea, and expresses himself satisfied with the results, 
though he disclaims having added a single new plant; that is, 
I presume, one not previously found by his predecessors in 
travel. In 1846, Mr Babington of Cambridge, the well- 
known author of the " Manual of British Botany," visited 
Iceland, and made some botanical collections. He appears to 
have carefully revised Hooker's and Vahl's lists, the ac- 
racy of which he substantially confirms, adding a few plants 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 67 

mentioned by neither. The revised list of plants, collected 
by Babington, was published in 1848. Since this date I 
am not aware that any addition or contribution to the botany 
of Iceland has been made, either in this country or on the 
Continent. There is only one other work, containing reference 
to the plants of Iceland, which it seems necessary to mention 
here, viz., — The Edinburgh Cabinet Library volume on " Ice- 
land, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands" (1840). This work 
contains a chapter on botany, partly relating to Iceland, its 
data being mainly based on Morck's " Catalogue of the Plants 
of Iceland," contained in Gliemann's account of that island, 
published in 1824. The Edinburgh Cabinet Library volume 
states the number of Icelandic Phanerogams at 472 

Cryptogams at 398 

Total 870 

This number is considerably higher than that given by any 
other writer. Vahl's list, for instance, which ought to be the 
fullest, as it is the most recent, being sixteen years pos- 
terior in date to Gliemann's, gives only 432 flowering plants. 
I have not been fortunate enough to procure a perusal of 
Gliemann's work, and therefore cannot say how far Morck's 
catalogue of Icelandic plants bears the appearance of accu- 
racy. But there is every probability that a list so full would not 
have escaped the notice of Dr Hjaltalin, who would have in- 
corporated in his " Flora of Iceland," published some six 
years later, such plants as he was satisfied were really natives 
of that country. Several of the works mentioned in my 
" Bibliographical Appendix" are mere papers, mostly by Ice- 
landers, published in Icelandic or Danish journals, which 
have not been accessible to me ; but which have every appear- 
ance, from their titles and places of publication, of possessing 
only a minor importance. 

With a view to showing the impossibility of drawing up 
from such materials as the foregoing, or those mentioned 
in the Appendix, a complete and reliable list of the plants 
of Iceland, I have the following remarks to offer. I am 
disposed to regard Dr Hjaltalin's Flora as at once the 
most accurate and complete hitherto published, for reasons 

68 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

•which I have already in part mentioned incidentally. Such, 
for instance, as these : — It is a work specially devoted to the 
subject of which it treats ; the author was an accomplished 
botanist and a native Icelander, resident in Iceland ; the pre- 
sumption that such an author should have been better 
qualified to describe correctly the Flora of his own country 
than strangers merely visiting it, mostly for very short 
periods ; the probability that he was himself acquainted with 
the vegetation of the greater part of the island, and not 
only with a small section thereof; and also that he duly 
availed himself of the results of the inquiries and collections 
of all previous botanists. But since the date of publication 
of this work (1830), every botanist knows that great progress, 
or, if not in all cases great progress, at least great change, has 
taken place in the nomenclature and classification of plants. 
For example, the introduction and use of the microscope has 
almost revolutionised cryptogamic botany, particularly our 
knowledge of fungi and lichens. Many genera and. species 
have been abolished as mere varieties, forms, or states of other 
species, while some of the old species have been subdivided 
into as many as four or five different genera ! Urrder such 
circumstances, to determine the precise plant intended to be 
indicated by a particular name in some of the existing Ice- 
landic floras, is frequently absolutely impossible, and the 
endeavour to do so frivolous in the extreme. 

By others, however, the list of Vahl, and the chapters on 
Icelandic botany by Robert, may be regarded as at once the 
most recent and accurate Flora of Iceland. As I have already 
mentioned, M. Robert appears to have made a more syste- 
matic and complete exploration of Iceland than any previous 
or subsequent botanist, if we except Dr Hjaltalin ; and I 
only presume that the latter was familiar with the greater part 
of his native island (there being still portions of it that never 
have been, and that perhaps never will be, thoroughly or at all 
explored !) Yet, so far from having added to former lists, Ro- 
bert does not seem to have collected all the plants enumerated 
by Vahl. It may hence be inferred, as I fear it has by some 
botanists been inferred, that no species new to Iceland, if not 
to science, remained to be discovered. Such a conclusion, 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 69 

however, is quite at variance with that to which my own 
observations and inquiries have led me, as I will shortly 
show. Vahl's list is most significantly headed, " Liste des 
Plantes que l'on suppose exister en Islande, dressee par M. 
Vahl ; toutes celles devant lesquelles il y a un asterisque s'y 
trouvent positivement" a distinction being drawn between 
plants believed or supposed to occur, and those which have 
been actually found in Iceland. I do not know on what 
grounds he introduces the names of plants simply supposed to 
occur, and which have not been actually found ! But I fear 
that some other writers may have lost sight even of this dis- 
tinction, and may have mentioned as natives of Iceland, or 
really found therein, plants which are only by them supposed 
to occur ! If this has really happened, the writers have pro- 
bably been seduced by their knowledge of the Floras of the 
nearest countries, viz., Greenland and Lapland. Further than 
this, however, Yahl's list, as given in M. Robert's volume, not 
only contains many mis-spellings, in most or all cases mere 
typographical mishaps, but it does not give the authorities 
for the names of the plants enumerated. This omission opens 
a door for endless difficulties in ascertaining what the plants 
found really were. The question of synonymy becomes most 
intricate and confusing, and in too many cases it is a sub- 
stantial barrier to all progress. I have pointed out some of 
the defects of two of the Floras of Iceland ; but the same, or 
similar faults, are less or more chargeable against all. 

Admitting the impossibility of drawing up a complete and 
accurate "Flora Islandica" from existing data, still it ap- 
pears to me that it would be an advantage to possess a list 
of the plants of Iceland, revised up to 1860. I refer to one 
based on a comparison of lists hitherto published — in the 
absence of a re-examination and re-naming of a complete 
collection of Icelandic plants, which no existing herbarium, 
so far as I am aware, possesses — the naming and arrange- 
ment of the plants in such revised list being in accordance 
with modern standard works on botany. Such a list might be 
accepted as a fair representation of the present state of our 
knowledge of the vegetation of Iceland, and it might therefore 
serve as a basis for the labours of future botanical travellers in 

70 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

that island, by obviating the necessity of their wading through 
all former published Floras. Moreover, steam navigation 
is opening up to British and American tourists Iceland as a 
new field both for science and sport ; and it has already been 
visited by not a few travellers of the book-making class, who, 
I find, are not only committing, but in their works are likely 
to propagate, errors regarding its vegetation. A revised list 
of the plants of Iceland might not only prevent some of these 
errors, but might contribute towards a better knowledge of 
the plants in question, by directing the attention of tourists to 
the defects of existing Floras, and so induce them to make 
collections and submit them to competent botanists for naming. 
With a view to supply this desideratum, I have drawn up 
the appended Flora, which is based essentially on the lists of 
Hjaltalin, Hooker, Vahl, and Babington. I found the pre- 
paration of the list a matter of much greater difficulty than 
I had at first anticipated ; and even with all the care that has 
been bestowed on it, the result cannot be regarded as other- 
wise than in great measure unsatisfactory. Great discrepan- 
cies occur between writers as to the numerical strength of the 
Icelandic Flora — some authors giving as many as 100 species, 
both of Phanerogams and Cryptogams, more than others, 
who equally profess to give a full list. I cannot help sus- 
pecting — though at present I am not in a position to prove — 
that some of the larger lists have been swelled by the names 
of plants which are either only supposed to be natives, or 
which cannot be natives, of Iceland ! I have already men- 
tioned that my own observations and inquiries alike, as I will 
hereafter more fully explain, lead me to regard with great sus- 
picion the accuracy of the lists of Robert and Vahl. But my 
main difficulty has been in determining the modern syno- 
nymy of the plants enumerated in the various lists I have 
consulted ; and I cannot better indicate the nature and extent 
of such a difficulty than by giving a few illustrations. 

1. Fungi. — The Rev. M. J. Berkeley wrote to me of 'the 
following : — Mucor Erysiphe : " This is now a tribe rather 
than a species, consisting of several genera and numerous 
species" Peziza zonalis : " I know nothing of this. I cannot 
find the name anywhere." Clavaria coralloides : " Several 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 71 

species have been so called." Peziza lentifera " may be 
Nidularia campanulata, N. striata, or Crucibulum vulgar e> 
Tulasne. All are included by Linnaeus, though distinguished 
as varieties." Agaricus fimetarius — " Coprinus comatus, 
Fr., probably. A. fimetarius. Sow., however, is Coprinus atra- 
mentarius ; A. fimetarius, L., is Coprinus cinereus." Mr 
Berkeley adds, " It is scarcely possible to say what is meant 
by the names of fungi. ... It is impossible to get 
nearer to the truth without specimens." 

2. Lichens. — Isidium defraudans, Ach., appears to be 
Parmelia poliophma, Fr. ; Lichen defraudans, Olafs. It. 
Island, app., p. 17 ; L. poliophaius, Wahlb. Lapp., p. 410, 
t. 27, f. 3 ; Lecanora poliophata, Ach., Lich. Univ., p. 398. 
Probably all these are the Lecanora spodophaia^ Ach., of 
E. B., t. 2083, f. 3, p. 82 ; and Hooker's Brit. Flora, vol. ii., 
p. 188. The latter is said to be closely allied to Lecanora 
aipospila, Ach., E. B., t. 2083, f. 2, p. 81. But neither L. 
spodophaia nor L. aipospila can now be identified as distinct 
British species, whereas it is probable that Isidium defrau- 
dans is an isidioid condition of our familiar Lecanora sopho- 
des, Ach. The latter, however, has not been mentioned by 
any botanist as a native of Iceland ; and if it really occur in 
its normal or fruit-bearing state, it has probably been con- 
founded with some other Lecanora, or altogether overlooked ! 

Lichen lacteus, L., is the Variolaria lactea, Pers., E. B., 
p, 50, t. 1998 : it is probably a sterile and variolarioid state 
of the common Lecanora parella ; but it may be a similar 
state of L. tartarea, L. glaucoma, L. Hozmatomma, or L. 
cinerea ; or even of Lecidea atro-alba, Flot., or L. ambigua, 
Ach. The plate in E. B. would lead me to refer it to L. 
parella ; but that in Westring's " Schweden's vorzuglichste 
Farbeflechten " (1805) would attribute it rather to L. cinerea. 
The name of the lichen in the last mentioned work, " Milch- 
flechte" (German and Swedish), is nearly identical in meaning 
with the Icelandic name of the Lichen lacteus, " Mjolkhvitr 
Mosi." From this it may be inferred that the Icelandic lichen 
may be the same as the Swedish one, and that both are equally 
referable to L. cinerea. But there is an objection in the 
fact that L cinerea does not possess the colorific property that 

72 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

is undoubtedly possessed, for instance, by Lecanora tartarea 
or L. parella, and by the Lichen lacteus. 

Lecidea fusco-lutea, Ach., E. B., p. 74, t. 2065, Hook. Br. 
Fl. p. 183, vol. ii., Lichen f us co-luteus, Dicks. Crypt. Fascic, 
2. 18, tab. 6, f. 2, may be a variety or form of Lecanora fer- 
ruginea, Huds., of Lecidea vernalis, Ach., or L. sanguineo- 
atra, Ach. Or, according to Nylander [" Prodr. Licheno- 
graphiae Galliae et Algeriae," p. 75], it may be only a musci- 
colous form of Lecanora cerina, Ach., var. gilva, Nyl., or, in 
other words, it is L. cerina, Ach., var. fusco-lutea, Dicks. 
And it occurs to me, further, that it may sometimes be var. 
frigida, Ach. of Lecanora tartarea, Ach., or var. Turneri, 
Sm. of L. parella, Ach. 

The Rev. Mr Berkeley refers Byssus cryptarum to " some 
imperfect lichen." I do not know to what lichen to refer it ; 
nor am I satisfied it is a lichen at all ! I am disposed to 
transfer it to either the fungi or algae. All that can be cer- 
tified at present is, that the precise plant intended to be indi- 
cated by the name B. cryptarum cannot possibly be deter- 
mined either by the lichenologist, fungologist, or algologist ! 

3. Algai. — Professor Harvey of Dublin writes me regarding 
Viva plicata: " U. plicata of ' Flora Danica/ t. 829, may be 
a variety of U. latissima. It is Phycoseris plicata, Kiitz. Sp. 
p. 477." Fucus muscoides, " I suppose must be the F. mus- 
coides of Gunner, not of Linnaeus. If so, then it is Desmar- 
estia aculeata when young and feathery." Conferva aeru- 
ginosa, Huds. " No one knows what it is, unless it be C. [Cla- 
dophora /] arcta [Dillw. 1] which is probable." Fucus car- 
tilagineus is partly referable to Gelidium cartilagineum, 
Gaill. ; but the latter " is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, 
not of Iceland." Fucus spermophorus may be that of 
Gunner or of Turner. The former occurs in Iceland, and is 
the Gigartina mammillosa, G. and W. The F. spermo- 
phorus, Turn., is the present Phyllophora spermophorus, L., 
and is not a native of Iceland. Fucus gigartinus is partly 
referable to Gigartina pistillata, Lamour, but this " could 
never have been found in Iceland. It is quite a southern 
plant, barely reaching as far north as Cornwall." Mr Croall 
of Montrose, the author of the recently published handsome 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 73 

volumes of the " British Seaweeds Nature-printed" (1860), 
writes me : — " I had much more difficulty in tracing the 
synonymy of some of the species than I expected, owing 
to the want of the authorities. Some of the species I have 
not been able to find at all. These are possibly not British" 
(e.g., Fucus albus, F. clavatus, and Conferva ozgagropila ; 
which latter may be G. cegagropila, Linn., E. B. t. 377)- 
"Even some of those I have settled are uncertain." Thus 
Fucus crispus may be Callophyllis laciniata, Huds. Kiitz. 
Phyc. Gen., p. 401 ; Brit. Seaweeds Nature-printed, p. 51. 
The latter occurs on the coasts of Norway and Faroe, and 
therefore is likely also to be found on those of Iceland. 
" TJlva plicata may be Rivularia plicata ; but I have not 
been able to trace its identity, and perhaps could not, even 
with a work on general algology — so unsatisfactory are names 
without authorities." Mr Berkeley tells me Byssus Iolithus 
is an alga — " Chroolepis Iolithus, Agardh, probably only a 
form of Chroolepis aureus." And lastly, the Conferva dis- 
siliens of Vahl's list may be Vesiculifera dissiliens, Hassall, 
or Galmoprium dissiliens, Berkeley. The Zonaria deusta 
may be Hildenbrandtia rosea, Kiitz. ; and the Sphairococcus 
ciliatus may be Rhodophyllis veprecula, J. Agardh. 

4. Mosses and Hepaticw. — Dicranum fleoouosum of Vahl's 
list may or may not be D. flexuosum, Hedw. ; and the latter 
may be Dicranodontium longirostre, Br. and Sch., or Campy- 
lopus torfaceus, Br. and Sch. Bryum pyriforme may be either 
Leptobryum pyriforme, Hook, and Wilson, or Physcomitrium 
pyriforme, Br. and Sch. B. ventricosum may be either B. 

Wahlenbergii, Schwaegr. or B. bimum, Schreb. 

5. Phanerogams. — Professor Balfour informs me that Salix 
ovata may be S. ovata, Host., or S. ovata of Seringe, " which 
is a synonym of S. Waldsleiniana of Willd. or S. alpestris t 
Host., and perhaps a variety of S. myrsinites, L., and S. 
prunifolia, Sm." Carex atro-fusca may be " C. atro-fusca, 
Steven, found in the Caucasus, which is the C. nigra of 
Allioni," or " C. atro-fusca of Schkr., which is C. ustulata;" or 
" C. atro-fusca of Sieber, which is C. fuliginosa of Sternberg 
and Hoppe, found in Carinthia." " Saxifraga punctata is 
mentioned as a species by Hooker ; but it seems to be a variety. 


74 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

S. cuneifolia, L., is the same as S. punctata of Gunner. 
This is probably your plant. DC. gives S. punctata, Ser., 
as a variety of S. hirsuta, L., not British." Geranium fuscum. 
" I cannot find any variety called montanum." Bromus cris- 
tatus may be B. cristatus, L., which is u Triticum cristatum, 
Schreb., a British plant — Eng. Bot. t. 2267, found in the 
Taurus, Caucasus, Siberia," &c. This " British plant" is not, 
however, mentioned in Bentham's " Handbook of the British 
Flora" (1858): and in Hooker and Arnott's "British Flora" 
(1850, p. 556), there is the following note regarding it: — 
" A plant almost peculiar to the east of Europe and Asia, 
rarely occurring (and perhaps only when introduced) in the 
south of Europe — not, we believe, a native of France — and 
which could not have been indigenous to the station assigned 
above.' 1 '' The latter remark, I fear, applies equally to its 
being found in Iceland ; and further, this does not appear to 
be the only plant mentioned in the older Icelandic Floras, to 
which such a remark may be properly applied. 

Only some of the difficulties above alluded to have been 
overcome ; and that they have been so is due to the as- 
sistance of the following botanists, whose names are a 
sufficient guarantee for the value of their respective criti- 
cisms. Professor Balfour, with the aid of such works as Steu- 
del's " Nomenclator Botanicus," De CandolJe's " Prodromus," 
Kunth's " Enumeratio Plantarum," and SprengeFs " Sys- 
tema Vegetabilium," has unravelled the synonymy of cer- 
tain of the Phanerogams in regard to which I was in doubt. 
Professor Harvey and Mr Croall revised the lists of the Ice- 
landic Algae. Dr Carrington of Yeadon, Leeds, who is at 
present preparing a critical work on the " British Hepaticae," 
revised the list of the Mosses and Hepaticse ; while that of 
the Fungi was submitted to the Rev. Mr Berkeley. By the 
aid of these gentlemen, to whom I am glad of this opportunity 
of publicly expressing my obligations, the list of plants which is 
appended has been rendered comparatively or approximative^ 
more complete and accurate than it otherwise could have been. 
Such of the Phanerogams, Ferns, and their allies, as are 
British, have been named and arranged in my list according to 
Bentham's " Handbook of the British Flora." I have selected 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 75 

it because the scheme or principle of its compilation — Mr Ben- 
tham's views of the relative position of species and varieties 
— seem to be more philosophical than those of any other simi- 
lar manual with which I am acquainted. I regret that the 
same judicious principles of classification have not yet been 
more widely extended; but I have every hope that they 
will be so. It follows from the use of this work, however, 
that my list of Icelandic Phanerogams is greatly less than if 
I had followed such a manual as Babington's, in which 
the number both of species and varieties is greater. It 
is also necessarily less than the older Icelandic Floras, in 
which varieties were not unfrequently recorded as species. 
But further, inasmuch as the works, according to which the 
other groups or families of plants in my list have been named 
and arranged, are not compiled on the same plan as Bentham's 
"Handbook," or, in other words, contain proportionally a 
larger number of species and varieties, my list does not 
exhibit a strictly accurate numerical proportion or relation 
between the Phanerogams and Cryptogams, or between the 
different families of either. In other words, it may appear to 
some botanists that the number of species of Phanerogams 
is comparatively meagre, while thut of the Cryptogams is 
comparatively full. Nor do I see how this can be avoided, 
even had another manual than Bentham's been used in naming 
the majority of the Phanerogams. Uniformity could be attained 
only if the Phanerogams and Cryptogams were both named 
from a work written on the same plan by one author, on 
whom reliance could be placed. But this is, under the circum 
stances, impossible. Any statistics, therefore, based on my 
list must necessarily lead pro tanto to false conclusions ; and 
I neither place any fixed value upon such statistics or con- 
clusions myself, nor do I recommend others to do so. 

Such of the Phanerogams, Ferns, and their allies as are not 
British have been mostly named and arranged according to 
Hartman's " Handbok i Skandinaviens Flora'' (Stockholm, 
1854, 6th ed.) The Mosses are named and arranged accord- 
ing to Wilson's "Bryologia Britannica" (1855), such as 
are British ; and the others according to Hartman's work 
above mentioned. The Hepaticae are according chiefly to 

76 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

the " Synopsis Hepaticarum" of Nees von Esenbeck, Gottsehe, 
and Lindenberg, and partly according to Hartman. The 
Algoe are named according to the " Species, Genera et Ordines 
Fucoidearum" of T. G. Agardh (1848-1852); Professor 
Harvey's "Manual of the British Marine Algse" (2d ed. 
1848) ; and Dr Hassall's " History of the British Freshwater 
Algoe" (1857). The Lichens are named and classified es- 
sentially according to Nylander's " Synopsis Lichenum " 
(1858-1860), and "Enumeration generale des Lichens" 
(1858). The Fungi and Algse are arranged in accordance 
with the classification given in Lindley's " Vegetable King- 
dom " (3d ed. 1853). It seemed advisable to omit from my 
list all plants which are doubtful natives of Iceland. Nor 
have I introduced such names, occurring in the older Flo- 
ras, as may refer to one of several plants, when the pre- 
cise plant cannot now be determined, examples of this 
are given in pages 70 to 74. I have excluded also the 
names of those plants in Vahl's list, which are not indi- 
cated by an asterisk as having been actually found, and which, 
in addition, I do not find mentioned by other botanists as 
natives of Iceland. Neither have I mentioned varieties, states, 
or forms of plants, except such as are very marked, and 
deserve record apart from the species to which they belong ; 
or such as were regarded as species by the earlier botanists. I 
have thought it advisable in all cases to give the native Ice- 
landic names of the plants. In order to secure uniformity and 
accuracy, these have, in all instances, been taken from Hjal- 
talin's Flora. Apart from any other interest attaching to 
them, such as serving to identify the botanical species, the 
vernacular names, and more especially the number in cer- 
tain cases of native synonyms, indicate the plants which 
are most abundant in Iceland, and most familiar to the 
Icelanders (being employed by them in medicine, or the do- 
mestic arts, or as food for man or cattle), as well as their 
relative abundance. For instance, the two to five or six 
native synonyms indicate the abundance of such plants as 
Thalictrum alpinum, Caltha palustris, Cardamine pratensis, 
Nasturtium palustre and amphibium, Capsella Bursa-pas- 
torts, Viola tricolor, Silene acaulis, S. injlata, Lychnis al- 
jnna, Arenariapeploides, Geraniumsylvaticum, Vicia Cracca, 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 77 

Dryas ociopetala, Geum rivale, Rubus saxatilis, Potentilla 
anserina, P. Gomarum, Alchemilla alpina, Epilobium lati- 
folium, Sedum Rhodiola, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Scabiosa 
suecisa, Erigeron alpinus, Achillea Millefolium, Taraxacum 
Dens-leonis, Arctostaphylos Uva-TJrsi, Pinguicula vulgaris, 
Gentiana campestris, Menyanthes trifoliata, Rhinanthus 
Grista-galli, Thymus Serpyllum, Plantago lanceolata, Ru- 
mex conglomerate, Polygonum aviculare, Empetrum ni- 
grum, Urtica dioica, Betula alba, Salix Lapponum, S. her- 
bacea, Juniperus communis, Orchis maculata, Anthericum 
ramosum,, Phleum alpinum, Lycopodium clavatum, L. 
Selago, Equisetum hyemale, E. arvense, Aspidium Filix- 
mas, Laminaria digitata, L. saccharina, Alaria esculenta, 
Fucus vesiculosus, F. nodosus, Gladonia rangiferina, G. 
uncialis, G. furcata, Getraria Islandica, Platysma nivale, 
Parmelia saxatilis, Umbilicaria proboscidea, Lycoperdon 
Bovista, &c. 

In my list I have indicated by an asterisk all plants which 
are not British, so as to afford some means of contrasting the 
Flora of Iceland with that of Britain, and especially of the 
north of Scotland. 

Numerically, my list represents the Flora of Iceland as fol- 
lows ; for the sake of convenience, well-marked and note- 
worthy varieties, states, or forms, being counted as species. 

Numerical View of the Flora of Iceland as in 1860. 

a. Dicotyledons. 

No. of Species, 

„ f • including marked varieties 

uraer - states, and forms. 

1. Ranunculaceae, . 13 

2. Papaveraceas, 


3. Cruciferae, . 


4. Violaceae, 


5. Caryophyllacese, 


6. Linaceae, 


7. Geraniaceae, 


8. Polygalaceae, 


9. Papilionaceae, 


10. Rosacea?, 


11. Onagraceaa, . 


12. Portulaceae, 


13. Paronychiaceae, 


14. Crassulaceae, 


Carry f 



78 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 


No. of Species, 

Qj. ( l ' including marked varieties 

states, and forms. 

Brought over, . . 124 

15. Saxifragaceae, 


16. Uinbelliferae, 


17. Araliaceae, 


18. Cornaceae, 


19. Stellate, 


20. Valerianaceae, 


21. Dipsaceae, 


22. Compositse, 


23. Campanulaceae, . 


24. Ericaceae, 


25. Primulacere, 


26. Lentibulariacese, 


27. Gentianaceae, 


28. Boraginacese, 


29. Scrophularineae, 


30. Labiatae, 


31. Plumbagineae, 


32. Plantagineae, 


33. Chenopodiaceae, 


34. Polygonacese, 


35. Empetraceae, 


36. Callitrichineae, 


37. Urticaceae, 


38. Amentaceae, 


39. Coniferae, 



b. Monocotyledons. 

40. Typhaceae, ... 1 

41. Naiadaceae, 


42. Alismaceae, 


43. Orchidaceae, 


44. Liliaceae, 


45. Juncaceae, 


46. Cyperaceae, 


47. Gramineae, 



- 4:20 

Number not British, . . 72 


1. Lycopodiaceae, .... 8 

2. Equisetaceae, 


3. Filices, 


4. Characeae, 


5. Musci, . 


6. Hepaticae, 


7. Algae, . 


8. Lichenes, 


9. Fungi, . 


Number not British, 




Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 79 


No. of Species, 

including marked varieties, 

states, and forms. 

Total number of Phanerogams : — 

British, . . . .354 

Not British, ... 72 

Total number of Cryptogams : — 

British, .... 422 

Not British, ... 15 



Total numerical strength of Icelandic Flora ) ggn 

as in 1860, . . . . j 

As 1 have already explained, the data on which these 
statistics are founded are imperfect, and hence the statis- 
tics themselves must be equally so. I therefore base on 
them no comparisons "with the statistics of the Floras of 
Greenland, Norway, Scandinavia generally, or Britain ; nor 
do I wish at present to found on them any general con- 
clusions. I abstain from such a subject farther than to 
point out the remarkable equality in numbers between 
the Phanerogams and Cryptogams, and to indicate the pro- 
bable extent to which the numbers in the prefixed table 
fall short of the number of plants at present actually 
natives of Iceland. I believe that future botanical research 
will increase the Phanerogams less extensively than the 
Cryptogams ; and I believe farther, that whereas the fore- 
going tabular view sets down the total Icelandic Phanero- 
gams at 426, 450 is more likely to be the real number ; and 
whereas the Cryptogams appear as 437, 550 is a more pro- 
bable minimum ; so that I incline to estimate the Icelandic 
Flora as likely to be numerically represented more truly by 

After the remarks which have preceded, it is perhaps un- 
necessary to repeat that my revised list of Icelandic plants 
is confessedly imperfect; but I wish this to be distinctly 
understood. It is imperfect in so far as it does not re- 
present the entire existing Flora of Iceland. I believe that 
many Phanerogams, and still more Cryptogams, remain 
to be added to the list by the labours of future botanical 
travellers. I can speak, however, with greater confidence in 

80 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

regard to the Cryptogams than to the Phanerogams. For in- 
stance, the collections I made in Iceland last summer, though 
very limited in extent and variety, have enabled me already 
to add several dozen sioecics to the Lichens enumerated in 
the appended list. But I do not incorporate these in the 
list ; because, firstly, I have not yet thoroughly examined 
them microscopically, and cannot therefore as yet determine 
how many or what species are new to Iceland ; secondly, I 
prefer reserving the results of my own botanical investigations 
and collections in Iceland for a separate communication ; and 
thirdly, my list appended professes only to come up to 1860. 
In regard to our present knowledge of the Icelandic Algae, Mr 
Croall informs me, " I have not the least doubt that the list 
of Iceland seaweeds might be doubled, perhaps trebled, by a 
careful search, especially as the Polar seas are much more fer- 
tile than the land. I wish I could have a week or two on its 

shores I am sorry I can add very little to the 

list, although I have looked over all the books I have. Very 
little seems to be known of the seaweeds of Iceland." On the 
same subject Professor Harvey writes, " I have scarcely any 
Algae from Iceland. Sir William Hooker made a collection 
of them, but they were all lost at sea, except a few specimens 
of Rivularia (Tetraspora) cylindrica, and one of these, saved 
in his pocket-book, I possess." And in regard to the Mosses 
and Hepaticse, Dr Carrington observes, the list is " evidently 
imperfect, and a good botanist might add many species of these 

Notwithstanding the number of published works or papers 
on the Flora of Iceland, it must be confessed that but a frac- 
tion of the island has been thoroughly examined by com- 
petent botanists. Some parts of the island have never been 
explored by man at all ! Such, for instance, is the range 
of the Klofa or Vatna-jokul in the south of Iceland, cover- 
ing a surface of several hundred square miles. Nor generally 
speaking, do the Icelandic Alps, the jokuls or mountains 
covered by perennial snow or ice, at and above an elevation 
of 3000 feet, appear to have been botanically explored. The 
dangers of ascent are such that only a very few of them have 
been visited by travellers of any kind, and we may therefore 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 81 

conclude that much remains to be learned of the alpine vege- 
tation of Iceland. Again, though such a traveller as Robert 
spent two years in perambulating the greater part of the 
island, the fact that he did not add a single new plant to the 
list of Vahl, or to previous lists, suffices to prove to my mind the 
want of care with which he conducted his botanical researches 
or made his botanical collections. British botanists have 
visited, for the most part, only a very limited portion of the 
island, viz., — the vicinity of Reykjavik and the country to the 
north and south-west of that town, that is to say, parts of the 
Guldbringe', Arness, Borgar, and Myre-Syssels or districts. 
This is very far from being the most fertile section of Iceland 
— that most prolific in vegetation ; indeed, there is perhaps 
scarcely a more barren inhospitable waste in the whole island 
than the neighbourhood of Reykjavik. The entire range 
of the southern alps, the mountain ranges generally, the West- 
manna, and other islands off the shores of Iceland, the fertile 
valleys and fjords of the north and east coasts, and a large 
part of the north-west seaboard, seem to me still open botanical 
fields. Mr Babington appears to participate in this belief, in 
so far as he states in his paper (p. 16), " there is great reason 
to think that a rich and almost unexplored field for botanical 
research exists in the northern part of Iceland. All the ac- 
counts of that part of the island describe it as by far the most 
fertile portion of the country. It is also believed that the 
eastern districts would well repay examination." 

Not only is my appended list imperfect in extent, or as to 
the number of species enumerated ; it may possibly also be 
erroneous to this extent, and in this wise, that I do not feel 
satisfied (notwithstanding the care that has been bestowed 
on it) that it does not contain unwittingly the names of 
species which are really not natives of Iceland, or that the 
synonymes are in all cases correct. How far I am justified 
in entertaining such suspicions can only be determined by 
the future labours of botanical travellers, who will require to 
collect and determine anew the names of the species so col- 

My object at present being simply to revise the lists of 
Icelandic plants up to 1860, I do not here enter at all on 


82 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

such topics as the present and former so-called "forests" of 
Iceland — the present or former state of its agriculture or 
garden-culture — its" Surturbrand" and fossil Flora — the eco- 
nomic uses of its common plants by the natives — the drift 
timber from America and the West Indies — the peculiar 
influence on its vegetation of the Gulf-stream and polar-ice — 
of the climate and geology — the geographical distribution of 
its plants, or the relations of the Flora to that of diiferent parts 
of the European and American continents, or of the British 
Islands, the Faroes, &c. Nor do I here touch upon topics 
to which my attention was more especially directed in Iceland, 
such as all points bearing on the natural history of Icelandic 
Lichens. These, and other subjects relating to the Flora of 
Iceland, I leave for exposition on a future occasion, when I 
may have had an opportunity of improving or extending my 
knowledge thereof by further visits to and explorations of 
Iceland — when I may therefore be able to speak more from 
personal information than I can at present do. 

The botanical traveller in Iceland is at once struck by the 
strong general resemblance between the Flora of Iceland and 
that of Britain, especially that of Scotland ; and this impression 
is confirmed by the fact, that out of the 426 phanerogams men- 
tioned in my list, only 72, while of the 437 cryptogams only 15, 
are not British. As might be expected from its latitude and 
climate, however, the number of species in Iceland, especially 
of phanerogams, is greatly less than in Britain. But the great 
peculiarity of Icelandic vegetation, as contrasted with that of 
Scotland, appeared to me to consist in the distribution of many 
of the Icelandic plants. In Iceland, the rarest Scotch alpines 
are found at, or slightly above the sea-level, bestrewing the 
deserts ; and they are among the commonest plants of the 
country. No plant, for example, did I find so common as 
Silene acaulis, which was in beautiful flower ; and none, it may 
be observed, strikes tourists so much. It is abundant on the 
road between Reykjavik and the Geysers — the excursion, 
which of all others in Iceland never fails to be "done" by the 
tourist. The plant grows where almost no other phanero- 
gam is usually found ; and its red flowers render it con- 
spicuous. While galloping from Reykjavik to the Lax4 or 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 83 

Salmon River, our rare Lychnis alpina, also in fine flower 
(and which in Iceland is sometimes white), frequently caught 
my eye. As an illustration of the vegetation of the lower 
lands of Iceland, let me cite that of the vicinity of Reykjavik, 
of which I can speak from personal observation. This district 
is in general little elevated above the sea, and is essentially 
a barren, stony desert — the soil being made up chiefly of 
fragments of dolerite, trachyte, and lava. In some localities, 
it is a lava field, or series of lava fields, as in the neighbour- 
hood of Havnafjord ; in others, it consists of morass or moor- 
land, having quite as desolate an aspect as the stony deserts 
just referred to. Associated with the alpine plants above- 
mentioned (Silene acaulis and Lychnis alpina) occurred 
also, in beautiful flower, Thalictrum alpinum, Cerastium 
alpinum, Alchemilla alpina, Draba incana in large hand- 
some tufts, Dryas octopetala, Salicc herbacea, Potentilla 
verna var. alpestris, Luzula spicata, and Oocyria reni- 
formis ; and the following sub-alpines, Aira ccespitosa var. 
alpina, Festuca ovina var. duriuscula, form or state vivipara, 
Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi, and Empetrum nigrum. On the 
Reykjavik deserts or moors, especially to the north-west of 
the town, some of the commonest British wayside weeds occur 
in a dwarf or pigmy, and greatly altered, form. Cardamine 
hirsuta, and its var. sylvatica are abundant here and on the 
banks of the Laugar ; but it is a pigmy, about 1 to 2 inches 
high, resembling strongly a similar dwarf form of Capsella 
Bursa-pastoris, and is scarcely recognisable at first sight as our 
familiar Cardamine. The dwarf form of C. Bursa-pastoris 
is also about 1 to 2 inches high, and is quite a miniature of our 
common roadside weed. The following plants are also com- 
mon in the neighbourhood of Reykjavik, all of them asso- 
ciated indiscriminately with the Scotch alpines and sub-alpines 
already mentioned, many of them more especially abounding 
on the streets or roadsides of Reykjavik, or in the immediate 
vicinity of habitations. Caltha palustris is the most abundant 
marsh plant about Reykjavik. Armeria vulgaris is very abun- 
dant on all the moors, as are also Luzula campestris, Silene 
infiata var. maritima, Veronica serpyllifolia, Vaccinium uli- 
ginosum, Cardamine pratensis in fine flower, and Galium 

84 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

saxatile, with its var. pusillum. In more marshy localities, 
many forms of Carex ccespitosa abound, as does also Fquise- 
tum limosum. Occurring also on the moors .and marshes, 
but met with in greater profusion on the roadsides about 
Reykjavik, e.g., on the road to the cemetery or burying- 
ground to the south-west of the town, are such common 
British lowland plants as Banunculus acris and repens, 
Rumex acetosa and Acetosella — the latter in beautiful flower 
— Cerastium vulgatum and Stellaria media. A delicate form 
of Antlwxanthum odoratum is common on the moors. Among 
the shingle on the beach to the west of the town Glaux mari- 
tima is abundant. On the banks of the Laxa, or Lax-elv (the 
Salmon River of British tourists), about the Falls and Salmon 
weir I found our common Spircea Ulmaria and Geum rivale. 
And on the Havnafjord lava field, growing luxuriantly in 
crevices of the old lava on the heights immediately behind 
the village, I picked tufts of Saxifraga ccespitosa, Draba 
incana, Arabis petrcea and Viola canina var. fiavicornis. Of 
the algoz found on the coasts, none were so abundant as 
Desmarestia aculeata. I found it in immense tangled masses 
on the shore about Reykjavik, but in greatest profusion in a 
little bay midway between Reykjavik and Havnafjord. Mr 
Croall tells me that this is "a very common plant in the 
North Atlantic, at least on its eastern shores, and is perhaps 
scarcely less so on the shores of the Pacific, and even in the 
Southern Ocean, where it is represented by forms very nearly 
allied, if not identical, D. media, &c." I found also almost 
everywhere on the shores about Reykjavik, Laminaria digitata 
and saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and serratus, Chondrus cris- 
pus, Wormskioldia sanguinea, and other algse quite as familiar 
on our own coasts, and which appear to be known to the Ice- 
landers under the common name of "Tang" (a word very 
near the " Tangle" of our own Newhaven fishwives). In my 
Bibliographical appendix (No. 19) will be found mentioned a 
special dissertation, by a native Icelander, on the economical 
applications of the Icelandic algae (" Tangarter"). Of the 
mosses, by far the most common — so common, indeed, as to 
give a tone to the more minute features of the landscape — is 
the Itacomilrium lanuginosum. It is especially abundant on 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 85 

the lava fields, growing in crevices of the lava in all directions, 
and in great profusion about Havnafjord. Of the lichens, 
Platysma nivale was very common on the deserts to the 
south-east of the cemetery of Reykjavik, occurring frequently 
where no other cryptogams or phanerogams could grow. 
It was usually associated in tufts with Cetraria aculeata, 
both plants being sterile in all the cases in which I exa- 
mined them. The Cetraria islandica and Gladonia rangi- 
ferina, which might be expected here in profusion, I found 
only sparingly, and usually growing in tufts, especially the 
former, with Racomitrium lanuginosum. Seen from any dis- 
tance, the surface of the district about Reykjavik has a brown 
or blackish-brown colour, and a bleak, sterile aspect. Vege- 
tation is not so luxuriant, or of such a character as to give rise 
to verdure, unless in such localities as the alluvial banks of 
rivers, streams, or lakes — occasional marshes — the farm-lands 
enclosed by or immediately surrounding farms, and designated 
the "tun," — and the pasture-lands in the vicinity of towns 
and villages. In such situations the verdure generally formed 
a more or less striking contrast to the earth-brown colour and 
bleakness of the surrounding deserts or moors. There was 
frequently an excellent though very irregular sward, and the 
same lowland plants were met with as occur under similar 
circumstances in Britain. 

But the strongest and strangest contrast to the general 
vegetation of the Reykjavik district was to me that of the 
hot springs at Laugarness. The ground immediately sur- 
rounding the springs, as well as the banks of the Laugar 
(stream), to which the said springs give rise, — at least for 
some hundred feet of its course towards the sea, — formed quite 
an " oasis in the desert." Unfortunately the pocket thermo- 
meter I had with me was not marked higher than 130°. But 
the water of the springs was so hot that my finger or hand was 
once severely scalded on being immersed : I could not retain 
either submerged for an instant. The water was boiling and 
bubbling up from the bed of the springs, and was steaming 
copiously on its surface ; eggs might be cooked in the water 
in the course of four or five minutes, and fish and fowls in a 
correspondingly short time. The water of the Laugar, which 

86 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

is a comparatively large stream, was hot, then warm, then 
tepid, for several hundred feet in its seaward course, also 
steaming more or less abundantly according to its tempera- 
ture ; the mud and stones in the bed, and facing the banks, of 
the stream at its fountain-head, as well as the spring-deposits, 
were too hot to be handled with impunity. Add to these facts, 
that, on the occasion of my second visit to the springs, I found 
several washerwomen established on the banks of the Lau- 
gar, considerably below its fountain-head, where they found 
the water warm enough for washing purposes, their washing 
tubs steaming as satisfactorily as if they had been supplied 
with water boiled artificially — and that the said washerwomen 
found the water of the springs sufficiently hot for "masking" 
their tea or coffee ; and I think I am justified in inferring 
that the temperature of the springs must have been at least 
180°. The springs have deposited incrustations, which, like 
those of the Geysers, are essentially silicious, though they 
bear the closest resemblance to the stalagmitic (calcareous) 
deposits of many of our own so-called petrifying springs or 
streams, as that of Starley Burn, near Aberdour, Fife. The 
bed and banks of the stream in the vicinity of the springs 
consist essentially of parti-coloured muds, some of a deep 
blackish-green, others of a cobalt blue — some of an ochreous red 
colour ; all having a sulphurous smell when fresh, and being 
very friable when cold and dry. Chemical analyses of these 
deposits are given in my " Contributions to the Natural His- 
tory of Volcanic Phenomena and Products in Iceland" (Pro- 
ceedings of Royal Society of Edinburgh, Dec. 17, 1860), and 
in my account of " The Eruption in May 1860 of the 
Kbtlugja Volcano, Iceland," {Edin. New PhilosophicalJour- 
nal, Jan. 1861.) In the stream, from immediately below the 
springs, for a considerable distance downwards, and where the 
temperature of the water must have ranged from about 130° 
to U0°, grew luxuriantly a couple of Confervce. The one was 
of a deep greenish, the other of a yellow or rusty colour ; both 
occurred in long tufts, and formed a slimy coating on the 
small gravel and sand, which constituted the bed of the stream, 
to which gravel, moreover, they adhered firmly. I collected 
and brought home with me specimens of both, but I had at 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 87 

the time no proper means of preserving them ; and though I 
subsequently submitted them for determination of the species 
to one of our most eminent algologists, no communication 
having been received from him, I infer that the specimens 
were in such a condition as to render their determination 

I found Poa annua and Stellaria media growing in 
hot mud on the margin of the springs, and with their roots 
in the hot water, their leaves immersed in steam. The 
former was apparently healthy and vigorous ; the latter was 
dwarfed and bleached, closely resembling Montia fontana, 
for which, indeed, it was at first mistaken. The ground im- 
mediately around the springs was unusually verdant, being 
covered with a fine sward, on which many of our commonest 
British weeds grew in remarkable beauty and luxuriance. 
Such were Plantago major, Potentilla Anserina, Prunella 
vulgaris, Cardamine pratensis, Alchemilla vulgaris, Thymus 
Serpyllum, Taraxacum Dens-leonis var. palustre, Ranun- 
culus acris and repens, Pinguicula vulgaris, and various 
forms of Stellaria media and Cerastium vulgatum. The five 
plants first mentioned were especially large and handsome. 
Above the hot springs there is a marshy pond, the water of 
which is cold, stagnant, and ochreous from ferruginous im- 
pregnation. Here luxuriated Menyanthes trifoliata and 
Eriophorum polystachyon in beautiful flower ; many Carices, 
especially forms of the common C. cwspitosa^ many grasses, 
such as Catabrosa aquatica, Glyceria fluitans, Poa annua ; 
several Potamogetons, as P. natans, P. perfoliatus, and P. 
crispus ; and several Equisetums, as E. palustre, E. limosum, 
E. arvense, and E. hyemale. The same luxuriance of vege- 
tation which characterised the immediate vicinity of the hot 
springs and of the marsh above them, was also met with on 
the banks of the Laugar for several hundred feet of its sea- 
ward course. The causes of this profusion and richness of 
vegetation are easily found in the increased temperature of the 
soil and of the air immediately above it, as well as in the con- 
stant abundance of a warm moisture in the said air, in the 
form of the steam which never ceases to arise from the hot 

88 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

This account of the vegetation around the hot springs of 
Laugarness does not apparently accord with Mr Babington's 
description of that of the vicinity of the Geysers. " The 
neighbourhood of the Geysers does not," he says, " appear to 
be rich in plants ; nor does the hot water, which issues from 
the ground in a state of active ebullition, seem to hasten their 
growth. I could not perceive that individuals growing in the 
warm mud by the side of steaming currents were at all more 
forward than others at a distance from the heated spots " 
(p. 16). I have every reason to believe, however, that the 
vegetation in and around the Laugar hot springs, as described 
above from personal observation, represents generally that of 
the hot springs of Iceland ; and not only so, but that of hot 
springs in similar positions in every quarter of the world. This 
is strikingly borne out by Dr Hooker's description of the vege- 
tation of certain hot springs in India and the Himalayas. The 
vegetation of those visited by Dr Hooker and myself respec- 
tively in distant and opposite portions of the globe is won- 
derfully alike ; so much so that two Confervas described by 
Dr Hooker as growing in the hot springs of Soorujkoond, 
near Burdwan, Behar, India, so far as external characters are 
concerned, might be identical with the two I gathered in those 
of Laugarness. The Indian springs in question have tempe- 
ratures respectively of 169°, 170°, 173°, and 190°. "Confervas 
abound in the warm stream from the springs, and two species, 
one ochreous brown and the other green, occur on the mar- 
gins of the tanks themselves, and in the hottest water* The 
brown is the best salamander, and forms a belt in deeper 
water than the green. Both appear in broad luxuriant strata 
wherever the temperature is cooled down to 168°, and as low 
as 90°." (Dr Hooker's Himalayan Journals, vol. i. p. 27.) 
" Of flowering plants, three showed in an eminent degree a 
constitution capable of resisting the heat, if not a predilection 
for it. These were all Cyperacece, — a Cyperus and an Eleo- 
charts having their roots in water of 100°, and where they are 
probably exposed to greater heat" (p. 28). " From the 
edges of the four hot springs, I gathered sixteen species of 
flowering plants" (p. 28). Dr Hooker also mentions a 
Conferva as growing in the hot springs at Yeumtong, ; n the 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland, 


Lachoong valley, Sikkim-Himalaya — elevation above the sea, 
11,730 feet — temperature of springs, 112°. (Vol. ii. p. 117.) 
And he further describes the Momay hot springs near the 
great glacier of Kinchinjhow, also in Sikkim-Himalaya (ele- 
vation above the sea, 16,000 feet), from the luxuriance and 
greenness of their vegetation, as quite an oasis in the desert, 
bearing in this respect the most striking resemblance to those 
of Laugarness. (Vol. ii. p. 133.) 

Revised and Corrected List of the Plants of Iceland (so far 
known to the Author) up to I860.* 

a. Dicotyledons. 


1. Ranunculacew. 
Thalictrum alpinum, L. (Velin- 
disurt, Krossgras, Jufrsmein, 
Brjostagras, KverJcagras.) 
Ranunculus aquaticus, L. (Zona- 

soley,) and form capillaceus. 
R. Flammula, L. form reptans. 
R. acris, L. (Brennisoley.) 
R. repens, L. 

R. aquaticus, L. form hederaceus. 
*R. glacialis, L. (Dvergasoley .) 
*R. Lapponicus, L. 
*R. hyperboreus, Rottb. 
*R. nivalis, L. (Dvergasoley.) 
*Batracnium heterophylluni, Fr. 
Caltha palustris, L. (Laikja- 
soley, Hofbladka, Hofgrasi.) 

2. Pap aver acea^. 
*Papavernudicaule, L. (Melasol.) 

3. Cruciferw. 
Arabis petraea, L. 
*A. alpina, L. 
Cardamine pratensis, L. (Hraf- 
naklukJca, Kattarbalsam, 
*C. bellidifolia, L. 
C. hirsuta, L., and var. sylvatica. 

Nasturtium palus- ) ( H ™f^ 
tre, DC, N. am- 

N. officinale, Br. 

Cochlearia officinalis, L (SJcar- 

* Those marked with an asterisk (*) are not natives of Britain ; all others are 
common to Iceland and Britain. 

klukka med 
gulu IJblom- 

fakdl), and vars. Danica and 

Draba hirta, L., and var. rupes- 

D. incana, L., and var. *stricta. 
D. muralis, L. 
D. verna, L. 
*D. nivalis, Liljebl. 
Capsella Bursa - pastoris, 

(Rungarfi, Hjartarfl.) 
Lepidium campestre, Br. 
Subularia aquatica, L. 
Cakile maritima, Scop. 
^Erysimum alpinum, Baumgarten. 

4. Violacew. 
Viola palustris, L. (Fiola.) 
V. canina, L., and var. flavicor- 

nis. (TirsfSla.) 
V. tricolor, L. (Fiola, Threnum- 

gargras, Blodsoley.) 

5. Caryophyllaceai. 
Silene acaulis, L. (Lambagras, 

Holtavol, Hardasaigjur , Gull- 

S. inflata, Sm. (Pungagras, Ho- 

lurt, Hjartagras), and var. 

Lychnis Flos-cuculi, L. (Maka- 

L. viscaria, L. 
L. alpina, L . (Kveisugras, Angu - 




Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora, of Iceland. 

Sagina procumbens, L. 

S. nodosa, Fenzl. 

S. LiniicTi, Presl. 

Arenaria verna, L., var, rubella, 

Br. and var. *hirta, Hn. 
A. peploides, L. {Barja-arfi, 

Sniedjukal, Fjornar/i.) 
A. ciliata, L., and var. norvegica. 
A. serpyllifolia, L. 
Cerastium trigynum, Vill. 
C. vulgatum, L., var. viscosum, 

Sm. and var. *holosteoides, 

C. alpinum, L., and var. latifo- 

*Stellaria, Edwardsii R. Br. 

S. media, L. 
*S. humifusa, Rottb. 
*S. crassifolia, Ehrh., var. subal- 

Spergula arvensis, L. 
*Alsine biflora, Wg. 

6. Linacece. 
Lin urn catharticum, L. 

7. Geraniacece. 
Geranium sylvaticum, L. (Stor- 

kabldgresi, Litunargras.) 
G. pratense, L. 
G. phaeum, L., var. fuscum, L. 


8. Polygalacece. 
Poly gala vulgaris, L. 

9. Papilionacece. 
Lotus corniculatus, L. 
Vicia Cracca, L. (Umfedmings- 

gras, Flcckja, Samflattingr, 

Lathyrus pratensis, L. 
L. maritimus, Bigel. (Banna- 

Anthyllis Yulneraria, L. 
Trifolium arvense, L. 
T. repens, L. (Smari, Smcera.) 
T. pratense, L. 

10. Rosacece. 
Spirsea Ulmaria, L. 
Dryas octopetala, L. (Rjupna- 

Itfng, Rjupnalauf, Holtasdley, 

Geum rivale, L. (Fjalldcela, 

Fjalla-fifill, SolseJcvia,) and 

state intermedium. 

Rubus saxatilis, L. (Hrutdber, 

Fragaria vesca, L. 
*F. collina, Ehrh. 
Potentilla verna, L., var. alpes- 

tris or aurea. 
P. anserina, L. (Mura, Muru- 

sdley, Myrutdgar.) 
P. Comarum, Nestl. (Engjards, 

Myratdg, Blddsdley.) 
P. Tormentilla, Sibth. 
*P. maculata, Pourr. 
Sibbaldia procumbens, L. 
Alchemilla vulgaris, L. (Mariu- 

stakkr), and var. %iontana. 
A. alpina, L. (Ljonsfottr, Ljdns- 

Jclo, Ljdnslappi, KverJcagras.) 
A. arvensis, Scop. 
Sanguisorba officinalis, L. 
Rosa villosa, L., var. hibernica. 
R. pimpinellifolia, L. 
Pyrus Aucuparia, Gaertn. {Rey- 


11. Onagracece. 
Epilobium montanum, L. 
E. angustifolium, L. 

E. palustre, L. 
E. alpinum, L. 

E. tetragon u"m, L., and var. vir- 
*E. origanifolium, Lam. 
*E. latifolium, L. (Purpura- 

bldmster, Mariuvondr.) 
*E. rosmarinifolium , Haenke. 
Myriophyllum spicatum, L. 
M. verticillatum, L. 
Hippuris vulgaris, L. (MarJc- 

12. Portulacece. 
Montia fontana, L. 

13. Paronychiacecc. 
Scleranthus annuus, L. 

14. Crassulacece. 
Sedum Rhodiola, DC. (Bumi, 
Burhni, Hqfudrdt, Hellmuh- 
nodrarot, Greidurot.) 
S. anglicum, Huds. 
S. album, L. 
S. villosum, L. 
S. acre, L. (Helluhnodri.) 
S. rupestre, L. 
*S. annuum, L. 
*Bulliarda aquatica, DC. 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 91 

15. Saxifragacece. 
Saxifragaoppositifolia, L. (Snjd- 
blomstr, Vetrarblom, Lamba- 
*S. aizoon, Jacq. 
S. aizoides, L. 
S. Hirculus, L. 
S. hypnoides, L. 
S. csespitosa, L., and var. pal- 

S. cernua, L. , and var. *racemosa. 
S. rivularis, L. 
S. tridactylites, L. 
S. nivalis, L. 
S. stellaris, L. 
*S. tricuspidata, Retz. 
*S. Cotyledon, L. (Klettafrti.) 
S. granulata, L. 
Parnassia palustris, L. (Mtfra- 

Drosera rotundifolia, L. 
D. longifolia, L. 

16. UmbeUifercB. 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. 
iEgopodium Podagraria, L. 

Carum Carui, L. 
Ligusticum scoticum, L. 
* Angelica Archangelica, L. 
A. sylvestris, L. [Geitla.) 
Peucedamim Ostruthium, Koch. 


17. Araliacece. 
Hedera Helix, L. 

18. Cornacem. 
Corn us suecica, L. 

19. Stdlatas. 
Galium verum, L. (Gulmadra.*) 
G. palustre, L. 
G. saxatile, L., var. pusillum, 

L., and var. sylvestre. 
G. boreale, L. (Krossmadra.) 
G. Mollugo, L. 
G. uliginosum, L. 

20. Valerianacece. 
Valeriana officinalis, L. ( Velants- 

21. Dipsacece. 
Scabiosa succisa, L. (JPukabit, 


22. Compositce. 
Erigeron alpinus, L. (Jakobsji- 

Jill, Smjorgras.) 
Achillsea Millefolium, L. (Jard- 

humall, Vellhumall.) 
Gnaphaliumsylvaticum,L. (Grdj- 
urt), and var. fuscatum or 
Norvegicum, Gunn. 
G. uliginosum, L. 
G. supinum, L. 
*Antennaria alpina, Gaertn. (Fjan- 

Senecio vulgaris, L. 
S. sylvaticus, L. 
Carduus arvensis, Curt. 
C. heterophyllus, L. 
C. lanceolatus, L. 
Leontodon autumnalis, L. (Fifill), 

and var. Taraxaci. 
Taraxacum Dens-leonis, Desf. 

{Mtififtll, Bijukolla), and var. 

*Crepis prsemorsa, Tansch. ( Un- 

Hieracium Pilosella, L«\ 
H. alpinum, L. \CUnda- 

H. murorum, L., [ fifitt-) 

*H. Auricula, L. J 

Tussilago Farfara, L. 
Chrysanthemum inodorum, L., 

(Baldurslru,) and var. mariti- 

23. Campanulacece. 
Campanula patula, L. 
C. rotundifolia, L. (BldJclukka.) 

24:. Ericacece. 

Vaccinium uliginosum, L. 

V. Myrtillus, L. (Adalbldber- 

V. Oxycoccus, L. 

V. Vitis-Idaea, L. 

Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi, Spr. 
(Sortultfng, Mulningr.) 

A. alpina, Spreng. 
*Andromeda hypnoides, L. 

Loiseleuria procumbens, Desv. 
^Rhododendron Lapponicum, Wg. 
* Ledum latifolium, Lam. 

Erica vulgaris, L. (Beitilyng.) 

E. Tetralix, L. 

Pyrola rotundifolia, L. (Vetrar- 

P. secunda, L. 

P. minor, L. 
*Diapensia Lapponica, L. 

92 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

25. Primulacece. 
Primula farinosa, L. 
Glaux maritima, L. 
Trientalis europaea, L. 

26. Lentibulacece. 
Pinguicula vulgaris, L. (Hley- 

pisgras, Jonsmessugras, Lif- 
jagras, Kcesirs-gras.) 
P. alpina, L. 

27. GentianacecB. 
Gentiana nivalis, L. (Digra- 

G. Amarella, L. 
G. campestris, L. (Mariuvondr, 

G. verna, L. 
*G. involucrata, Rottb. (Mariu- 
*G. tenella, Rottb. 
*G. serrata, Gunn., and *var. 

detonsa, Rottb. 
*G. bavarica, L. 
Menyanthes trifoliata, L. (Hor- 
bladka, Kveisugras, Eeidinga- 
*Pleurogyne rotata, Grisebach. 

28. Boraginacece. 
Echium vulgare, L. (Kisugras.) 
Mertensia maritima, Don. 

Myosotis palustris, With. (Kat- 

M. arvensis, Roth. 
M. collina, Hoffm. 
M. versicolor, Pers. 

29. Scrophularinece. 
Limosella aquatica, L. 
Veronica saxatilis, L. 
V. alpina, L. 

V. officinalis, L. (JErupris) 
V. Anagallis, L. 
V. Beccabunga, L. (Vazarfi.) 
V. scutellata, L. 
V. serpyllifolia, L. 
*V. peregrina, L. 
Bartsia alpina, L. (Lohasjdds- 

Euphrasia officinalis, L. (Aug- 

Rhinanthus Crista-galli, L. 
(Loka8J6dr, Oskugras, Pen- 
Pedicularis sylvatica, L. 
*P. flammea, L. 

30. Labiatce. 
Thymus Serpyllum, L. (Blddberg, 

HellinJiagra, Brddbjorg.) 
Prunella vulgaris, L. (Brunella.) 
Galeopsis Ladanum, L. 
G. Tetrahit, L. 
Lamium purpureum, L. 
L. album, L. 
L. amplexicaule, L. 

31. Plumbaginece. 
Armeria vulgaris, Willd. (Qul- 


32. Plantaginece. 
Plantago major, L. (Grcedisu'ra.) 
P. lanceolata, L. (Selgresi, 

P. maritima, L. (Kattartunga.) 
P. Coronopus, L. 
P. media, L. 
*P. alpina, L. 

33. Chenopodiacece. 
A triplex patula, L. 
A. rosea, L. 
A. hortensis, L. (Gardasol.) 

34. Polygonacece. 
Rumex conglomeratus, Murr. 
(Heimilisnjdli, Heimula, Far- 
R. Acetosa, L. (Vallarsilra.) 
R. Acetosella, L. 
R. aquaticus, L. 

Oxyria reniformis, Campd. 
*Kcenigia Islandica, L. (Nabla- 
Polygonum aviculare, L. (Odd- 

vari, Blodarfi.) 
P. viviparum, L. (Kornsiira.) 
P. amphibium, L. 
P. Persicaria, L. (Fldarurt.) 
P. Hydropiper, L. 
P. Bistorta, L. 

35. Empetracece. 
Empetrum nigrum, L. (Kv&k- 
ilyng, Liisaltfng.) 

36. CaUitrichinece. 
Ceratophyllum demersum, L. 
Callitriche aquatica, Sm. 

37. Urticacece. 
Urtica urcus, L. 

U. dioica, L. (Brennunetla, 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 93 

38. Amentacece. 
Betula alba, L. (Birki, Bjork, 

B. nana, L. (Fjalldrapi.) 
*B. fruticosa, Pall. 
*B. intermedia, Thorn. 
Salix pentandra, L. 
S. Caprea, L. (Selja.) 
S. repens, L. (Beinvidir.) 
S. Lapponum, L. (Grdvidir, 

Kottinsvidir, Tdg.) 
S. lanata, L. 

Salix Myrsinites, L. 
*S. arctica, Pall. 

S. reticulata, L. 

S. herbacea, L. {Grasvidir, 

S. phylicifolia, L. 

S. purpurea, L. 
*S. myrtilloides, L. 

39. Coniferce. 

Juniperus communis, L. (Einir, 

Einirber), aDdvar. nana. 

b. Monocotyledons. 

40. Typhacece. 
Sparganium natans, L. 

41. Naiadece. 
Zostera marina, L. (Marhdlmr.) 
Potamogeton natans, L. 
P. lucens, L., and var. rufescens. 
P. perfoliatus, L. 
P. crispus, L. 
P. pusillus, L. 
P. pectinatus, L. 

42. Alismacece. 
Triglochin palustre, L. 
T. maritimum, L. (SandlauJcr.) 

43. Orchidacece. 
Orchis maculata, L. (Gradrdt, 
Vinagras, Bronugros, Hjona- 
gras, ElsJcugras, Friggjar- 
O. latifolia, L. 
0. mascula, L. 
O. Morio, L. 
*0. angustifolia, Wimm., var. 
Habenaria viridis, Br. 
H. albida, Br. 
Corallorhiza innata, Br. 
Listera ovata, Br. 
Neottia Nidus -avis, L. 
*Nigritella angustifolia, Rich. 
*Platantherahyperborea, Lindley. 
*P. Kcenigii, Lindley. 

44. Liliacece. 
Paris quadrifolia, L. (Fjogra- 

Tofieldia palustris, Huds. (Sy- 


*Anthericam ramosum, L. (Igla- 

gras, SiJcisgras. 
*Maianthemum bifolium, DC. 

45. Juncacece. 
Juncus communis, Mey. and var. 

J. articulatus, L. 
J. compressus, Jacq. 
J. squarrosus, L. 
J. bufonius, L. 
J. trifidus, L. 

J. biglumis, L., and var. tri- 
*J. arcticus, Willd. 
Luzula pilosa, Willd. 
L. campestris, Br. 
L. spicata, DC. 

46. Cyperacece. 
Carex dioica, L. 

C. pulicaris, L. 

C. leporina, L. 

C. lagopina, Wahlenb. 

C. elongata, L. 

C. canescens, L. 

C. vulpina, L. 

C. muricata, L. 

C. arenaria, L. 

C. saxatilis, L. 

C. caespitosa, L,, and var. rigida, 

C. rupestris, All. 
C. panicea, L., and var. vaginata. 
C. acuta, L. 
C. atrata, L. 
C. montana, L. 
C. hirta, L. 
C. pallescens, L 
C. flava, L. 


Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

Carex limosa, L., and var. rari- 

Agrostis alba, L. 


A. canina, L. 

C. pseudocyperus, L. 

*A. alpina, Leyss. 

C. ampullacea, Gooden. 

Psamma arenaria, Beauv. 

C. vcsicaria, L. 

Calamagrostis stricta, Nut. 

C. incurva, Lightf. 

C. Epigejos, Roth. 

C. capillaris, L. 

*C. montana, Host. 

*C. hyperborea, Drej. 

Aira caespitosa, L., and var. al- 

*C. capitata, L. 


*C. ornithopoda, Willd. 

A. flexuosa, L., and var. mon- 

*C. pedata, L. 


*C. fuliginosa, Sternb. and Hoppe. 

A. praecox, L. 

*C. loliacea, L. 

Nardus stricta, L. (Todu-fin- 

*C. microglochin, Wg. 


*C. chordorhiza, Ehrh. 

Triticum repens, L. (Hti&a- 

*C. cryptocarpa, C. A. Mey. 


Scirpus caespitosus, L. 

T. caninum, Huds. 

S. palustris, L, var. uniglumis. 

Milium effusum, L. 

S. acicularis, L. 

Elymus arenarius, L. 

S. setaceus, L. 

Festucaovina, L., and vars. rubra, 

S. lacustris, L. 

and duriuscula, and state vivi- 

Blysmus compressus, Panz. 


B. rufus, Link. 

F. elatior, L., and var. arundi- 

Eriophorum vaginatum, L. 


E. alpinum, L. 

Poa laxa, Hoenke. 

E. polystachyum, L., (Fifa.) and 

P. pratensis, L. 

vars. angustifolium, Roth., 

P. fluitans, Scop. 

and latifolium, Hop. 

P. maritima, Huds. 

*E. Scheuchzeri, Hop. 

P. annua, L. 

*Kobresia scirpina, W. 

P. compressa, L. 

47. Graminece. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum, L. 

Phleum pratense, and var. *no- 

dosum, Willd. 
P. alpinum, L. {Foxgras, T6n- 

gras, Ref shell, Puntr.) 
Alopecurus geniculatus, L. 

P. trivialis, L. 
P. nemoralis, L., and var. caesia. 
P. alpina, L., and state vivipara. 
Catabrosa aquatica, Beauv. 
Sesleria caerulea, Ard. 
Arundo Phragmites, L. 
Hierochloe borealis, Rami, and 
Sch. (Beisgresi.) 
*Trisetum subspicatum, Beauv. 



Isoetes lacustris, L. 
Lycopodium annotinum, L. 
L. alpinum, L. (Jafni.) 
L. clavatum, L. (Jafni, Isfna- 

L. Selago, L. (Vargslappi, Skol- 

L. selaginoides, L. 
*L. complanatum, L. 
*L. dubium, Kocnig. 


Equisetum sylvaticum, L. 
E. palustre, L. 
B. limosum, L. 

E. hyemale, L. (Eskigras, Goe- 

E. pratense, Ehrh. 

E. arvense, L. (Elting, Goubi- 
till, Gvindarber, Grombitill, 
Scetutdg, Sultarepli, SJcolla- 
fotr), and *var. alpestre. 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 95 


Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. 
Botrychium Lunaria, Sw. ( Tungl- 

Poly podium vulgare, L. 
P. Phegopteris, L. 
P. Dryopteris, L. 
Aspidium Lonchitis, Sw. 
A. Filix-mas. (Burn, BurJcni, 


Allosorus crispus, Bernh. 

Asplenium Filix-foemina, Bernh. 

A. fontanum, Bernh. 

A. septentrionale, Hoffm. 

A. Trichomanes, L. 

Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. 

Woodsia ilvensis, Br. 

Chara vulgaris, L . 

IV. Charace,e. 

Chara hispida, L. 

V. Mosses. 

1. Andrceacece. 
Andrsea rupestris, L. 

A. Rothii, Web. and M. 
A. alpina, Dill. 

2. Sphagnacece. 
Sphagnum cymbifolium, Dill. 

S. compactum, Brid. 
S. acutifolium, Ehrh. 

3. Bryacece. 

(1.) Acrocarpi. 

Phascum serratum, Schreb. 

P. muticum, Schreb. 

Gymnostomum curvirostrum, 

Weissia cirrhata, Hedw. 

W. crispula, Hedw. 

Dicranum heteromallum, Hedw. 

D. squarrosum, Schrad. 

D. scoparium, Hedw. 

D. subulatum, Hedw. 

D. palustre, Brid. 

D. cerviculatum,Hedw. /3. pus il- 
ium, Wils. 

D. virens, Hedw. 

D. polycarpum, Ehrh., var. stru- 
miferum, Web. and Mohr. 

D. crispum, Hedw. 

D. Scottianum, Turn. 

Leucobryum glaucum, Hampe. 

Ceratodon purpureus, Brid. 

Pottia truncata, Hedw. 

P. Heimii, Br. and Sch, 

Anacalypta lanceolata, Rohl. 

Distichium capillaceum, Br. and 

Didymodon flexifolius, Hook, 
and Tayl. 

Didymodon rubellus, Br. and Sch. 
Trichostomum glaucescens, 

T. tophaceum, Brid. 
Tortula tortuosa, Web. and M. 
T. subulata, Brid. 
T. ruralis, Hedw. 
T. convoluta, Hedw. 
Cinclidotus fontinaloides, P. 

Encalypta vulgaris, Hedw. 
E. commutata, Nees and Hsch. 
E. ciliata, Hedw. 
E. rhabdocarpa, Schwaegr. 
Schistidium apocarpum, Br. and 

Sch., and var. strictum, Brid. 
S. maritimum, Br. and Sch. 
Grimmia pulvinata, Smith. 
G. Doniana, Sm. 
G. ovata, Web. and Mohr. 
Racomitrium fasciculare, Brid. 
R. canescens, Brid. 
R. ellipticum, Br. and Sch. 
R. heterostichum, Brid. 
R. lanuginosum, Brid. 
R. sudeticum, Br. and Sch. 
R. aciculare, Brid. 
Orthotrichum affine, Schrad. 
0. cupulatum, Hffm. 
O. leiocarpum, Br. and Sch. 
0. phyllanthum, Br. and Sch. 
0. rupestre, Schleich. 
ZygodonLapponicus,Br. and Sch. 
Tetraphis pellucida, Hedw. 
Diphyscium foliosum, Web. and 

Pogonatum aloides, Brid. 
P. alpinum, Brid., and var. arcti- 

cum, Swartz. 
P. nanum, Brid. 
P. urnigerum, Brid. 


Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

Polytrichum commune, L. 

P. juniperinum, Hedw., and var. 

strictum, Brid. 
P. sexangulare, Hoppe. 
P. piliferum, Schreb. 
P. formosura, Hedw. 
Oligotrichum hercynicum, DC. 
*0. laevigatuin, Wg. 
Amblyodon dealbatus, P. Beauv. 
Aulacomnion androgynum, 

A. palustre, Schwgr. 
Leptobryum pyriforine, H. and 

Bryum argenteum, L. 
*B. Duvalii, Voit. 

B. nutans, Schreb. 
B. caespiticium, L. 
B. crudum, Schreb. 
B. pallens, Swartz. 

B. turbinatum, Hedw. 

B. Zierii, Dicks. 

B. julaceum, Sm. 

B. Wahlenbergii, Schwaegr. 

Mnium punctatum, Hedw. 

M. hornum, L. 

M. undulatum, Hedw. 

M. cuspidatum, Hedw. 

Meesia uliginosa, Hedw. 

Funaria hygrometrica, Hedw. 

Physcomitrium fasciculare, 

Bartramia fontana, Brid. 
B. ithyphylla, Brid. 
B. pomiformis, Hedw. 
Conostomum boreale, Swartz. 
Splachnum ampullaceum, L. 
*S. rubrum, L. 
S. spharicum, Hedw. 
S. vasculosum, L. 
Tetraplodon mnioides, Br. and 

Tayloria serrata, Br. and Sch. 
Fissidens taxifolius, Hedw. 

F. adiantoides, Hedw. 

1. Ricciece. 
Riccia crystallina, L. 
II. glauca, L. 

2. Tarr/ioniece. 
Targionia Michelii, Corda. 
/3. cuneata, Nees. 

3. Anthoccrotece. 
Anthoceros punctatus, L. 

(2.) Plcurocarpi. 
Antitrichia curtipendula, Brid. 
Climacium dendroides, Web- 

and M. 
Leskea sericea, Dill. 
L. moniliformis, Wahlenb. 
Hypnum atrovirens, Dicks. 
H. abietinum, L. 
H. aduncum, L., and var. tenue. 
H. cuspidatum, Dill. 
H. crista-castrensis, L. 
H. cupressiforme, Dill. 
H. denticulatum, Dill. 
H. filicinum, Dill. 
H. illecebrum, L. 
H. praelongum, Dill. 
H. nitens, Dill. 
H. purum, Dill. 
H. revolvens, Swartz. 
H. splendens, Dill. 
H. squarrosum, Dill. 
H. Silesiacum, Seliger. 
H. tamariscinum, Hedw. 
H. triquetrum, Dill. 
H. uncinatum, Hall. 
H. undulatum, Dill. 
H. velutinum, Dill. 
H. scorpioides, Dill. 
H. molle, Dicks. 
H. Schreberi, Dill. 
H. sarmentosum, Wahlb. 
H. fluitans, Dill. 
H. pulchellum, Dicks. 
H. lutescens, Dill. 
H. cordifolium, Swartz. 
H. stellatum, Dill. 
H. loreum, Dill. 
H. palustre, Dill. 
H. rugosum, Dill. 
H. molluscum, Dill. 
Cryphaea heteromalla, Dill. 
Fontinalis antipyretica, L. 
F. squamosa, L. 
Dichelyma capillaceum, B. and 



4. MarchantiecB. 
Marchantia polymorpha, L. 
Preissia commutata, Nees. 
*Fimbriaria tenella, Nees. 

5. Jungcrmanniece. 
Metzgeria furcata, Nees. 
Aneura pinguis, Dum. 
A. multifida, Dum. 
Pellia epiphylla, Nees. 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland, 97 

Blasia pusilla, L. 

Fossombronia angulosa, Rad. 

Sphagnoecetis communis, Nees. 

Alicularia scalaris, Corda. 
*A. compress a, Nees v. E. 

Madotheca platyphylla, Dum. 

Jungermannia albicans, L . 

J. bicuspidata, L, 

J. divaricata, Sm. Eng. Bot. 
*J. pallescens, Schrad. 

J. barbata, Sclimid. 

J. Francisci, Hook. 

J. julacea, Lightf. 

J. minuta, Crantz. 

J. nana, Nees. 

J. ventricosa, Dicks. 

J. albescens, Hook. 

J. trichophylla, L. 

J. setiformis, Ehrh. 

J. pumila, With. 

J. crenulata, Sm. 

J. cordifolia, Hook. 

J. sphaerocarpa, Hook. 


1. Diatomacece. 

Isthmia obliquata, Ag. 

2. Confervacece. 

(1.) Palmelleaa. 
Coccocliloris Grevillei, Hass. 
var. botryoides, Hass. 

(2.) Nostocheae. 
Nostoc commune, Vauch. 
N. verrucosum, Vauch. 
*N. lichenoides, Vauch. 

(3.) Oscillatorieae. 
Rivularia atra, Roth. 
Raphidia angulosa, Hass. 
Oscillatoria tenuis, Ag. 
O. autumnalis, Ag. 
Microcoleus repens, Harv. 

(4.) Conferveas. 
Zygnema quininum, Ag. 
Z. nitidum, Ag. 
Z. deciminum, Ag. 
Tyndaridea cruciata, Harv. 
Conferva Melagonium, Web. and 

C. implexa, Dillw. 
C. ericetorum, Roth. 
Cladophora glomerata, Dillw. 


Jungermannia laxifolia, Hook. 

J. inflata, Huds. 

J. porphyroleuca, Nees v. E. 

J. connivens, Dicks. 

J. saxicola, Schrad. 

J. epiphylla, L. 

Scapania nemorosa, Nees. 

S. compacta, Nees. 

S. undulata, Nees. 

Plagiochila asplenioides, Nees 

and Mont. 
Gymnomitrium concinnatum, 

Sarcoscyphus Ehrharti, C. 
Frullania dilatata, Nees. 
Radula complanata, Dumont. 
Ptilidium ciliare, Nees. 
Sendtnera juniperina, Nees. 
Lejeunia serpyllifolia, Lib. 
Calypogeja Trichomanis, Corda. 
Lophocolea bidentata, Nees v. E. 
Chiloscyphus pallesens, Nees v. 



Cladophora flavescens, Kiitz. 

C. rupestris, L. 

C. lsetevirens, Dillw. 

C. arcta, Dillw. 

(5.) Siphoneae. 
Tetraspora cylindrica, Ag. 
Ulva latissima, L. 
U. Linza, L., and var. lanceolata, 

U. Lactuca, L. 
U. crispa, Lightf. 
Enteromorpha intestinalis, Link. 
E. compressa, Grev. 
Porphyra laciniata, Ag. 
P. vulgaris, Ag. 

3. Fucacece. 

(1.) Vaucherieas. 

Vaucheria dichotoma, Ag. 
Ectocarpus littoralis, Lyngb. 
Chordaria flagelliformis, Ag. 
Ralfsia verrucosa, Aresch. 
*R. deusta, Ag. 

(2). Halysereae. 
Sphacelaria scoparia, Lyngb. 
S. plumosa, Lyngb. 
Dictyota dichotoma, Huds. 
Chorda Filum, Lx. 
Laminaria digitata, Lx. (Thaun- 
gull, Hrossathaungull.) 

-JULY 1861. N 

08 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

Laminaria saccharin a, Lx. (Belfs- 

thorni, ThamabcUi.) 
Alaria esculenta, Grev. (Mum, 

Mariuk javni.) 
*A. Pylaii, Bory. 
Desmarestia aeuleata, Lx. 

(3.) Fucece. 

Fucus vesiculosus, L. (Belja- 
thang, Thunnathang , Klo- 
thang, Boluthang), and vars, 
divaricatus, Croal, inflatus, 
Croal, and spiralis, Lightf. 

F. ceranoides, L. 

F. serratus, L. 

F. nodosus, L. (Thykkvathang , 

F. canaliculars, L., and var. 
excissus, L. 
*F. distichus, L. 

Himanthalia lorea, Lyngb. 

Halidrys siliquosa, Lyngb. 

Cystoseira foeniculacea, Grev. 

4. Ceramiacece. 

(1.) Cerameae. 
Callith amnion arbuscula, Br. 
C. floccosum, Mull. Fl. Dan. 
C. roseum, Roth. 
C. plumula, Ellis. 
Griffithsia equisetifolia, Ag. 
G. corallina, Ag. 
Ceramium rubrum, Huds. 
C. diaphanuni, Lightf. 
Ptilota plumosa, Ag. 

(2.) Cryptonemeae. 
Iridrea edulis, Bory. 
Furcellaria fastigiata, Grev. 
Polyides rotundus, Grev. 
Phyllophora rubens, Grev. 
P. membranifolius, Good, and 

Chondrus crispus, Lx. 
Ahnfeltia plicata, Ag. 
*Holosaccion ramentaceum, L. 
Gelidium corneum, Lx., and var. 

csespitosum, Ag. 
Gigartinamammillosa, Good, and 

Calliblepharis ciliata, Kiitz. 

(3.) Rhodomeleae. 
Polysiphonia fastigiata, Grev. 
P. urceolata, Grev. 
Rhodomela lycopodioides, Ag. 
R. subfusca, Woodw. 
Odonthalia dentata, Lyngb. 

(4.) Sphaerococcese. 
Cystocloniumpurpurascens, Kiitz. 
Gracilaria confervoides, Grev. 
Rhodymenia palmata, Grev., and 

vars. sobolifera, Harv., and 

ovina, Croall. 
R. laciniata, Huds. 
Euthora cristata, Ag. 
Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Ag. 

(5.) Delesseria3. 
Wormskioldia sanguinea, Spr. 
Delesseria alata, Lx. 
D. sinuosa, Good, and Wood. 
Plocamium coccineum, Huds. 

VIII. Lichens. 

1. Licliinccr.. 
Ephebe pubescens, Fr. (Smd- 

ulladr Mosi) 

2. Collemece. 
Collema nigrescens, Ach. (Svart- 

leitr 31osi) 

3. SphceropJiorece. 
Sphaerophoron fragile, Pers. 

(Brothcettr Mosi.) 
S. compressum, Ach. 
S. coralloides, Pers. 

4. Cladonicc. 
Cladonia endiviafoli.'i, Fr. 

Cladonia gracilis, Fr. ( Veigalitill 

C. pyxidata, Fr. (Hringnbbottr 

C. cornuta, Fr. (Hornmosi.) 
C. rangiferina, HfTm. (Hrein- 

dyra Mosi, Trbllagros, M6- 

C. uncialis, Hffm. (Greindttr 

Mosi, Mdkrdkr.) 
C. cornucopioides, Fr. (Hdrandr 

C. digitata, Hffm. (Fingramosi.) 
(J. furcata, Schaer. (Almosi, 

0. deform is, Hffm. 
C. fimbriata, Fr. 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 


5. Stereocaulece. 
Stereoeaulonpaschale, Fr. (Fortu 

S. tomentosum, Fr ., and *var. 

incrustatum, Flk. 

6. Siphulece. 
Thamnolia vermicularis, Schaer. 

7 . Usnece. 
Usnea barbata, Fr., and var. 
hirta, Fr. (Strihardr Mosi.) 

8. Ramalinece. 
Alectoria jubata, Ach. (Stdl- 

prcedilr Mosi.) 
A. ochroleuca, Ehrh., and var. 

sarmentosa, Ach. 
Evernia furfuracea, Mann. 

E. prunastri, Ach. (PyruimosL) 
Ramalina calicaris, Fr., and vars. 

fraxinea, Fr. (OsJcumosi), 

and farinacea, Ach. (Mjbl- 

R. scopulorum, Ach. 

9. Cetrarice, 

Cetraria Islandica, Ach. (Is- 
lands Mosi, Fjallagros.) 

C. aculeata, Fr. 

Platysma nivale, L. (Snjomosi, 

P. cucullatum, Hffm. 

10. Peltigerece. 
Nephromium tomentosum, Hffm. 

(Umsnuinn Mosi.) 
Peltigera aphthosa, Hffm. (Por- 

P. canina, Hffm. (Hundamosi.) 
P. venosa, Hffm. (JSdamosi.) 
P. rufescens, Hffm. 
Solorina saccata, Ach. (Pitinga- 

S. crocea, Ach. (Saffransmosi.) 

11. Parmelice. 

Sticta pulmonacea, Ach. (Lung- 
na Mosi.) 

S. scrobiculata, Ach. 

Parmelia physodes, Ach. (Tre- 

P. saxatilis, Ach. (Steinmosi, 
Litunarmosi) , and var. om- 
phalodes, Ach. (Littr Stein- 

Parmelia olivacea, Ach . (Grcen- 

P. stygia,Ach. (Bldholls Mosi.) 
P. Fahlunensis, Ach. (Faluns- 

borgar Mosi. 
P. lanata, Ach. (UUarmosi.) 
Physcia parietina, L. (Veggja 

P. candelaria, Ach. (Ljosmosi.) 
P. ciliaris, DC. 
P. stellaris, Fr. (Stjbmumosi.) 

12. Umbilicar'ice. 
Umbilicaria pustulata, Hffm. 

U. polyphylla, Hffm. (Slettr 

Mosi), and var. deusta, Ach. 

(Svidinn Mosi.) 
U. erosa, Hffm. 
U. proboscidea, DC. (Trjonu- 

mosi, Geitnashof.) 
U. vellea, L. (Gcerumosi.) 
U. hirsuta, DC. 
U. cylindrica, L. 

13. Lecanorece. 
Pannaria brunnea, Mass. 
P. triptophylla, Ach. 
Squamaria gelida, L. 
Placodium murorum, DC, and 

vars. lobulatum, Flk., and mi- 

niatum, Ach. 
Psoroma hypnorum, Fr. 
Urceolaria scruposa, Ach. 
Lecanora cinerea, L., and var, 

calcarea, L. (Kalkmosi.) 
L. tartarea, Ach. (Litunmosi) , 

and var. frigid a. 
L. parella, Ach. 
L. subfusca, Ach. (Svartleitr 

L. badia, Ach. 
L. ventosa, Ach. 
L. glaucoma, Ach. 
L. sulphurea, Ach. 
L. verrucosa, Laur. 

14. LecidecB. 
Lecidea fusco-atra, Ach. (Grd- 

L. geographica, Schaer. (M&la- 

L.sanguinaria, Ach. (Blodmosi.) 
L. decolorans, Flk. 
L. atro-alba, Flot. 
L. contigua, Fr., and var. con- 

fluens, Schaer. 
L. arctica, Smrf. 

100 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 

15. Verrucarice. 
Endocarpon miniatum, Ach. 

Endocarpon hepaticum, Ach. 
Verrucaria tephroides, Ach. 

1. Agaricacece. 
Agaricus campestris, L. (JZtis- 

A. campanulatus, L. 

A. ericaeus, Pers. 

*A. conicus, Schoeff., var. citricus. 
Boletus bovinus. (Kualubbi.) 

B. luteus, L. (Reidikula.) 
Clavaria muscoides. 

2. Lycoperdacece. 
Lycoperdon Bovista — (Bovista 

IX. Fungi. 

gigantea) Nees. (Gorhula, 

3. Helvellacece. 
Helvella atra. 
Peziza aeruginosa, Ball. 
P. scutellata, L. 

P. cupularis, L. 

4. Mucoracece. 
Mucor Mucedo, Bolt. 

Enumeration of Floras of Iceland, or of Publications containing 
Lists of the Plants of Iceland, consulted by, or known to, the 

1. " Islenzk Grasafrsedi," by " O. J. Hjaltalin, Distriktskirurgus : 
Utgefin ad tilhlutuhins fslenzka Bokmentafelagi." Copenhagen and 
Reykjavik, 1830. 

2. Flora Islandica of Zoega ; contained in vol. ii. of " Vice Larmand 
Eggert Olafssen's og Land-Physicus Bjorn Povelsen's Reise igjennem 
Island foranstaltet af Videnskabernes Selskab i Kiobenhavn, 1772." 
Danish edition. It is also translated into German ; Leipzig, 1774-75, 
4 to, 2 vols. 

*3. tl Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809," 2d ed., 
2 vols. London, 1813. By Sir W. J. Hooker, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 
&c , Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Contains Zoega's 
list of Icelandic plants above referred to, with the addition of 50 species, 
and a reference to the lists of Mohr and Palsson. 

*4. " Travels in the Island of Iceland during the Summer of 1810." 
By Sir George Stuart Mackenzie, Bart., of Coul, Ross-shire, F.R.S. 4to. 
Edin., 1811. Chapter on Botany, by Dr Bright. P. 417. Contains the 
list of plants given in Sir W. J. Hooker's "Journal of a Tour in Iceland." 
It would appear that the number of plants collected by Sir W. J. Hooker, 
Sir George S. Mackenzie, and by Palsson, and not mentioned by previous 
writers, amount to between 70 and 80. The three works last mentioned, 
contain many plants not mentioned in Hjaltalin's " Islenzk Grasafrsedi." 

*5. " An Historical and Descriptive Account of Iceland, Greenland, 
and the Faroe Islands, with illustrations of their Natural History," 
forming vol. xxviii. of the Edinburgh Cabinet Library. Edin. 1840, 
12mo, p. 376. Chapter on Botany, the data in which are based mainly 
on Gliemann's list of the plants of Iceland. 

*6. "Liste des Plantes que Ton suppose exister en Islande, dresse'e par 
M. Vahl," at p. 371 of a " Voyage en Islande et au Groenland, execute* 
pendant les annees 1835 et 1836, sur la corvette La Recherche : Publie 
par ordre du Roi, sous la direction de M. Paul Gaimard, President de la 

* The lists which I have perused and compared, and which are incorporated 
more or less in my revised list, are denoted by an asterisk. 

Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Flora of Iceland. 101 

Commission Scientifique d'Island et de Greenland ; Mineralogie et Geo- 
logie par M. Eugene Robert." First Part. Paris, 1840. 

*7. " List of Plants gathered during a short visit to Iceland in 1846," 
by Charles C. Babington, M.A., F.L.S., &c. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., 
vol. iii., part i., p. 15, 1848. 

8. Miiller in Nova Acta Nat. Cur., vol. iv. p. 203 and seq., contains, 
according to the Edinburgh Cabinet Library volume on Iceland, p. 382, 
theirs* published list of Icelandic plants. 

9. Grasafraedi, by Distrikts-Kirurgus Sveinn Palsson, who wrote about 
the year 1800, and who lived in the vicinity of the Kotlugja volcano in 
the south of Iceland. 

10. Gliemann's " Geographische Beschreibung von Island " (Altona, 
1824), is said to contain the fullest list hitherto published of Icelandic 
plants, being chiefly compiled by Morck, a companion of Kotzebue in his 
circumnavigation of the globe [according to the Edin. Cabinet Library 
volume on Iceland, p. 382]. Pp. 136-148 and 171-183. Gliemann's 
list would appear to exceed that of Zoega, Hooker, and Mackenzie by 
about 100 species of Phanerogams and as many Cryptogams. 

11. A. J. Retzius' " Florae Scandinaviae Prodromus," enumerating 
the plants of Iceland, along with those of Greenland, Sweden, Norway, 
Denmark, Lapland, Finland, &c. : published at Leipzig, 2d ed. 

12. Kcening's " Flora Islandica." 

13. Mohr "Forsog til en Islandsk Naturhistorie." Copenhagen, 1786. 

14. List of Icelandic Plants (Fishes and Birds), with their Linnaean 
names, by Olaf Olafsson, in Trans, of 1st Literary Society of Iceland. 

15. On the Cultivation of Trees in Iceland, by Jon Petursson, in the 
above-mentioned Transactions. 

16. Economical Travels through the North Parts of Iceland, by Olaf 
Olafsson, 2 vols., 4to, 1780 ; contains an essay on the Icelandic " Surtur- 
brand " (which illustrates the fossil flora of Iceland). The most recent 
information regarding this form of lignite may be found in 

*17. "Physisch-geographische Skizze von Island, mit besonderer Riick- 
sicht auf Vulkanische Erscheinungen : abgedruckt aus der Gottinger 
Studien," by Baron Sartorius von Walter shausen. Gottingen, 1847. 

18. ' ' Snotru Af handling om de til Menneskefode brugelige Tangarter." 
by Dr juris M. Stephensen. 

19. " Grasnytjar," by Sira (Rev.) Bjbrn Haldorsson. 

20. Madame Ida Pfeiffer's " Journey to Iceland, and Travels in Nor- 
way and Sweden." 8vo. London, 1852. 

*21. " Iceland : or a Journal of a Residence in that Island during the 
years 1814-15." By the Rev. Ebenezer Henderson, D.D., Ph.D., Mis- 
sionary of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 8vo. Edinburgh, 
1818, 2 vols. References will be found to the " Surturbrand" in vol i., 
p. 195 ; vol. ii., pp. 11, 80, 104, 113, 116, 125 ; to present and former 
forests in vol. i., pp. 10, 137, 224 ; vol. ii., p. 74 ; to drift-wood, in 
vol. ii., p. 130 ; to agriculture, in vol. i., pp. 11, 122, 136 ; and to other 
subjects connected with Icelandic botany in vol. i., p. 161 [Angelica] ; 
vol. i., p. 307. [Melur corn — Elymus arenarius, L.] 

The dates of the principal or most important of the foregoing Floras or 
lists are as follows : — 

1. Zoega 


7. Hjaltalin . 


2. Mohr 


8. Vahl and Robert 


3. Palsson 


9. Edinburgh Cabinet 

4. Hooker 


Library . 


5. Mackenzie 


10. Babington . 


6. Gliemann . 


11. Lindsay 


102 Mr Geikie on a Rise of 

On a Rise of the Coast of the Firth of Forth within the 
Historical Period. By Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.E., 

The existence of a series of littoral deposits above the pre- 
sent high-water mark, along the shores of the Firth of Forth, 
has long been familiar to the geologist. The upraised beds of 
sand and gravel, with shore shells, which occur at the Friggate 
Whins, between Leith and Portobello, have been described by 
Mr Maclaren, as well as other similar strata that fringe the 
coast westward as far as the mouth of the River Avon. At 
the Friggate Whins, which may be taken as a kind of typical 
example, we are presented with a low bluff rising from high- 
water mark, and then sloping upwards at a scarcely perceptible 
angle to another and higher cliff, which varies in outline and 
in its distance from the shore. The first low escarpment con- 
sists of various well-bedded alternations of sand and gravel 
full of the ordinary littoral shells. The nearly level plain 
between this escarpment and the inner one represents the old 
beach, while the inner bluff marks the sinuous cliff line against 
which the waves broke previous to the last upheaval of the 
land. The base of the inland cliff is somewhere about twenty- 
five feet above the present sea-level ; and the space between 
its base and high -water mark consists of strata of sand, gravel, 
and shells, exactly similar to those which are now forming at 
the base of the outer cliff between tide marks. The inference 
is therefore incontestable, that, within a comparatively recent 
geological period, the land here has risen twenty or twenty-five 
feet above the level of the sea. I propose in this paper to 
show that this elevation is not only one of the latest geological 
changes of this district, but that it has actually taken place 
since man appeared on the shores of the Forth. 

In the course of some recent examinations of the alluvial 
deposits of the water-courses of Mid-Lothian, I had occasion 
to visit the lower reaches of the Water of Leith. In tracing 
the alluvial plain of that stream, I found that the raised beach 
just referred to fringes the banks of the river, as might have 
been anticipated, and that it extends southward beyond the. 

the Coast of the Firth of Forth. 


outskirts of the town of Leith. It has been laid open in an 
interesting section in the sand-pit on the south side of the 
Junction Road, close to Bowling-Green Street. The strata 
here exposed lie about twenty-five feet above high-water mark, 
and are unequivocally those of the raised beach. They closely 
correspond to the deposits along the shore between Leith and 
Portobello. In examining them, I was accompanied by my 
friend and colleague Dr Young, who has assisted me in nearly 
all the observations detailed in this paper. We found that, 
in addition to the ordinary contents of raised-beach deposits, 
they include others which have not hitherto been observed, 
and which give a clue to the date of the last rise of the land 
in this part of Scotland. 

The section in the sand-pit presents the succession of strata 
shown in the subjoined diagram. The lowest bed (1) visible 
is one of coarse gravel or shingle, the pebbles being all well 

Section of Sand-pit, Junction lload, Leith. 

rounded, and loosely cemented in a sandy and somewhat fer- 
ruginous matrix. (2) Is a bed of fine white sand, about six 
feet thick. It is full of false bedding, the diagonal stratifica- 
tion being beautifully exhibited by the alternations of darker 
and lighter coloured layers. Its upper surface is irregular, 
and is overlaid by a well-marked seam (3) of sand and gravel, 
which averages about sixteen inches in thickness. Its lower 
part is gravelly and ferruginous. This stratum is covered by 
three or four inches of a stiff greenish clay (4), which contains 
numerous perpendicular (sometimes dichotomous) ferruginous 

104 Mr Geikie on a Rise of 

pipes, probably marking the remains of the stems of plants.* 
This stratum passes up into a bed (5), about six feet thick, of 
dark silt or sandy clay well stratified, having thin lenticular 
interlaminations of sand, with occasional oyster-valves, a few 
stones, and fragments of bones and pottery. The upper part 
of this bed becomes more sandy, and graduates into the super- 
incumbent stratum of brown sand (6). The highest bed of 
the section (7) consists of stratified sand and shingle full of 
littoral shells, and some of the stones having balani still 
attached. The irregular deposit (marked h in the diagram), 
which rests unconformably upon the edges of the strata just 
described, is a mass of loose humus, which has been thrown 
down here at no distant date, perhaps to fill up an irregularity 
of the surface. It is full of stones, bricks, bones, pieces of 
earthenware, tobacco-pipes, &c, and its origin is sufficiently 
explained by a large board a few yards distant — " Rubbish 
may be laid down here free." 

It is with the stratum marked 5 that we have chiefly to 
deal. But before entering into its details, I would dwell 
pointedly on the fact that it is a regularly stratified deposit, 
with thin parallel interlaminations of sand and clay ; its 
oyster-valves and stones lie horizontally, and it passes upward 
by gradations into brown sand, which is covered by well 
stratified shell-sand and gravel. It cannot for a moment: be 
confounded with the dark earth h, in which no trace of strati- 
fication can be detected, and which, moreover, rests on the 
edges of the other deposits. Whatever may be the contents 
of this bed of silt, they are undoubtedly of contemporaneous 
deposition ; in other words, all the materials imbedded in the 
stratum were laid down at the same time with the stratum 
itself. And that this deposition and arrangement were effected 

* I have seen similar pipes produced in the clay below a peat bog, by the 
decomposition of the salts of iron round the roots of plants, the bark becoming 
crusted with the oxide, and eventually replaced by it, while the internal woody 
matter has disappeared, leaving only a set of branching pipes to represent the 
roots and rootlets. When I first saw the pipes in the sand-pit at Leith, they 
appeared to me to resemble annelide burrows ; but a more careful search 
showed that they not unfrequently branched, and that they could hardly be of 
other than vegetable origin. They may have arisen when the stream flowed 
over the clay, on which a scrubby and semi-aquatic vegetation grew. 

the Coast of the Firth of Forth. 105 

tranquilly by the tides, is abundantly manifest from the strati- 
fied aspect of the bed as well as from that of the sand which 
covers it. We see its exact counterpart, indeed, along the 
shores of the Firth at the present day. The dark sandy mud 
which covers such extensive flats between tide marks at Leith, 
if elevated, would give us just such a deposit as that of the 
sand-pit. At the mouth of the Almond, the same muddy silt 
is now forming, and there the observer may notice patches of 
sand blown across the mud after the recession of the tide, and 
covered with a thin muddy pellicle by the next influx of the 
mingled water of the sea and the river. Such lenticular 
sandy layers in like manner represent those which occur in 
the dark silt of the sand-pit. To complete the parallel, we see 
along the muddy flats frequent fragments of bone, pottery, 
and pieces of stone, which are gradually covered over by the 
alluvial deposits. Similar fragments occur in the sand-pit, 
and to their nature, and the inference to be deduced from 
their occurrence there, I shall now advert. 

The pieces of pottery found by Dr Young and myself were 
of two kinds ; the first and most abundant were of a pale 
yellowish-grey colour, from two to nearly six lines in thick- 
ness, and of a firm, compact, but somewhat granular clay. 
They showed no glaze, but had a rough exterior and a rounded 
form, like fragments of a flagon or urn. All the pieces we 
obtained occurred in the space of two or three yards, and 
might have belonged to one vessel. We also found, however, 
one or two fragments of a thinner and finer kind of pottery of 
a red colour, and coated with a pellicle of greenish glaze. 

Having obtained as many fragments as could be gathered 
after a careful search during two visits to the sand-pit, we 
submitted them to Mr M'Culloch, the curator of the Scottish 
Antiquarian Museum, requesting his opinion before informing 
him where they had been found. He at once pointed out that 
they strongly resembled fragments of Roman pottery ; and he 
stated, that if found near a Roman station, he would have no 
hesitation in pronouncing them to be Roman. He further 
courteously assisted us to compare them with pieces of un- 
doubted Roman workmanship in the museum. The resem- 
blance was so complete, that one could easily have believed 


106 Mr Geikie on a Rise of 

that the fragments from Leith had formed part of one of the 
broken jars, which, however, had been dug up along with other 
Roman remains at Newstead, in Roxburghshire. We have 
no doubt, therefore, that the pieces of pottery embedded in 
the elevated littoral silt of Leith are of Roman origin. 

Along with these remains occurred numerous fragments of 
the bones of some ruminant, apparently a deer. With the 
exception of a broken tibia, all the pieces were of small size, 
like little chips and splinters. There occurred also, as no- 
ticed above, a number of ferruginous pipes of irregular size 
and form, occasionally branching. I have found similar pipes 
in the clay of the Portobello brick-works, where they are 
associated with branches of hazel, thorn, oak, beech, &c, and 
hazel nuts. They arose, probably, from the decomposition of 
ferruginous soil round the decaying stems of plants, though 
they sometimes resemble annelide burrows. 

I have just shown that the bed of silt in which these 
remains occur is a truly stratified deposit, formed by water, 
exactly as a similar silt is being laid down on the shores of 
the Firth at the present day- The occurrence of stratified 
shell-sand and shingle above this silt proves that it was a 
littoral deposit ; and the inference is irresistible, that the land 
here has risen about 25 feet since the deposition of these 
littoral strata. Further, the existence of fragments of Roman 
pottery in the silt shows us that the deposition of these up- 
raised strata was going on during the Roman occupation of 
Britain, and therefore that this rise of the land has taken 
place since the time of the Romans. 

This may seem, indeed, a startling deduction, when we con- 
sider the comparatively large increase of land which it de- 
mands, the short interval it allows for the process of eleva- 
tion, and the silence of historians as to any such change of 
level. But these objections are only negative, and cannot be 
entertained in the face of the clear positive evidence of the 
raised beach itself. They are, besides, more apparent than 
real. The rate of elevation, if spread over 2000 years, would 
not be half so rapid as the rise of Sweden at the present day. 
The upheaval, however, was more probably effected during 
the earlier centuries after the Roman occupation. But even if 

the Coast of the Firth of Forth. 107 

we suppose that it had been completed by the fourteenth or 
fifteenth century, and that the land has remained stationary 
ever since, the rate of rise would then be no more than 2 feet 
in a hundred years — a rate geologically quite probable, 
and sufficiently slow to escape observation during the barba- 
rous middle ages. The absence of any record of a change of 
level could not therefore be used as a valid argument in this 
question. But the change has really not passed unobserved ; 
and I shall immediately refer to corroborative testimony from 
the researches of the archaeologist. 

A more serious objection would be obtained if it could be 
shown, that, over the area which I assert has been gained 
from the sea since the time of the Bomans, there have been 
found the undoubted remains of Roman buildings, which seem 
to have been erected at least above high-water mark. Such 
an objection, if clearly established, would indeed involve the 
subject in great difficulty. We should then have to weigh the 
evidence of the sand-pit against the testimony of the exhumed 
buildings. And yet, bearing in mind that the operations of 
nature are uniform and certain, and that those of man may 
be guided only by his own caprice, we should be compelled to 
decide in favour of the geological rather than the antiquarian 
evidence. But no such difficulty really exists. Since the 
examination of the sand-pit at Leith, I have visited all the 
localities along the shore where Roman remains are known to 
have existed, and I have found no authentic evidence that in 
any way militates against the recent elevation of the land, 
but, on the contrary, several facts that tend to confirm it. 

In thus testing the conclusions derived from the littoral 
deposits of Leith, by a reference to the actual position of Bo- 
man sites, Dr Young has examined with me the shore of the 
Forth from Inveresk to Cramond, and the line of the Boman 
Wall from Carriden to Falkirk. At Inveresk, where a Bo- 
man town existed, all the remains, so far as we could discover, 
were found on the ridge 60 or 70 feet above the present high- 
water mark. The site of Fisherrow must at that time have 
been a flat of sand and silt, exposed between tide- marks. 
We can attach no value to a vague tradition of the discovery 
of a " Boman bath" at that village. The sea at high-water 

108 Mr Geikie on a Rise of 

must have washed the foot of the heights of Inveresk, on 
which the town stood, ascending far up the valley of the Esk, 
and making the mouth of that river a safe and commodious 
harbour. Had it not been so, it is difficult to see how the 
Romans should have made choice of such a shoaling estuary 
as that of the Esk, and have planted their town on an incon- 
venient narrow ridge, at some distance from their harbour, 
when a broad open plain lay along either side of the river, 
and skirted the shores of the Firth. But we see at once the 
expediency of the choice, if we allow that in their days the 
flat plain was covered by the sea at high-water, and that they 
built their houses along the only space available here — 
namely, the declivity that overhung the beach, whence they 
commanded a wide view of the sea towards the north, and of 
the wild bosky country that stretched southwards towards the 
Pentland Hills. 

From Inveresk the shore westwards must have had a greatly 
more sinuous outline than that which it exhibits at the present 
day. The old coast line is still well preserved at several 
points ; and from its remains we can easily see how varied and 
broken must have been the configuration of the coast, which 
now presents scarcely any modifications of its long sweeping 
lines. At Portobello, for example, the sea ran up the valley 
of the Friggate Burn, and from washing the stiff boulder clay 
that formed its banks, probably produced the finely stratified 
clay which now lies along the sides of the valley at the brick- 
work, and contains trunks and branches of still indigenous trees, 
with shells of the Scrobicularia piperata. A Roman road is 
believed to have crossed near the mouth of this valley, running 
by Jock's Lodge, the northern outskirts of Edinburgh, and 
Davidson's Mains, to the station at Cramond. This road, at 
its seaward portion, lies above the limit of the gained land. 

Passing still westwards we reach Leith, which, at the period 
of the Roman occupation, seems to have been a muddy flat, 
only laid bare by the recession of the tide. The extent of 
ground then covered by the sea must have been great, for 
the tides rose up the valley of the Water of Leith towards 
Canonmills. There is no record, however, of this inlet having 
been used as a Roman port, nor do we encounter any other 

the Coast of the Firth of Forth. 109 

remains of that period until we reach Cramond, at the mouth 
of the River Almond. 

To one who stands on the rising ground above that village, 
and looks seaward, it seems as if no more inconvenient part of 
the coast could possibly have been selected as the site of a 
port. A wide dreary expanse of mud stretches along the 
shore, and extends outwards for wellnigh two miles at its 
broadest part, across which vessels even of light burden can 
only venture at full tide. The river channel is narrow and 
shallow, and a little way up becomes rocky and stony. And 
yet this inlet is recognised as Alaterva, the chief harbour of 
the Romans on this part of the coast of Britain. We must 
remember, indeed, that the River Forth is constantly bearing 
down mud from the higher grounds, depositing it along both 
shores of the Firth, but especially on the south side. Eighteen 
centuries must undoubtedly have witnessed some change from 
the gradual silting up of the estuary. But this process of 
change is a very slow one. Even allowing the greatest depth 
of sediment to have accumulated compatible with the small 
amount carried in suspension in the water, and with the action 
of the tides and currents of the Firth, the depth of silt which 
has accumulated since the time of the Romans cannot, I 
think, have been by any means so great as to have converted 
what appears to have been the most commodious inlet along 
the coast into a difficult and dangerous shoal. But be this as 
it may, there can be no doubt that the mouth of the Almond 
would be greatly improved as a harbour if the sea rose in it 
to a greater height. If we admit that the land here was 
20 feet lower when the Romans occupied the country, then 
we cannot fail to see that they were fully justified in making 
it their chief port, for it would unquestionably be the best 
natural harbour along the whole of the south side of the 

The coins, urns, sculptured stones, and other remains which 
have been found so numerously at Cramond, fully attest its 
ancient importance. The remnant of a harbour has also been 
detected here. It is greatly to be regretted, however, that in 
these, as in other instances of archaeological discovery along 
the coast, no record appears to have been kept of the exact 

110 Mr Gcikie on a Rise of 

spots on which the remains were found. We only know that 
the quays which the Romans built along the sea-margin have 
been found on what is now good dry land. No relic of the 
Roman period is now visible here. A rock, indeed, called the 
11 Eagle Rock," or " Hunter's Craig," is shown with the alleged 
effigies of an eagle carved on its eastern front, a little above 
high-water mark. Antiquaries have grown eloquent at the 
sight of this relic of the creative genius of the old legionaries. 
But the carving has really about as much claim to be consi- 
dered Roman as the famous Prsetorium of Jonathan Oldbuck. 
In a niche of the soft sandstone crag stands a rude figure, as 
like that of a human being as of an eagle, with a very short 
stump by way of legs, surmounted by a long and not very 
symmetrical body, on one side of which an appendage that 
may be an arm, hangs stiffly down, while the corresponding 
one shoots away up at an uncomfortable angle on the other 
side. Like other carvings on the shores of the Forth (as the 
figure near Dysart, and Queen Margaret's footstep at South 
Queensferry), it must take rank among the handiworks of idle 
peasants or truant schoolboys. 

The next point westwards where we meet with traces of the 
Roman occupation is the commencement of the Wall of Anto- 
ine at Carriden. From this point the line of the^wall runs 
on the summit of the high bank that overlooks the Firth 
westwards to beyond the village of Polmont. Its position at the 
Kerse toll-bar was pointed out to us by a farm-labourer who 
dug through the soil in a level field on the upper edge of the 
great Carse, and showed the position of the large flat stones 
which formed the foundation of the wall. From this locality 
the wall again ascended to the higher ground, passing west- 
wards by Falkirk and Camelon, and then receding from the 
shores of the Forth. 

From Falkirk seawards, the ground forms a great expanse 
of flat alluvial land, called the Carse. No one can doubt that 
this tract has been gradually gained from the sea, and that 
the tides must at a comparativly recent period have washed 
the heights on which Polmont and Falkirk stand. One anti- 
quary even asserts his belief that this tract may have been 
formed since the days of the Romans. He alleges, in support 

the Coast of the Firth of Forth. Ill 

of this opinion, that near Camelon, on the banks of the Car- 
ron, at the inner edge of the Carse, the remains of the Roman 
Portus ad Vallum, consisting of walls, houses, and docks 
existed down to the last century, and that an anchor was dug 
up in the same locality.* 

This independent testimony corroborates in the most satis- 
factory manner the geological inference already stated in this 
paper. I visited the site of the ancient Camelon, and found it 
lying at the foot of the old coast line — a wavy line of bold 
bluffs, similar to but considerably higher than those of the 
Friggate Whins. It required no force of imagination to pic- 
ture the sea rising to the base of these cliffs, and ascending 
the valley of the Carron, with Roman galleys winding up the 
estuary, or anchored in the harbour of the long forsaken and 
forgotten Portus ad Vallum. 

Having shown that the coast at Leith has risen 25 feet 
or so since the Roman invasion, it by no means follows that 
the coast along other portions of the Firth of Forth, and of 
the east of Scotland generally, has been elevated to the same 
amount. Nor is it necessary to the truth of the conclusions of 
this paper, that the west coast of Scotland — as for instance 
at the termination of the Wall of Antonine — should be proved 
to have experienced any elevatory movement at alL 

Such movements are local in action and variable in amount, 
so that geologically there is no reason why the amount of rise 
may not have lessened towards the west, until in the Firth of 
Clyde it ceased altogether. No one can examine the shores 
of our country without becoming convinced, that they have 
been raised, not by equal and uniform elevations, but by a 
general upheaval which varied greatly in amount in different 
localities, and was even interrupted by long intervals, during 
which the land appears to have remained stationary. Hence 
the raised beaches occur at different levels above the present 
shore, and even the same line of upheaved littoral deposits 
may be proved to be actually higher at one point than at 

* Stewart's " Caledonia Roraana," p. 177. 

f It is a curious fact, that during the oscillations which accompanied the de- 
position of the carboniferous rocks in central Scotland, a great inequality ap- 

112 On a Rise of the Coast of the Firth of Forth. 

In conclusion, as some of the more widely known geological 
researches of the last two or three years have been directed 
to the history of primaeval man, every additional fact that 
tends to place in a clearer light the relations of our race to 
the later physical changes of the land acquires at present a 
peculiar significance. The object of this paper has been to 
show that the last elevation of part of Britain has not only 
taken place since the island was inhabited by man, but even 
since it was invaded by the Romans. The extent of this up- 
heaval has been at one locality as much as 25 feet — a large 
amount of change to have taken place quietly and unob- 
served during a period of less than eighteen hundred years. 
In the centuries that preceded this elevation other changes 
of equal or even higher magnitude may have been going on, 
possibly with a still greater rapidity, after man had become 
an inhabitant of these islands. Some caution therefore is 
needed, lest the extent of the geological changes which he has 
witnessed should lead us to assign to man, as an inhabitant of 
Britain, a higher antiquity than he can justly claim. 

On Natro-horo-calcite and another Borate occurring in the 
Gypsum of Nova Scotia. By Henry How, Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural History, King's College, Windsor, 


About three years and a half ago, I showed the existence of Natro- 
boro-calcite in the gypsum of Windsor, N.S.* I was not aware at 
that time that Dr Hayes of Boston, U.S., had announced his convic- 
tion"]' that the soda which had been attributed to this mineral was an 
impurity, and had given, as the true expression of the composition of 
the pure mineral, the formula CaO 2 B0 3 -f 6 HO. Had I known 
this, I should have adverted to the probability of his mineral 

pears to have existed between the rate of submergence in the east of the coun- 
try and that in the west. During the Lower Carboniferous period (as I have 
shown elsewhere), the area of the Lothians probably subsided several thousand 
feet more than the district now occupied by the counties of Lanark and Ayr. 
— See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi. p. 312. 

* Edin. New Philosophical Journal, July 1857. Silliman, Sept. 1857. 

t Silliman, Nov. 1854, p. 95. 

Professor How on Natro-boro-calcite, Qc. 113 

(Hayesine, Dana) constituting a distinct species from Natro-boro- 
calcite, whose existence seems to be sufficiently established by the 
repeated finding of not very dissimilar quantities of soda in analyses 
of specimens from two of its three localities, as seen in the following 
list, which contains all the analyses I have been able to find : — 









Peru, . 46 11 




Tuscany, . 51-135 2085 



Peru, . 49-50 





„ . 49-50 




» t 

. 4546 






0-32 Dick* 

. 43-70 






. 47-25 





0-98 Anderson' 

Nova Scotia, 41*97 






0-04 H. How* 






In the account of the analysis by Anderson, the quantities of soda 
and sulphuric acid, as given above, are reversed ; from the conclu- 
sion drawn by the author, this is evidently a typographical error. 
As regards the amount of water present, no mention is made, in 
any case but my own, as to the temperature at which the substance 
was dried ; in my analysis the mineral was air-dried. The soda, it 
will be observed, is a constant ingredient, in pretty uniform amount, 
in all but the first two analyses ; and in my, examination as stated 
at the time, the mineral was washed, for the second analysis, with 
cold water till all sulphuric acid was removed. 

From the preceding data the following formulae have been de- 
duced : — 

CaO 2 B0 3 + 6 HO . . . . Hayes ; 

NaO 2 B0 3 + 2 CaO, 3 B0 3 + 10 HO. Ulex ; 

NaO 2 B0 3 + 2 CaO, 3 B0 3 + 15 HO. H. How ; 

NaO 2 B0 3 + 2 (CaO 2 B0 3 ) + 18 HO. Rammelsberg ; 

all referring to a mineral found in rounded masses, consisting of 
interwoven fibres, opaque, snow-white, and of a silky lustre. 

The mineral to which I would now draw attention was found in 
the same quarry as the preceding, at a distance of about 100 yards, 
and at about 20 feet lower level, and also associated with glauber- 
salt, which, it is worthy of notice, is generally met with here, accord- 
ing to the quarrymen, in narrow seams at the line of junction of the 

* Dana's Min., 4th ed., p. 394. 
t Liebig und Kopp's Jahrb. 1849, p. 780. 
J Silliman, Sept. 1856, 3d Supt. to Dana's Min., p. 6. 
§ Proc. Phil. Soc. Glasgow, Feb. 1853. 

114 Professor How on Natro-boro-calcite, §fc, 

" hard plaster" (anhydrite) with the " soft plaster" (gypsum). I 
detected it in the form of an opaque white substance without lustre, 
and, to the naked eye, devoid of crystalline structure, in cakes and 
somewhat rounded masses, varying in size from that of a small pea 
to that of a bean ; these masses lay between gypsum and crystals of 
glauber-salt, taking shape from the crystals of the latter on the side 
next to them, and, when detached from them, leaving their faces, as 
it were etched, and sometimes the crystals were penetrated to a 
considerable depth by the imbedded borate. The mineral is very 
soft, H=l, but coherent, tasteless, slightly tough between the teeth, 
fuses readily before the blowpipe to a clear bead, insoluble in 
water, soluble in hydrochloric acid. As found, or very soon after 
being brought home, it lost by exposure to the air, — 
Water = 1836 per cent., 

and the air-dried substance gave the following results on analysis ; 
the water was determined by ignition ; the lime, magnesia, and sul- 
phuric acid in one portion of the so dried residue, and the soda in 
another, after its treatment with fluor-spar and sulphuric acid for 
elimination of boracic acid, which was, of course, estimated by de- 
ficiency : — 

i. ii. 

Lime, .... 14*21 

Soda, .... 7-25 

Sulphuric acid, . . . -3*98 

Magnesia, . . . 0*62 

Water, .... 1996 20*78 

Boracic acid, . . . 53*98 

The quantity of mineral obtained did not permit me to make more 
than one analysis and retain a little as a specimen for identification ; 
but these results, as well as the characters already mentioned, and 
the crystalline structure to which I shall presently advert, are, I 
think, sufficient to show that it is specifically distinct from Natro- 
boro-cakite (see analyses, p. 429). On the assumption that the 
magnesia and sulphuric acid are accidental, and that the latter is 
combined with the former, and with a quantity of soda equivalent to 
that of the acid not required by the magnesia, I have calculated the 
preceding results (i.) after making these deductions, and at the same 
time taking away the amount of water necessary to render the 
MgO S0 3 = MnO S0 3 + 7 aq. (the hydrated sulphato of soda would 

occurring in the Gypsum of Nova Scotia. 115 

of course, become anhydrous on exposure to dry air) ; the results 
then become : — 

. 15*55= 4-44: 








. 5'61= 1-44 






. 19-72 = 17-52 


12 HO 



Boracic acid, 

. 59-10 = 40-47 


9B0 3 



99-98 537-1 100-00 

— corresponding to the formula, 

NaO, 3 CaO, 9B0 3 -fl2 HO. 

I am very well aware that it is unsafe to base a formula upon a 
single analysis, especially of a mineral substance, and most espe- 
cially after making deductions as above, and I cannot, in this case, 
insist on the one brought out, but it is not anomalous. We find 
rather complex combinations both in the natural and artificially 
formed compounds of boracic acid ; thus, 

Hydroboracite,* = 3 CaO, 4B0 3 + 3 MgO, 4 B0 3 + 18 HO, and 
Larderellite,* = NH.O, 4 B0 3 + 4 HO ; 

while Laurent describesf a salt = 5 NaO, 24 B0 3 + 52 HO, and 
Rose onej = 3 CaO, 5 B0 3 when ignited ; and it is a little curious 
that the formula given above includes the soda compound corre- 
sponding to Larderellite and the salt of Rose — 

NaO, 4 B0 3 + 3 CaO, 4 B0 3 + 12 aq. 
I mentioned that the mineral presented no appearance of crystalline 
structure to the naked eye. Not having at hand, at the time I was 
at work upon it, a sufficiently good microscope, I sent a portion of 
the mineral to Professor Robb, of the University of New Brunswick, 
at Fredericton, with a letter stating my results and my doubt as to 
the substance being crystalline. I received this answer — " In spite 
of your odd formula, the mineral just as I got it, untouched and 
unwashed, is perfectly crystalline in every particle. A good power 
is required; but with a magnifying power of about 350 diameters 
there is no difficulty, the form comes out as sharp as possible. The 
crystals are excessively thin translucent tables or plates. They 
have a rhombic outline, and the angles probably = 80° or more, 

* Dana's Min., 4th ed., 394, 395. 

f Liebig und Kopp's Jahresbericht, 1849, p. 226. 

X Ibid., 1842, p. 313. 

116 Professor How on Natro-boro-calcite, fyc. 

Owing to their excessive thinness I could not say whether they 
could be called right or oblique rhombic prisms ; I suspect the latter 
from analogy. By care the ' Tiza' (Natro-boro-calcite) can be 
shown to consist of very fine prisms, sharp, angular, and long, but 
too fine for me to state their form. The diameter was less than 
•00118 of an English inch. The long prismatic needles of the Tiza 
are in great contrast to the broad tables of the recent mineral in 
your last letter ; of that the plates are about *0048 of an inch from 
side to side, but some are a little larger, others a little smaller. In 
some you see regular cleavage — that is, a small rhomb chipped out 
of one side. As far as form goes, therefore, it would seem to be a 
distinct and definite species. I presume it was formed in a dry 
place, for the angles were quite sharp. The connection between 
these borates and sulphates of lime and sulphate of soda is very 

I may state that I had subsequently the opportunity of appre- 
ciating the great accuracy of this description of the appearance of the 
two minerals. 

Arguing from the chemical composition, which, however, may 
not be quite established, and the crystalline structure, I conceive the 
mineral in question to constitute a new species, and I propose for it 
the name of Cryptomorphite (x^wxroz occultus, and ftogpri forma), in 
allusion to its microscopic crystalline structure. 

The truth of the last sentence in Professor Robb's letter is very 
apparent. In my former paper on the subject, I adverted to the 
existence of Natro-boro-calcite in the gypsum here, as confirming 
Dawson's theory of the origin of the rock from the action of volcanic 
waters on carbonate of lime. It is interesting to observe that 
Bechi* found the same (?) mineral, with other borates, in the 
lagoons of Tuscany. The hydrated condition of both the borates 
found here, and of the associated sulphate of soda, shows the action 
of water ; but that of ordinary sea-water would not account for the 
presence of boracic acid. As regards the soda, the sulphate and 
borate of lime were probably the substances originally present, and 
chloride of sodium in water being introduced might remove part of 
the calcium as chloride, and furnish borate and sulphate of soda. 
It is confirmatory of this view that a small quantity of rock-salt in 
crystalline grains has recently been found in the gypsum. 

* Dana's Min., 4th ed., pp. 394, 395. 


On Gyrolite occurring with Calcite in Apophyllite in the 
Trap of the Bay of Fundy. By Henry How, Professor of 
Chemistry, &c, King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. 
The mineral gyrolite was first described by Professor Anderson 
of Glasgow,* as a new species from the Isle of Skye ; it is stated by 
Greg and Lettsomf to occur without doubt at two localities in Green- 
land, and according to Heddle at Faroe. The only other notice of 
it that I am acquainted with is by L. Seemann, who mentions J that 
he examined a specimen — no locality being given — mixed or inter- 
laminated with pectolite, and suggests that this mineral, losing its 
alkali, becomes gyrolite, and, losing its lime, becomes okenite. ]STo 
other analysis than the original one of Professor Anderson has, I 
believe, been published ; the following account of its occurrence 
among the minerals of Nova Scotia shows it in such associations as 
affords a mode of explaining its origin by change in apophyllite. 

I met with it in Annapolis Co., N.S., some 25 miles S.W. of 
Cape Blomida, between Margaretville and Port George, on the sur- 
face of fractured crystalline apophyllite, and, on further breaking 
the mass, a good many spherical concretions of pearly lustrous plates 
were observed in the interior, of sizes varying from that of a pin's 
head to nearly half-an-inch in diameter ; their outline was well 
defined, and the external characters, as given by Anderson, were 
recognised on examination ; it afforded the following results on 
analysis : — The mineral was ignited for water, and the residue 
treated with hydrochloric acid, the resulting dried silica was weighed 
and then fused with carbonated alkali, and the weight of the small 
quantities of alumina, &c, so separated, was deducted from that of the 
first silica. I place my numbers by the side of those of Professor 
Anderson, and give the calculated percentages for his formula : 

H. H. 


Potass, . 

. 160 


. 0-08 




. 127 
. 29-95 


J. A.-1. Li Li.jLXl.lCli* 

Lime, . 


2CaO =56 

Silica, . 

. 51-90 



2SiO 3 = 90-6 

Water, . 

. 15-05 



3 HO =27 

9985 99-78 99-99 173-6 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., and Phil. Mag. Feb. 1851. 
| Manual of Mineralogy, p. 217. 
% First Supp. to Dana's Mineralogy, p. 9 ; Silliman, May 1855. 

118 Professor How on Gyrolite occurring with Calcite. 

and a general accordance is observed sufficient to show the identity 
of chemical composition in the minerals examined ; the small quan- 
tity of potass present in my specimen probably modified the blow- 
pipe characters a little, as I found it not to exfoliate completely, 
and it fused without any difficulty, and even with some boiling. 

Some of the numerous cavities in the apophyllite were empty, 
some entirely filled with gyrolite, and in others separate plates of 
this mineral were standing edgewise, leaving vacant spaces, while, 
upon and by the side of the plates were in some cases rhombohedral 
crystals, which proved to consist of calcite, and were sometimes 
present alone in the cavities, which varied from being quite shallow 
to half-an-inch in depth. It is mentioned by Anderson that gyro- 
lite occurs associated with stilbite, laumonite, and other zeolites, 
and is sometimes found coating crystals of apophyllite. 

The difference in chemical composition between apophyllite 
and gyrolite is very well seen on comparing the respective theo- 
retical percentages of their constituents ; thus, 

Si-0 3 . CaO. KO. HO. 

Apophyllite, =52-10 26*00 4-40 16*70+ HF variable ; 
Gyrolite, =52-18 32-26 1550 ; 

and the existence of the calcite in the cavities seems clearly to show, 

that the gyrolite is formed from the apophyllite by the action of the 

water which deposited the carbonate of lime, reacting on the silicate 

of potass, and dissolving out at the same time the fluorine or fluoride 

of calcium ;* trial was made for fluorine on two fragments of the 

gyrolite, and no evidence of its existence obtained. 


The Quadrature of the Circle : Correspondence between an 
Eminent Mathematician and James Smith, Esq. 

This is a beautiful book, both inside and out. It is a goodly 
octavo volume, printed in a type which does infinite credit to the 
Liverpool press ; and the binding, too, is mauve, — such a pretty 
colour ! On opening the volume, and beginning at the beginning, 
we found page 1 occupied with conveying the information that 
" The right of translation is reserved." This circumstance in- 
duced us to believe that the work was intended to be a serious 
essay. But, on reading a few pages of the introduction, some- 

* Dana's Mineralogy, i. p. 332, 333. 

Reviews and Notices of Books. 119 

thing seemed to be wrong with the writer or with the reader. We 
were gravely told at page ix., that " in every circle the circum- 
ference is exactly equal to three and one- eighth times its diameter, 
and the area exactly equal to three and one-eighth times the area 
of a square described on its radius." Now we fancied we remem- 
bered having read that Archimedes had proved that the circum- 
ference is less then 3|, but greater than 3f£ of the diameter ; 
so, to relieve our minds, we hastened to turn up Archimedes' 
Works. Sure enough, in Prop. 3 of Commandine's translation, it 
is so set down. But as this is only a translation, which may mis- 
represent the original, and as it is a Latin translation, which is 
not the simplest imaginable vehicle for expressing fractions, we 
admitted the possibility of its being wrong, or of our incapacity to 
read it aright, and resolved to appeal to a much more simple and 
accessible work — Playfair's Geometry. In that treatise we found 
the matter stated plainly enough. There can be no mistake. 
The circumference of a circle lies between 3f and 3f f times the 
diameter. It cannot, therefore, by any possibility be equal to 3| 
times the diameter. If, indeed, any one shall succeed in proving 
that a place which is known to be situated between Edinburgh 
and Aberdeen has a greater north latitude than Inverness, then 
may it be admitted to be possible to prove that the circumference 
of a circle is exactly 3| times its diameter. The cases are precisely 
parallel ; and yet the author tells us, quoting the words of one of 
his correspondents, that this " is one of the great truths of nature, 
which can admit of no doubt, and which it is not in the power of 
any man living to subvert." There must be some egregious 
blundering somewhere, we argued. What can be the meaning of 
it all ? In great perplexity we turned over the leaves of the new 
book, and it happened (as it has happened in matters of deeper 
moment) that our very tossings brought us relief, and added the 
pleasant reflection that " the great truths of nature " remain un- 
changed, and that our distress was simply the offspring of our 
own folly; for it happened that we stumbled on page xxv, 
which closes the introduction, where we were presented with a key 
to the whole enigma. On that page the author dates his work, 
" Liverpool, April 1, 1861 "— All-Fools day. "Ho, ho!" 
shouted we, " we have it now ; a very pleasant practical joke for 
the 1st of April ! " 

And here we are sorely tempted to write three philosophical 
essays; 1. On Practical Jokes; 2. On the Commercial Pros- 
perity of England in General, and of Liverpool in Particular ; and 
3. On the Quadrature of the Circle. But as the editors inform 
us their readers are not likely to tolerate such essays, we will 
content ourselves with two remarks. The first is, that the work 
before us is a most expensive jeu d' esprit, proving better than the 
Great Eastern and the builders' strikes that there is a plethora of 

120 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

riches in certain quarters. We have on our table a treatise (or 
rather a series of treatises) printed in Calcutta in 1858, of which 
the title is, " The Moon is the Image of the Earth, and is not a 
Solid Body" We were wont to regard this as a masterpiece in 
its way, but it pales before Mr Smith's work. Perhaps this may 
be explained by the fact that the author of the treatise on the 
moon is evidently serious ; and we know that truth, although it 
may be stranger than fiction, is not nearly so attractive. Besides, 
the author of the shadow-moon may be right. No one has 
climbed up so high as to touch the moon, to convince himself that 
it is a substantial solid body, and no shadow. The green-cheese 
theory is certainly losing supporters. After all, it may be but an 
image ; but the circle is not in the same predicament : we can 
get at it, and measure it too ; at any rate with sufficient accuracy to 
be in a position to render it a difficult task for him to execute 
who undertakes to cheat us into the admission that its circum- 
ference is exactly 3 J- times its diameter. Hence arises the great 
attractiveness, the elaborate getting-up, of the work before us. 

Our second remark is, that the search after unattainable results 
has in past times been productive of much good. Who can say 
how much chemistry owes to the philosopher's stone — to the 
transmutation of metals \ Who can count the discoveries which 
have had their germ in perpetual motion 1 Who can estimate the 
influence which the quadrature of the circle has exercised on the 
progress of geometry ? But these are fruits reaped by genera- 
tions long passed away ; — the problems are sadly out of date now. 
We would advise any gentleman who has plenty of spare money 
to invest it in some newer chimera. We would venture to suggest 
the great sea-serpent as the subject for the next first of April. 
Well, let this suffice. We have no sympathy with those who 
frown hard on the perpetual-motionists and the squarers of the 
circle. We have learnt to admire the perseverance and self- 
denial of men who can give up their time and their money for the 
pursuit, misdirected though it be, of abstract truth. They are 
usually simple, single-hearted men, with no worldly motives to 
influence them. We retain an affectionate remembrance of a 
gentleman who did us the honour to dedicate his treatise on the 
quadrature of the circle to ourselves. 

To be sure, we had on one occasion to deal with a man of a 
different stamp. A poor, half-starved, half-witted fellow had 
taken the trouble to travel on foot all the way from Yorkshire to 
Edinburgh, to lay before us his discovery ; and when he had gone 
through his story about segments and sectors, cosines and versed 
sines, and all the rest, to which we paid the same respectful atten- 
tion that we would have done to him who should assure us he 
had performed the well-known feat of jumping down his own 
throat, — when he had emptied himself of his science, we perceived 

Reviews and. Notices of Boohs. 121 

that, like Pandora's box, he had still something sticking' within. 
It came out in the form of a suggestion that the discoverer of the 
quadrature of the circle was entitled to a reward of £10,000, and 
that he trusted he should get it ; and that if he did get it, it would 
make a man of him. The last words were enough. We saw 
clearly that the thing was impossible, and made our bow. 

We trust Mr Smith will excuse our having taken the liberty of 
cautioning our readers against the results of his labours. That 
the book contains many ingenious arguments, and much that will 
interest those who are curious in such matters, we have no doubt. 
To such persons we recommend the book, not to the vulgar. The 
unwary student, on opening it, may find himself in the position of 
the unfortunate hill farmer when he added to his scanty library 
Mr Ruskin's volume on Sheepfolds. 

The Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow, D.D., Master of 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Edited for Trinity College, 
by W. Whewell, D.D., Master of the College. 1860. 

Dr Isaac Barrow was the first Lucasian Professor of Mathema- 
tics in the University of Cambridge. He held the professorship 
only six years, and was succeeded by Isaac Newton. On the 
elevation of Dr Pearson to the see of Chester in 1673, Barrow 
became Master of Trinity College. We find him thus exhibited, 
in conjunction with a great mathematician on the one side, and a 
great divine on the other. And the mathematician an 1 the 
divine, each judging from Barrow's labours in his own department, 
acknowledge themselves to be linked with a man worthy of the 

The characteristic of the writers of the age in which Barrow 
lived was exhaustiveness. The habit of thinking then in vogue 
led men to the very roots of a subject. It is not simply the exhi- 
bition of erudition that strikes one in the writings of such men 
as Pearson and Barrow ; it is the manifestation of that peculiar 
habit of casting about the mind to reach and ransack every cor- 
ner and cranny of a subject, to take every step cautiously and 
slowly, even painfully, lest when some high point should be 
reached the foundations might be found to shake. The writers of 
that age did not consider it to be sufficient to state and discuss 
everything which might fairly be said on both sides of the ques- 
tion ; they were not satisfied with the annihilation of their oppo- 
nents' arguments and the exhibition of their own ; it behoved them 
to rake up the ashes of every forgotten adversary, and to recount 
the triumphs of every insignificant supporter ; it behoved them to 


122 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

look forward to the probable issue of future controversies, and to 
imagine or invent new objections, the removal of which would 
exhibit the position which they maintained in a clearer light ; — in 
a word, they aimed at acquiring the character which Charles the 
Second gave to Barrow : " that he was not a fair man ; he left 
nothing to be said by any one who came after him." 

There are a host of cotemporaries who, each in his own way and 
in his particular department, aimed at the same thing — the witty 
South ; the learned, pious, imaginative, but impulsive Jeremy 
Taylor, now dazzling you with gorgeous imagery described in sooth- 
ing cadences and harmonious rhythms, now dashing in your face a 
stream of authorities, and overwhelming you with the profusion of 
his learning ; the able but inelastic Owen, whose theological 
writings filled seven volumes in folio, twenty in quarto, and about 
thirty in octavo ; and other men like these. 

This tendency of the age in which Barrow lived — to exhaustive- 
ness of treatment and copiousness of expression — must not be lost 
sight of by those who would form a just estimate of the lectures 
to which we are anxious to direct attention. The reader must 
not approach them with the expectation of finding anything cor- 
responding with the Lecons of Langrange and Cauchy, or the As- 
tronomical Lectures of Airy. He will not do well to judge them 
by comparison with the present Lucasian lectures, excellent 
though these are. He will appreciate them if he apply the stand- 
ard of Sir William Hamilton of Edinburgh rather than that 
of Sir William Hamilton of Dublin; admirable both, but with 
this marked characteristic difference, that the latter refers only 
to what a thing is, the former deals also with what other minds 
have made of it, what other readers have thought of it : — the 
latter treats of the matter as a point in philosophy ; the former 
views it as a question for philosophers. 

Barrow's mode of treating a subject leads to a display of learn- 
ing which borders on pedantry. In discussing the name and 
excellence of mathematics, he perfectly dazzles his reader with 
quotations from the classics. Now an alumnus of the modern 
school is apt to wince under the weight of these authorities. He 
has been taught to be cautious how he receives any dogma. The 
errors of the so-called Aristotelian teaching which preceded Bacon 
have been so triumphantly paraded before him, that he is apt to 
suspect any reasoning which appeals to the old thinkers. But is 
he altogether justified in this course of proceeding? May not the 
opinions of the great men who laid the foundations have some 
value, at least in the abstract sciences, where the materials out of 
which the structure is raised undergo no change from age to age 1 
The opinions of judges learned in the law are the capital of the 
lawyer. In matters of fact, the opinion of the judge is not asked ; 
but in matters of right and wrong, it is all-powerful. And thus, 

Reviews and Notices of Books. 123 

too, relative to the phenomena of nature, it matters little what were 
the theories of Plato and Aristotle ; but in a question of abstract 
truth, — their opinions are valuable in proportion to the massiveness 
of their intellects, and the attention they bestowed on the subject. 
Hamilton, in his remarkable review of Dr Whewell's " Thoughts 
on the Study of Mathematics as a part of a Liberal Education," 
exemplifies the use of such opinions; and the value which he him- 
self attached to them may be inferred from the labour and re- 
search which he bestowed in their collection. Take one example, 
in the original essay (Edinburgh JRevieiv, January 1836) he had 
quoted from the Life of Descartes the opinion of that philosopher, 
extracted from his Fourth Rule for the direction of the mind on 
the subject of the utility of the mathematical sciences. In subse- 
quently turning up Descartes' own words, Hamilton perceived 
that they contained an allusion to the well-known statement that 
Plato had inscribed on the vestibule of his study the injunction, 
" Let no one unacquainted with geometry enter." And it must 
have struck him that the word attributed to Plato, dysoj/xsr^Tog, 
was far more definite in its meaning than the word mathesis which 
Descartes had employed, and was not to be so easily explained 
away as applying to something very different from the ordinary 
geometry of Euclid. This consideration, if admitted to take 
effect, would suffice to destroy the argument. Accordingly, 
Hamilton boldly questions the genuineness of the tradition, and 
sets to work to trace it to its rightful authority. For some years 
he followed the opinion of Fuelleborn, that the inscription had no 
higher authority than that of Bessarion in the seventeenth century, 
It was however pointed out to him in the jingling rhymes of 
Tzetzes, a Greek writer of the twelfth century ; and when in 1852 
lie published his collected "Discussions on Philosophy," &c, he 
referred to it as a " fable, the oldest recorder of which flourished 
some sixteen centuries subsequent to Plato" (p 271). Another 
year revealed to him the fact that it was some centuries older 
still. Accordingly, in the second edition of the " Discussions," 
published in 1853, he remarks in a note (p. 278) "Fuelleborn, 

I may observe, questioned the antiquity of this story 

The oldest testimonies which I have noticed are Ammonius 
Hermise (or Philoponus) and David the Armenian. Ammonius 
and David flourished towards the conclusion of the fifth century ; 
they were both scholars of Proclus. Are there any earlier autho- 
rities?" Now we would ask the mathematician who takes up these 
lectures of Barrow's, whether he considers this question put by 
Sir William Hamilton to be worth answering or no. On his 
reply will depend, we think, the pleasure he will derive from a 
perusal of these lectures. Those who hold that the opinions of 
antiquity are worthless on mathematical questions, will require 
some training before they can reach a position from which Bar- 

124 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

row's display of erudition will appear other than an empty tossing 
about of words. But to those who have learnt to desire to see a 
matter thoroughly sifted and examined from every conceivable 
point of view, these lectures will afford ample gratification. 

The " Mathematical Lectures" are twenty-three in number, and 
may be divided into three parts — 1. Ten lectures on First Prin- 
ciples. 2. Three lectures on the Foundation of Geometry, or ra- 
ther on that feature of it which sets forth the true meaning of 
Geometric Equality ; and, 3. Ten lectures on Ratio and Pro- 

Of the first part it is only necessary to say, that it bears evi- 
dence of the indefatigable perseverance of the author in the search 
after testimonies from ancient and modern writers. In the second 
part, the question whether the foundation of geometry can be 
better laid than on what is known as the 8th Axiom of Euclid, 
is discussed in a masterly way, and decided in the negative. We 
know of no exercise better fitted to develop the powers of a student 
than these three lectures. The lynx-eyed author has searched 
into every cranny for reasons, for opinions, for objections. He 
has handled the subject with the grasp of a giant. Only one 
point, so far as we know, escaped him. In the second part of 
Prop. 2, B. 6, Euclid proves that two triangles are equal. But 
in what way can their equality be referred to the 8th Axiom, 
" Magnitudes which coincide are equal ? " They are not proved 
to be congruous whole by whole, or part by part, or by any pro- 
cess of transmutation or succession. Their equality rests on the 
fact, that if any multiple of the one exceed any magnitude, the 
same multiple of the other does the same ; and if any multiple of 
the one falls short of any magnitude, the same multiple of the 
other does so likewise. Now, this fact establishes congruity 
only subject to the same objections which are raised against the 
application of the axiom, that equals taken from equals leave 
equals. And the objections are not easily removed ; Barrow has 
not even alluded to them. Perhaps he had intended to discuss 
this species of equality when he came to Proportionality, but we 
can find no indication of such intention. We should like to have 
had the opinion of the learned editor of the present edition on 
the whole of this question. There are few men besides himself 
whose opinion on such a subject would be entitled to much weight. 
Mathematical studies have taken a turn in the present day, whicli 
leads them, after the first stage, too much into the byways of 
mental training. We hope to see them brought back. Dr 
Whewell has done much for the improvement of the studies of 
the University of Cambridge, and the edition before us is proof 
that he is still engaged on the right side. 

The third part of the "Mathematical Lectures" is occupied 
with the subject of llatio and Proportion. As an instance of the 

Reviews and Notices of Books. 125 

copiousness of treatment to which we have alluded, we may men- 
tion that one whole lecture (Lect. 14), is occupied with the 
different acceptations of the word measure, whilst the subject of 
Mensurability lills another complete lecture. In discussing this 
word Measure, the author quotes St Paul, Plato, Aristotle, 
Ptolemy, Proclus, Apollonius, Cicero, Juvenal, Lucan, Hobbes, 
and Wallis. The remaining nine lectures are occupied with the 
definitions of Euclid's fifth book. We are glad to see from the 
title-page to this edition, that it has been prepared for the College. 
It is to be hoped that this implies that the College intend to en- 
courage the reading of it Now, we are pretty secure in saying, 
that no one will think of reading through these ten lectures on 
the method employed by Euclid in his fifth book, who has no 
desire to master that method, or no object in endeavouring to do 
so. We consider the fifth book of Euclid to be the most perfect 
work which has come down to us from antiquity, and the most 
beautiful example ever produced of reasoning on an abstract defi- 
nition, or, indeed, of reasoning at all ; and it is matter of sur- 
prise that this book should be virtually ignored in Cambridge. 
For the ordinary degree, it is absolutely and formally excluded ; 
and it is to be presumed, that candidates for honours will take the 
hint to pass it over, unless their attention is strongly directed to 
it. We accept this edition of Barrow's Works, edited by the 
Master of Trinity for the College, and published, as we infer 
from the preface, at the expense of the University, as a protest 
against such omissions, and a pledge of their ceasing to exist. 

It is right to notice, that the present publication embraces not 
only the Mathematical, but the Geometrical and Optical Lectures. 
These last will find few readers in the present day. Dr Whewell 
modestly states in his preface, that he does not himself pretend 
that he has, in all cases, gone through them to his satisfaction. 
We fear they will not only find few readers, but will hang as a 
dead- weight upon the circulation of the " Mathematical Lectures/' 

It is right to notice, too, that the " Mathematical Lectures " 
have been translated into English, and that copies are frequently 
to be met with. The translation is so badly executed, according 
to Dr Whewell, that it cannot be of use to any one. We do not 
altogether subscribe to this opinion. We happen to possess two 
copies of the translation, one of which bears the name of Baron 
Maseres, and both have been well thumbed. Our readers will 
perhaps prefer a specimen of the copious (shall we call it pleon- 
astic ?) style of Dr Barrow, extracted from the translation, humble 
as it is, to the infliction of the original Latin. The passage 
occurs in the 13th Lecture, and is the author's mode of apologis- 
ing for being about to dwell a little longer on Congruity, in place 
of at once passing on to Proportionality : — 

"But shall I never extricate myself from these quirks and 

126 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

trifles ? Shall I always spend my time in examining* what is of no 
value? In so plentiful a harvest, so rieh a vintage, so great a 
store of most important disquisitions, why do I only glean the 
scattered ears, search the neglected boughs, and gather the fallen 
grapes ? When a chase after the more important and difficult 
tilings in the mathematics is offered, — a chase so full of variety, so 
pleasant, and so certain, — wherefore do I dwell so long upon those 
little questions, like one hunting after flies 1 I shun things of 
consequence, sport in serious, am gravely ridiculous, studiously 
seeking after, and nicely repeating and inculcating, even the 
slightest matter. Shall I then incessantly follow so many distant 
byways, so many uncouth turnings ; and shall I never return 
again into the beaten path of the king's highway \ Shall I grow 
old in these outer courts of general matters? Shall I perpetually 
tarry in the entrance of the sciences 1 shall I always stick in the 
threshold ] Shall I only knock at the doors of the mathematics, 
and never enter within the walls of the house, nor penetrate its 
more sacred recesses? Shall I ever be upon the parley, ever 
skirmish at a distance, and never engage hand to hand or come to 
a decisive battle % What do I but raise mists and doubts, sow 
strifes and contentions, raise storms and tumults, in that science 
which promises, which boasts of nothing but what is clear and 
evident, certain and tried, calm and serene? And by disputing 
more freely, and bringing many things to the scrutiny, I seem to 
detract and derogate from the certitude and evidence of the 
mathematics, which is so contrary to jarring and contentions. 
Thus am I wont to upbraid myself, and perhaps also others do 
the same, at least not without some seeming cause or appearance 
of justice. 

" Notwithstanding I am able to allege something in my own 
excuse to wipe away those reproaches ; and since so much of the 
time destined for this lecture is now passed over, contrary to 
expectation, so that I am unable, though not unwilling, to enter 
upon another new subject, I humbly beg of you to pardon this, 
and indulge me with a little of your patience, while I am in some 
sort defending these trifles, and explainiug the reason of the design 
I have hitherto gone upon. As to these little niceties, I answer 
that these tilings are not always small which seem so, since the stars 
appear very small, and the sun not great ; we are therefore to have 
a thorough knowledge from whence the appearance of a thing beheld 
comes, and whither it tends, before its magnitude can be judged of. 
Those things which are small in bulk are sometimes endued with 
vast strength; and those which contain nothing in them notable, 
do often draw after them very great consequences. The origins 
of the greatest things are almost always small : the largest stocks 
grow from small seeds ; immense rivers swell from small foun- 
tains. And the nature of truth and error is most remarkablv fruit- 

Reviews and Notices of Books. 127 

ful : a vast light is, on every side, diffused from small sparks of 
truth, and a huge crop of errors springs from the least root of 
falsehood. In the sciences especially, from slender threads are 
suspended the greatest weights, nor are the least things contemned 
without the greatest damage. As a whole machine perishes and 
becomes unfit for use by the misplacing of one wheel, and a huge 
elephant often perishes by the breach of a little vein ; so some- 
times one only notion, which may seem small and barren, if ill 
placed and badly understood, will, from a fruitful offspring of 
consequences, derive upon any science a vast confusion, a gross 
darkness, and a manifold mass of error. Aristotle (who also 
maintains his own accuracy and strict diligence in some most 
minute things) has wisely observed, in the words most worthy of 
notice which are extant in the fifth chapter of his first book de 
Coslo, 'Any little wandering is presently increased and multi- 
plied to ten thousand times greater by such as recede from the 
truth," &c, &c. 

Should the reader desire to see other specimens of the copious- 
ness of Barrow, we would refer him to his theological writings. 
They are full to overflowing, but broad and deep as they are full. 
It may seem to be something like an example of the reductio ad 
absurdum to speak, as Barrow did, for eight mortal hours on the 
government of the tongue, it is nevertheless true that his discus- 
sion of that subject fills eight sermons. That their delivery 
occupied only eight hours is more than we dare affirm. In the 
pulpit, Barrow was wont on occasions to weary his hearers. 
When he preached before the Lord Mayor, he is said to have 
gone on for three hours and a-half. It is maliciously suggested 
that he had not been invited to the dinner which w r as to follow 
hard upon the sermon, and that he took this ingenious mode of 
revenging himself for the neglect. We do not believe this. It 
was not like Barrow. What we do believe, on the testimony of 
his most intimate friend, is, that he had but one fault — he was a 
little too long in his sermons. Preaching in Westminster Abbey 
on a week day, the attendants finding him still in the midst of 
his subject when the time for showing the cathedral to strangers 
had arrived, set the organ to play against him, and so blew him 
out. Barrow was certainly not a popular preacher. His dis- 
courses were far too massive for ordinary hearers. Nor do we 
imagine that he succeeded much better on secular subjects. He 
began his public career as Professor of Greek in the University in 
1660. He appears to have lectured to empty benches. " There 
I sat," he says, " in the professorial chair like Prometheus fixed 
to his solitary rock, or muttering Greek sentences to the naked 
walls like an Attic owl driven out from the society of all the 
other birds of the air." And we have no reason to believe that 
his Lucasian lectures proved generally attractive. It must be 

128 Reviews and Notices of Dools. 

remembered that mathematical studies had not at that period 
begun to assume the importance at Cambridge which they have 
since acquired, partly through Barrow's writings, partly through 
those of Newton. Long after these lectures had been published, 
Barrow had heard only of two persons having read them through, 
Slusius and James Gregory, and it is probable that, like the 
" Principia," they made their way slowly. But they are now 
established as part of the standard literature of the country. We 
trust they may again find their way into the hands of youth. We 
trust, at any rate, that this edition may find many readers, and 
allure some kindred spirits into the paths which Barrow trod 
so well. 

Attractions, Laplace's Functions , and the Figure of the Earth, 
By John H. Pratt, M. A., Archdeacon of Calcutta. Second 

W T e have great pleasure in introducing this little work to our 
readers, both for its author's sake and its own. Archdeacon 
Pratt is one of those persons who have succeeded in devoting 
themselves heartily, and with full efficiency, at the same time, to 
the duties of a working clergyman and to the extension of science. 
When appointed to the chaplaincy of the late Bishop of Calcutta, 
about four and twenty years ago, he resolved to make his mathe- 
matical pursuits the main elements of relaxation, arguing that the 
overworked mind recovers its elasticity better from change than 
from want of occupation. Wisely confining himself mainly to one 
branch of the science, he has steadily devoted his recreation 
hours — not horce, subsecivce, as our friend Dr Brown calls those 
he has snatched from sleep (?) — to the examination of the subject 
of which this volume treats. Papers from the author were read 
before the Royal Society in 1855-58-59 and I860, which will 
be found amongst the Transactions of that Society. In these 
papers he has examined the effect of the Himalayas, and the 
mountain ranges beyond them, on the plumb-line in India. He 
has examined also into the consequences of the fact, that whereas 
in the north there is an excess of dense mountain matter, in the 
south there is a corresponding deficiency, as the ocean stretches 
away from Cape Comorin to the south pole. He endeavours to 
explain the difficulty which those calculations have brought to 
light — namely, that the amplitudes of the arcs from Kaliana to 
Kalianpur, and from Kalianpur to Damargida, determined geo- 
dctically, were so little in excess, as they proved to be of the same 
amplitudes determined astronomically — by attributing to the In- 
dian arc a curvature different from that corresponding to the mean 

Reviews and Notices of Books. 129 

meridian of the earth (Proceedings of the Royal Society, x. 648) . 
In the present work, the author has arrived at a different conclu- 
sion — namely, that the explanation is geological rather than 
geographical ; that the phenomena are due, not to change of the 
outer form of the earth in the neighbourhood of the arc, but to 
a peculiarity in its interior structure ; that Kaliana is not re- 
quired to be 7000 feet nearer the centre than it would be in the 
mean ellipse, but that the density of the crust of the earth near 
the middle of the arc is very wide of the mean density. 

This is one of the problems worked out in the clear, concise, 
and comprehensive treatise before us. The basis of the reasoning 
employed in the work is Laplace's analysis. The author deduces 
the principal properties of Laplace's functions in a highly satis- 
factory manner. He then proceeds to apply them to attractions 
generally, and concludes with the application of the whole to the 
determination of the figure of the earth. The last division of the 
subject he treats in three chapters. In the first he deduces the 
figure of the earth, considered as a fluid mass ; in the second, he 
deduces it on the sole hypothesis of the surface being a surface of 
equilibrium, and nearly spherical ; and, in the third, he discusses 
the results of geodetic operations, especially those carried on in 
India. The author has endeavoured to grapple with every diffi- 
culty connected with the subject. For example, he examines the 
argument adduced by Mr Hopkins, to prove from precession that 
the crust of the earth is not a mere skin, like the rind of an orange, 
covering up a fluid mass, but is at least 1000 miles thick. To 
this conclusion he gives his assent. 

If anything can add to the pleasure with which we welcome 

this little volume, it is the fact that the author dates his preface 

." Calcutta, 1861," thereby assuring us that it has been written in 

the midst of his labours in that higher field which Archdeacon 

Pratt has so long and so usefully occupied. 

The Past and Present Life of the Globe, being a Sketch of 
the World's Life System. By David Page, F.G.S. Black- 
wood & Sons. 1861. 

The discussions which have lately been raised by Darwin's 
" Origin of Species,'' and the discovery of implements of human 
manufacture in the Post Tertiary Drift, from their peculiar bear- 
ing on the origin of our own race, have enlisted the sympathies of 
many who otherwise take little interest in natural history science. 
To such recruits the above little work will be of great value, as 
by its perusal they can master sufficiently well for this purpose 
the leading principles of the complicated and all-embracing science 


130 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

of Palaeontology. Even the special student may read this book 
with profit, as it presents a more vivid picture to the mind of the 
present state of geological opinion than can be obtained by the 
study of detailed works alone. Having been written for oral 
delivery, the style is clear and inviting, yet always marked by the 
same logical acumen which renders our author's " Handbooks " 
so useful to the beginner in the science. In the first six chapters 
of the work before us, Mr Page has, very properly, confined him- 
self to the exposition of what is firmly established in the minds of 
most advanced geologists, giving all the latest and most com- 
prehensive views, in the form of a sketch of the Fauna and Flora 
of the present epoch, followed by a summary of their distribution 
in time, often combined with admirable descriptions of the physi- 
cal circumstances of the different geological formations, as a 
specimen of which we quote the passage that brings us down to 
the current epoch. 

" This ungenial period, generally known in geology as the 
1 Glacial ,' ' Northern Drift/ or ' Boulder Clay' epoch, is litho- 
logically characterised by its superficial mounds and masses 
of drift-sand and gravel, by thick tenacious clays, inter- 
spersed indiscriminately with water-worn blocks of all sizes, 
from mere pebbles to boulders many tons in weight, and by the 
polished, rounded, and striated surfaces of the subjacent rocks, as 
if they had been subjected to the long- continued friction of water 
or ice-borne material, and scratched and furrowed by the passage 
of the harder and heavier fragments. In Europe, Asia, and 
North America, down to the 44th or 4 2d parallel of latitude, and 
up to the altitude of 2000 feet, these appearances present them- 
selves, and are inexplicable, unless on the ground of the gradual 
submergence of the northern hemisphere to that extent, and its 
subjection to a boreal climate which engendered glaciers on its 
hills, and drifted, during a brief summer, icebergs laden with 
rocky debris over its waters. The glaciers smoothing, rounding, 
and grooving the rocks of the higher grounds — the icebergs 
grinding their way through firth and strait, dropping their burden 
of mud, sand, and gravel on the sea-bed, or stranding themselves 
on its shores — complete the necessary arrangements for the pro- 
duction of the geological phenomena of the period. For ages 
the pliocene lands must have slowly subsided, each step gradually 
narrowing the boundaries of vegetable and animal life, and driving 
the surviving species, under the rigours of a deteriorating climate, 
to higher and higher regions. Race after race would succumb: 
first the more limited and local, next the more cosmopolitan, and 
ultimately few of the old flora or fauna would survive, except the 
more elastic in constitution, and those that had, step by step, re- 
treated into more southern latitudes. 

Reviews and Notices of Books. 131 

" How long these conditions continued we have no means of 
determining in centuries ; but, judging from the amount of denu- 
dation, the extent and nature of the heterogeneous deposits, as 
well as from the slow rate of elevation and submergence now 
going on in known regions, vast periods must have elapsed during 
the manifestation of this glacial epoch. At length the downward 
tendency of these northern latitudes come to a close ; submer- 
gence stops and elevation begins. Slowly, and for long under a 
rigorous climate, the lands of Europe, Asia, and North America 
emerge from the waters. Glaciers still envelop the higher eleva- 
tions ; icebergs, summer after summer, drift over the waters ; and 
the sea, attacking the soft emerging shores, re-assorts and re- 
deposits the sands, gravels, and clays of the older glacial epoch. 
By-and-by the deposits become fossiliferous, showing that the 
ocean was tenanted by shell-fish, seals, whales, and other crea- 
tures, whose habitats are now the icy regions of the arctic circle. 
Upward, still upward, the land emerges, evincing in its old water- 
lines and raised beaches the successive steps of its uprise, till 
ultimately the continents of the northern hemisphere assume, 
within appreciable limits of current mutation, the configuration 
and climatology they now present. As the continents emerge and 
the land surfaces augment, as new atmospheric and oceanic cur- 
rents are established, and as the post-tertiary epoch advances, the 
boreal races retreat farther to the north, some of the old pliocene 
families again return and spread over European latitudes, and 
other and newer forms, in the course of creation, begin to 

The last chapter of the work, which our author has entitled 
" The Law," consists of a group of short but pithy essays on the 
different questions of vital import to the science, on which opinion 
is. still divided. Although the reflections embodied in these are 
often highly suggestive, and indicate the author's grasp of mind, 
yet the effect of the whole, when read in succession, is very con- 
fusing, as they are frequently contradictory ; so that, being like a 
mass of jottings made at different times when the mind has been 
influenced by a variety of impressions, the reader is left at a loss 
to understand exactly what has been established. Among the 
subjects treated of in this chapter, Darwin's hypothesis of course 
figures largely ; but it is painful to notice that our author's desire 
to take a decided ground on this question has led him to forsake 
that calmness of judgment and breadth of treatment which marks 
the other parts of his task. Even those most opposed to Darwin's 
views, who have mature opinions on the subject, will feel an- 
noyed at such vigorous partisanship, founded on obvious miscon- 
ceptions of what has been urged in behalf of the agency of natural 
selection. Mr Page has evidently failed to distinguish between 

132 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

the views of the author of the Vestiges and those of Darwin ; 
and, in consequence, often imputes to the latter the arguments 
used by the former, and to this must be attributed several slips 
he makes in his treatment of the subject. Thus, after quoting a 
passage from Darwin's work, he says, " Here, then, according to 
his own showing, inheritance, external conditions, use and disuse, 
struggle for life, and natural selection are all fulfilling their parts 
as co-factors in one great law ; and it is strange that, in the face 
of this admission, he should labour to ascribe to one cause what 
would have been more philosophically and satisfactorily ascribed 
to the many" (p. 211). Now, this is a mere assumption regard- 
ing Darwin's object, for in the introductory chapters to his work, 
we find him stating, " that natural selection has been the main but 
not exclusive means of modification" (Darwin's Origin of Species, 
p. 6, 5th 1000). 

Then, again, with reference to the controlling power of the 
Deity, he has misrepresented Darwin by saying, that he " appeals 
throughout his argument to chance and nature for all subsequent 
development, as if these blind duties were aught without the 
direction of the same original life-breathing impulse" (p. 211). 
And again still more strongly, in a foot note to p. 197, when, 
along with Lamarck and the Vestiges, he refers " to the whole 
tone and tenor of the Origin of Species, in which there seems to 
be a studied non-recognition of any higher influence than chance, 
external conditions, nature, law, and other kindred activities." 
But if we again turn to Darwin's own statement, we find that he 
says, " To my mind it accords better with what we know of the 
laws impressed on matter by the Creator, that the production and 
extinction of the past and present inhabitants of the world should 
have been due to secondary causes, like those determining the birth 
and death of the individual" (p. 489). Here we have- a distinct 
and most philosophical recognition of a supreme controlling 
power, which our author assumes that Darwin denies. 

From the general tone of the work before us, we would not 
have expected that Mr Page would attempt, however vaguely, to 
wield the odium theologicum in arguing against Darwin's or any 
other person's views. To use his own words : " In the organic, 
as in the inorganic world, the Creator often operates through 
secondary causes, and the discovery of these causes, in the spirit 
of true philosophy, is to human reason a duty as well as a privi- 
lege" (p. 208). Why, then, should he treat Darwin with the 
least approach to acrimony for making the attempt to perform 
this duty \ 

We have not space to enter into any discussion on the subject ; 
but we believe that if all those arguments which he misdirects 
against the theory of natural selection were withdrawn, the general 

Reviews and Notices of Books. 133 

tenor of the book would greatly outbalance the few rightly directed 
shafts that remained, and show our author to be much more of a 
Darwinite than he appears to suspect himself. 

Before concluding our short notice of this on the whole capital 
little work, which, by the way, is got up with great taste and 
finish, we would call attention to the theory (mentioned at page 
191), that successive cycles of cold and warmth are indicated by 
the alternating character of formations, and which was advanced 
some years ago by the author to a Philosophical Society at St 
Andrews. It is ingenious, but is clearly dependant on the geo- 
graphical areas in which we group the formation. 


Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

Monday, 4th March 1861.— Professor CHRISTISON, 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. Memoir of the late Rev. Dr John Fleming. By Alexander 

Bryson, Esq. 

2. On Zoological Classification, and the Parallelism of the 
Mammal, Marsupial, and Ornithic Classes. By Professor 

Monday, 18th March 1861.— The Hon. LORD NEAVES, 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. On the Properties of the Secretion of the Human Pancreas. 
By William Turner, M.B. (Lond.), Senior Demonstrator of 
Anatomy, University of Edinburgh. 

The author obtained the pancreatic secretion at a post mortem 
examination which he made of the body of a patient of Mr Spence, 
who had died with a medullary tumour in the head of the pancreas, 
which, by compressing the biliary and pancreatic ducts, had pro- 

134 Proceedings of Societies. 

duced dilatation of the ducts of the liver and gall-hladder, as well 
as dilatation of the ducts and lobules of the pancreas. The secre- 
tion was contained in the dilated parts of the gland last named, 
from which it was drawn off by means of a pipette. The fluid thus 
obtained was of an orange-yellow colour, and well-marked viscid 
consistency — sp. gr. 1*0105 ; appearance slightly turbid, owing to 
the presence of small white flakes, which a microscopic examination 
proved to consist of groups of small spherical, colourless cells, re- 
sembling, and most probably consisting of, the epithelial lining of 
the vesicles of the gland. Reaction faintly yet decidedly acid ; heat, 
alcohol, corrosive sublimate, and bichloride of platinum threw down 
copious yellowish-white precipitates, consisting of the peculiar albu- 
minous constituent of the secretion. No reduction was effected by 
boiling the fluid with freshly precipitated blue oxide of copper, 
showing the absence of sugar or any corresponding deoxidizing sub- 
stance. The absence of sulpho-cyanide of potassium was shown by 
no reaction being given with a solution of perchloride of iron ; thus 
affording a well-marked distinction between the composition of the 
human saliva and pancreatic juice. A partial emulsionizing effect 
was produced by rubbing some of the fluid with a little oil. With 
another portion of the secretion, starch was converted into dextrine. 
The action of the fluid upon albuminous substances was also tested, 
but a negative result was obtained. It should be stated, however, 
that but a small quantity of the secretion was now left, and that a 
day had elapsed between its withdrawal from the body and the appli- 
cation of this test. The author then adverted to the accounts which 
have been given by various physiologists of the pancreatic fluid ob- 
tained from the different domestic animals which it is usual to 
experiment on when samples of this secretion are required, and con- 
cluded by showing in what respect the secretion of the human pan- 
creas agreed with, or differed from, that of these animals. 

2. On the Acrid Fluid of the Toad (Bufo vulgaris). By John 
Davy, M.D., F.R.S. Lond. and Edin., &c. 

The author first adverts to the conflicting opinions respecting the 
nature of this fluid, and especially to one of the latest, that enter- 
tained by MM. Gratiolet and S. Cloez, that it is an active poison. 

He next describes some experiments he has made for the purposo 
of testing their conclusion, the results of which are in opposition to 
theirs, and confirmatory of certain ones of his own, showing that 
the fluid is a simple acrid irritant, and as such well adapted to pro- 
tect an animal otherwise defenceless, and, from its sluggish habits, 
peculiarly exposed to danger. 

Incidentally, he makes some remarks on the toad of Barbadoes, 
which, brought from Dominica only a few years ago, has so multi- 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 135 

plied as to abound in every part of the island. Its comparative 
rareness in Britain he attributes to two causes : one, the circumstance 
of the very young toad being, as he believes, destitute of the acrid 
fluid ; another, the intolerance of the toad of all ages of severe 
cold, and in consequence, its liability to perish if the winter tem- 
perature be unusually low. 

In a foot-note, he expresses the opinion, founded on one observa- 
tion, that the female toad during the breeding season is without the 
protecting acrid fluid, the male at that time having it in more than 
ordinary abundance, and, from position, whilst the ova are in tran- 
situ, probably defending his mate. 

3. On G-yrolite occurring with Calcite in Apophyllite in the 
Trap of the Bay of Fundy. By Henry How, Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural History, King's College, Windsor. 
Nova Scotia. 

(This paper appears in the present number of this Journal.) 

4. On Natro-boro-calcite, and another Borate occurring in the 
Gypsum of Nova Scotia. By Henry How, Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural History, King's College, Windsor, 


(This paper appears in the present number of this Journal.) 

5. On some Derivatives from the defines. By Frederick 
Guthrie, Professor of Chemistry and Physics in the Eoyal 
College, Mauritius. 

This paper is supplementary to, and forms the sequel of, a series 
of papers which have been published in the " Quarterly Journal of 
the Chemical Society of London." 

In continuing the examination of the behaviour of the olefines 
towards compound halogens, certain compounds previously described 
have been submitted to a test of homogeneity, of which the following 
is the principle : — 

" If a body be partly dissolved in a solvent, and if the dissolved 
part and the undissolved part, or the dissolved part and the whole, or 
the undissolved part and the whole, have the same composition, then 
the body is a simple one." 

Examined in this manner with regard to the solvent alcohol, the 
bisulphochlorides of ethylen and amylen were shown to be true 
chemical compounds. 

The bisulphochloride of ethylen was submitted to the action of 

136 Proceedings of Societies. 

chlorine, whereupon a body was formed identical with that got by 
the action of chlorine upon the bisulphochloride of chlorethylen or 
upon the bisulphide of ethyl — namely, the chlorosulphide of bichlor- 
ethylen or sulphide of terchlorethyl 

C 4 H 2 CI, S. 

Further, the same body C 4 H 4 S 2 CI was submitted, in alcoholic 
solution, to the action of hydrate of potash, which converted it into 

C 4 H 4 S 2 OHO. 

Again, the body C 10 H 10 S 2 CI (whose equivalent of chlorine has 
been shown to be replacible by and by OHO), on treatment with 
cyanide and sulphocyanide of potassium in alcoholic solution, ex- 
changes its chlorine for cyanogen or sulphocyanogen respectively, 
giving rise to 

Bithiocyanide of amylen, C 10 H 10 S 2 Cy 

and Bithiosulphocyanide of amylen, C 10 H 10 S 2 S 2 Cy 

From these and analogous reactions previously described, the 
conclusion is drawn that the bodies C 4 H 4 S CI and C 10 H 10 S 8 CI 
behave towards chlorine like the sulphides of chloriniferous radicles, 

C H *l S C Hl ° 1 S • 

* CI J 2 10 CI J 2 » 

while towards metallic oxides, hydrated oxides, cyanides, and sulpho- 
cyanides, they behave like chlorides of sulphuriferous radicles, 

c 4 %}ci c 10 H -}ci. 

The bisulphide of amylen 

^10 -""10 "2» 

was produced by the withdrawal of the chlorine from C 10 H 10 S 2 CI 
by means of metallic zinc — a reaction analogous to the reduction of 
kakodyl from its chloride. 
The bichloride of amylen, 

C io H 10 Cl 2> 

could not be formed by the direct union of chlorine and amylen, but 
was produced by the action of amylen upon the pentachloride of 

The binitroxide of amylen, 

C 10 H 10 2N0 4 , 

which is formed in small quantity when nitric acid and amylen react 
on one another, was formed in abundance when N0 4 was led into 
amylen. This reaction shows how completely JS T 4 obeys the laws 
of the halogens, and leads to its being called nitroxine. The same 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 137 

property is again illustrated by the conversion of the latter body 
into bicyanide of amylen, 

c io H io c y 2 + 5A ^ 

by the action of cyanide of potassium in alcoholic solution, the 
nitrite of potash or nitroxide of potassium KN0 4 being formed at 
the same time. The five equivalents of water are feebly combined. 
An experiment to procure the pimelate of potash from the bicyanide 
of amylen by the action of caustic potash was without result. 

By the action of nitric acid upon the bisulphochloride of amylen 
the nitroxisulphide of nitroxamylen is formed, 

C ** 9 SNO 

10 NO D1W *' 

together with a conjugate sulphur acid. 

Finally, when zinc-ethyl and bisulphochloride of amylen are 
brought together in ethereal solution, the chlorine of the latter body 
is replaced by ethyl, and a body formed having the constitution and 
properties of the bisulphide of cenanthyl — 

C 10 H 10 S 2 C 4 H 5 Bisulphethide of amylen, 
or C u H 15 S 2 Bisulphide of cenanthyl, 

A list is given of the compounds hitherto obtained by the action 
of certain compound halogens upon the olefines ethylen and amylen. 

The use of the terms Recomposition, Isotype, Idiotype, are ex- 
plained, and a method given for determining the specific gravity of 
small quantities of liquids, which are heavier than and insoluble in 

Monday, 1st April 1861.—DR CHRISTISON, 

Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. On the Molecular Theory of Organization. By Professor 
Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E., &c. 

Parodying the celebrated expression of Harvey, viz., Omne animal 
ex ovo, it has been attempted to formularise the law of development 
by the expression omnis cellula e cellula, and to maintain " that we 
must not transfer the seat of real action to any point beyond the 
cell."* In the attempts which have been made to support this ex- 
clusive doctrine, and to give all the tissues and all vital properties 
a cell origin, the great importance of the molecular element, it 
seemed to the author, had been strangely overlooked. It becomes 
important, therefore, to show that real action, both physical and 

* Virchow, Eng. Trans, p. 3. 

138 Proceedings of Societies. 

vital, may be seated in minute particles, or molecules much smaller 
than cells, and that we must obtain a knowledge of such action in 
these molecules if we desire to comprehend the laws of organisation. 
To this end the author directed attention: 1st, To a description of the 
nature and mode of origin of organic molecules ; 2d, To a demon- 
stration of the fact that these molecules possess inherent powers or 
forces, and are present in all those tissues which manifest vital force ; 
and 3d, To a law which governs the combination, arrangement, and 
behaviour of these molecules during the development of organised 

2. Notices of Early Scotch Planting. By Prof. Cosmo Innes. 

The common opinion that Scotland was at one time closely 
wooded, is at least questionable, and some circumstances lead to an 
opposite belief : as, the careful stipulations found in the most ancient 
deeds, about giving or withholding a limited use of wood for building 
and fuel. The use of foreign timber for our greater buildings, when 
to be had ; thus, Norway timber used for building the Abbey of Ar- 
broath, in the 15th century. The importation of bow-staves and 
spear-shafts, such long straight timber not being procurable at home. 

The trees found in peat- mosses, for the most part small and few, 
and confined to narrow spaces, by no means prove a general cover- 
ing of wood in ancient times* 

One reason of the common error is the change of meaning which 
the word forest has undergone. From its etymology, the word has 
no connection with wood, and of old, and especially with old lawyers, 
it meant merely land privileged for the chase ; but many people, 
meeting the word in old charters and descriptions of estates, suppose 
it to mean as at present, wood-land. It is clear, however, that there 
has always been some wood, even timber, in Scotland. 

The earliest Christian churches were of timber, probably in all 
countries ; and the building of churches of stone was considered a 
novelty at the beginning of our acquaintance with church architec- 
ture in Scotland. 

The forts built in inland lakes and morasses, which the Irish 
have taught us to call cranogues, of great antiquity, perhaps the 
most ancient extant dwellings except caves and burrows, are found 
often built on piles of oak of moderate size, and sometimes with 
beams of birch for the cross timber. 

Sometimes beside these forts, but often apart, are found the shells 
of rude but large canoes, bespeaking a high antiquity, each hol- 
lowed out of a single oak. 

Within the period of history (a.d. 1249), the Earl of St Pol and 
Blois, preparing for the Crusades, had a wonderful ship (navis mi- 
randa) built at Inverness. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 139 

The Bishop of Caithness, Chancellor of Scotland, and a friend of 
Edward the First, being engaged (a.d. 1291) in putting a roof on 
his cathedral of Dornoch, obtained from the king a grant of 40 
oaks, fit for timber, to be taken out of the wood (bosco) of Darna- 
way, in Moray. 

The Bishop of Brechin granting (a.d. 1435) a lease of the Kirk- 
davoch of Strachan for three lives, took the tenant bound to de- 
liver, not periodically, but once only, oak laths enough for roofing 
20 perches of the cathedral, or the Bishop's palace — tantas vulga- 
riter dictas lathis bonas et sujicientes de quercu. 

Two centuries later (1606), Alexander Davidson, styled tymber- 
nian in St Andrews, agrees with " the honest man that has bocht 
the wod of Drum, for als mekill tymber as will big ane bark." 
The timber was to be floated down the Dee, 4 ' how soon the water 
growis." This was evidently fir-timber. Nine trees were bought 
from the woodmen of Drum (1612—13) to make a sluice for one of the 
town of Aberdeen's mills, for the price of £27. These may have 
been oak. The presumption seems vory strong, from the present 
appearance of the ground, and all circumstances, that the timber 
in all these transactions was not planted, but of native growth. 

From all the evidence we have, old historical Scotland, — Scotland 
of the 14th to the 17th century, both included, — in regard to wood 
was very much as at present ; making allowance, however, for the 
effect of cultivation which has curtailed it a little, and plantation, 
which has immensely increased its quantity in the last century. 
Speaking generally, the levels were cultivated, or bare moorland 
or swamp ; the upland pastures, whether green or heathery, were 
bare of wood, except where the steep and rough glens, ravines, 
and water-courses, sheltered and protected from cattle a fringe of 
native wood — hazel, birch, or oak — the latter of small size. There 
are, and always have been, districts more or less willing to send up 
a native growth of timber — as Braemar ; the upper part of Strath- 
spey ; the upper part of the valley of the Beauly ; parts of Glen- 
moriston, and Loch Arkeg in Lochiel. 

To remedy the defect of wood, some of our old codes of criminal 
practice appointed a form of procedure against trespassers and de- 
stroyers of wood ; and the parliamentary records of Scotland are 
full of ordinances to encourage planting of wood, and even broom, 
in minute quantities ; and for the repression of offences against it. 

Following out the intention of the Legislature, the great pro- 
prietors made some efforts at planting in the 15th century. The 
Abbot of Cupar (a.d. 1473) set in lease the lands of Balmyle, 
in Strathmore, and bound the tenants to " put al the land to al 
possibil policie in biggin of housis, plantacioun of treis — eschis, 
osaris, and sauch, and froit-treis — gif thei ma." 

From that time downwards^ there are documentary proofs of some 

140 Proceedings of Societies. 

attention bestowed upon planting in Scotland ; and, in a few, widely- 
scattered instances, we find places bearing marks of culture and 
planting that carry us back to that century ; but all of these mark, 
also, that the effort was confined to the planting of a few trees near 
the mansion-house and the houses of the greater tenants. 

In the next century (16th), but rather towards the end of it, con- 
siderable progress was made in the creation and embellishment of 
country houses. William, first Earl of Gowrie, who built a gallery, 
and decorated it with pictures, was a zealous planter, and was fond of 
the chestnut and walnut. In 1586, James, Lord Ogilvy, is found 
corresponding with Sir David Lindsay of Edzell, about their planta- 
tions, and writes to him — " Your thousand young birkis shall be 
richt welcom." 

At the same period the Campbells of Glenurchy were creating 
the place of Balloch, now Taymouth, enforcing the planting of single 
trees amongst their tenants, and using vigorous measures for pro- 
tecting wood. Probably similar operations were carried on in that 
century at Seaton, Winton, Lethington, and other places; and 
some remains of still older cultivation are to be found about the 
seats of the old Church lords, as at Newbattle, Ancrum, Pinkie, and 
a few others. 

It seems very doubtful whether any tree planted before the Refor- 
mation is now growing in Scotland. The date of the sycamore 
at Kippenross is not well vouched ; and, to judge from appear- 
ance, neither it nor those at Newbattle can be ranked so old as 300 
years. The chestnut at Finhaven was certainly much overrated 
when said in 1760 to be 500 years old. 

Some ancient yews, especially the yew of Fortingall, come under 
a different category. It would appear that successive trees grow up 
in the bark and round the stem of the decayed yew, and may go 
on decaying and reproducing indefinitely. 

About the period of King James's accession to the English throne 
(a.d. 1603) was the era of a great effort for improving and beauti- 
fying our country mansions, as shown in the Aberdeenshire castel- 
lated mansion, and others of the same taste all over Scotland. That 
period of fine taste was marked by great attention to planting, chiefly 
in the manner of avenues of ash and sycamore, with a timid inter- 
mixture of chestnut and walnut. During "the troubles" of Charles's 
reign and the Commonwealth, there was a cessation of progress ; 
but yet even in that time we find the Earl of Lauderdale sending to 
Taymouth for fir seed, and the Marchioness of Hamilton expressing her 
own interest, and that of several of her relations, in young firs grown 
from Breadalbane seed, and boasting that she had four or five hun- 
dred of her own planting. " Believe me," says she, " I think mair 
of them nor ye can imagin, for I loue them mair nor I dou al the 
froit-treis in the wordil." The Restoration (1660) brought a great 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 141 

change. Crowds of young men, virtually exiled during the Usur- 
per's reign, then returned from wandering over the Continent, where 
they had learnt to admire the taste of the Italian villa and the 
French chateau. Evelyn tells us how universal the passion for 
rural embellishment and magnificent country houses was among 
the English nobility,* and he himself helped to extend the public 
attention to restoring and planting wood. 

Scotland kept pace as much as her poverty allowed. The botanical 
garden of Edinburgh was founded (1670). Country-seats were 
built or restored, and planting was carried on in many places where 
we can yet find trees to be ascribed to that period — still chiefly in 
the limited style of straight avenue and hedgerow. This was the 
date of a great enlargement — almost new modelling — of Taymouth, 
Hatton, Inverary, Drumlanrig, Hamilton, Hopetoun, Panmure, 
Kinross, Yester, Arniston, with a long et cetera. 

The Revolution (1688) may be said to have renewed the im- 
pulse given by the Restoration. Again, a crowd of Scotch gentle- 
men whom the unhappy courses of the last Stuarts had. driven abroad, 
returned to their own country, imbued with the taste of cultivation 
they had acquired in Holland and Flanders. Among these were 
Hume of Marchmont, the Dalrymples, Lord Haddington, Dundas of 
Arniston, Argyll, Hyndford, &c. 

About this time a style of planting became fashionable, breaking 
a little from the formal straight avenue, and which was known as 
" the wilderness." The Earl of Mar at Alloa, his brother Lord 
Grange at Preston, Lord Haddington, and the First President 
Arniston, adopted this style ; and at Arniston is preserved a plan of 
" the wilderness" as it was in 1726, which can still be distinctly 
traced on the lawn to the west of the house, and shows how little the 
original formality impedes the picturesqueness of the grown wood. 
There was a wilderness also at Blair- Atholl. 

Lord Haddington remarks that planting was little understood in 
Scotland till the beginning of the 18th century (1700), and, of 
planting in masses, the remark is nearly correct. He himself was 
among the first who planted on the great scale, and with method 
and discrimination. But a little before his time (a.d. 1680) 
Andrew Heron was planting at Bargally, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, which Loudon considered " the most interesting place in 
Scotland with respect to the introduction of foreign trees and shrubs." 
Dukes John and Archibald of Argyll followed, bringing their 
English experience to bear on Scotland. Lord Haddington and 
his wife made the noble wood of Tyningham out of a rabbit-warren. 
The Earl of Bute, Lord Loudoun, and Lord Hyndford, were planters 
in the most favourable situations of Scotland. The Earl of Panmure 

* Evelyn, Silva or a discourse of forest-trees. London, 1768-79. 

142 Proceedings of Societies, 

planted endless beech avenues at Panmure, which within memory 
were grand and growing trees, and proved how the East Coast may- 
be made to produce fine timber. 

It has been said by old foresters that Panmure and Yester were 
the two places where beech was first planted largely. The taste 
spread rapidly. It was from Lord Tweeddale that the first President 
Dundas brought a present of thirty beech plants and one elm, which 
were carried in his portmanteau, on his servant's horse, to Arniston. 
The beeches are still standing and flourishing in the south avenue. 
They bear the marks of having been headed down in transplanting 
— a practice of that time. 

Next came the taste for larch, which must have been introduced 
in several places as soon as at Dunkeld, though the story of the 
Duke's two flower-pot larches (a.d. 1727) may be true too. 

A few giant larches at Arniston may be as old, and one or two 
in the " Paradise," by the river side at Monymusk, are apparently 
coeval, as they are coequal, with the finest trees at Dunkeld. 

In the north country the Duchess of Gordon (the Mordaunt 
Duchess) was a great improver, and planted to some extent both at 
Gordon Castle and in Strathspey. Sir William Gordon of Inver- 
gordon planted and drained extensively ; and other improvers and 
planters of that time were Ross of Balnagown, the Grants of 
Monymusk, Scott of Scotstarvet, Hope of Rankeillor, Lord Cath- 
cart, Sir Francis Kinloch, Sir John Dalrymple, Wauchop of Edmon- 
ston, Sir James Dick of Priestfield, Sir James Stewart of Goodtrees, 
the Duchess of Buccleuch, Sir James Cunninghame, Lord Living- 

Reid's " Scots Gardener," published in 1683, shows the taste 
for wood already begun. Sir Archibald Grant of Monymusk has 
left us a brief but interesting account of the planting and other 
improvements begun by him in 1716. The Earl of Haddington 
published, in 1733, a minute account of his planting operations. 
At Arniston are preserved original accounts and contemporary docu- 
ments showing the extent and manner of planting there during almost 
the whole of last century, and also a narrative detailing the results 
made up from such materials, written by the Lord Chief Baron 
Dundas. An anonymous writer in 1729 (believed to be Mr M'Intosh 
of Borlum) mentions a good many improvers, enclosers, and planters, 
in Scotland at that time. Mr Walker, Professor of Natural History 
at Edinburgh, in his " Economical History of the Hebrides and 
Highlands," and his collected " Essays," gives the results of his own 
observations of trees through Scotland, from about 1760, for twenty 
years. Sang's " Planter's Calendar;" Dr Patrick Graham's "Ge- 
neral Report of Scotland;" Monteith's "Forester's Guide;" Sir 
Thomas Dick Lauder's edition of " Gilpin," furnish a consider- 
able mass of information of the state of wood in Scotland during a 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 143 

century past. And Loudon, in his most laborious and valuable 
"Arboretum etFruticetum Britannicum," arranges and digests much 
of these materials. One important use served by the authors named 
is to enable us to compare the present condition and size of trees 
with what they were at ascertained distances of time previous ; while 
the collection of returns of remarkable trees now making to the 
Highland Society, will serve as a foundation for such measurement 
and comparison in future times. 

Monday, 15th April 1861.— The Hon. LORD NEAVES, 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. Additional Observations on the Chronology of the Trap- 
Rocks of Scotland. By Archibald Geikie, Esq., F.G.S. 

In a communication made to the Society last session, the author 
stated the results of a series of explorations among the trap-rocks 
of Scotland, and showed that, at successive periods, during the depo- 
sition of the Lower Silurian, Old Red Sandstone, Carboniferous, 
Oolitic, and Tertiary formations, there were contemporaneous erup- 
tions of volcanic material. During the year 1860, the investigation 
was continued across the Highlands into the Inner Hebrides, and 
throughout a large part of the central counties southward to the 
Cheviot Hills. The author was now able to fill in more fully what 
had only been sketched in outline in the previous paper, and to pre- 
pare a series of maps to illustrate the volcanic areas of Scotland 
during the successive geological periods. He showed that, in the 
Scottish Highlands, no distinct trace existed of any igneous rock 
erupted contemporaneously with the deposition of those Lower 
Silurian strata which are now metamorphosed into gneiss, mica- 
schist, clay-slate, &c. The greater part of his observations during 
the past year had been devoted to the elucidation of the chronology 
of the igneous rocks belonging to the period of the Old Red Sand- 
stone, and he found that, in central Scotland, that formation exhi- 
bited a copious series of contemporaneous felstones and ash-beds in 
its lower and upper members ; the former being exemplified in For- 
farshire and Perthshire, and the latter in Fife and in the Pentland 
Hills. Several additional facts had also been observed among the 
Carboniferous trap-rocks, tending to make the series more complete, 
and to show how with volcanic movements there were associated 
certain risings and sinkings of the land, whereby the fauna and flora 
of the Carboniferous period were locally modified. Reference was 

144 Proceedings of Societies. 

also made to the remarkable series of greenstone and basalt dykes 
which traverse Scotland from N.W. to S.E., and enter the northern 
English counties. From observations made at either end of the 
series, the author deduced the inference that these dykes are later 
than the Lias, and probably belong to the period of the Middle or 
Upper Oolite. 

2. Notes on Ancient Glaciers made during a brief Visit to 
Chamouni and its neighbourhood in September 1860. 
By David Milne-Home, Esq. of Wedderburn. 

(This paper appears in the present number of this Journal.) 

Monday, 29th April 1861.— Professor ANDERSON, 
in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. On the Aqueous Origin of Granite. By Alexander Bryson, 


In this paper the author referred to the labours of Dr William 
Smith, who published his " Tabular View of the British Strata" in 
1790, and remarked that since that period geology had been studied 
mainly in the direction of Palseontology. Physical, chemical, and 
dynamic geology, were left almost unregarded by the great masters 
of the science, who generally accepted the speculations of Hutton 
and the experiments of Hall, as demonstrating the igneous origin of 
the primary rocks. 

The author stated <that the Huttonian theory was most ably 
attacked, and, in his opinion, overthrown by Dr Murray in his 
" Comparative View of the Huttonian and Neptunian Systems of 
Geology,'* a work most unaccountably overlooked. Since that time 
it had suggested itself to the sagacious mind of Davy, that the 
occurrence of fluids in the cavities of crystals seemed to point to an 
aqueous origin. He also alluded to the writings of Brewster, Sive- 
wright, and Nicol, in the same field ; also to Becquerel, Fuchs, 
Bischoff, and Delesse, who have taken up the subject of the aqueous 
origin of rocks from a chemical point of view. The author then 
laid before the Society the result of ten years' experimental investi- 
gation into the structure of rocks relative to their formation, more 
particularly granite. While examining microscopically the various 
pitchstone veins abounding in Arran, he was much struck with the 
similarity of their structure, and the marked difference they ex- 
hibited when compared with sections of granite and its various 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 145 

mineral constituents. On extending his observations to obsidian, 
marekanite (a volcanic glass from Lake Marekan in Kamtschatka), 
and also to the well-known glassy obsidian of Bohemia, he found 
they all exhibited a structure analagous to the pitchstones of Arran. 
He further found that sections of glass slags, where the heat had 
been long continued, combined with slow cooling, all presented the 
same appearances as the sections of pitchstone. 

This structure, peculiar to igneously formed substances, he found 
usually to radiate in a stellate form ; and though many slags 
showed large stars visible to the naked eye, the stellate structure is 
more easily observed by the aid of the microscope. The character 
is so marked that no one whose eye is tutored to microscopic observa- 
tion can fail to recognise at once a mineral substance of igneous origin. 

In granite, on the other hand, the structure, as seen by the mi- 
croscope, is as persistent as in pitchstone, glass, and obsidian, but 
totally different. 

In the many experiments which the author had tried with gra- 
nites from various localities, he had never succeeded in obtaining 
one instance of stellate structure, while the constant occurrence of 
cavities containing fluids convinced him that, if pitchstone and 
glass are types of igneous-formed substances, granite must be of 
aqueous origin. In the fluid cavities so abundant in topaz, Cairn- 
gorum, beryl, tourmaline, and felspar, all constituents of granite, he 
found the same appearance prevailed. These cavities are seldom 
entirely filled with fluid, an air-bubble usually occupying more or 
less of the cavity. After many hundred experiments on such 
cavities, the author found that when exposed to a temperature of 
94° Fahr., the bubble disappeared, the fluid entirely filling the 
cavity, and at the temperature of 84° the bubble reappeared with a 
singular ebullition, showing that the air had formed an atmosphere 
round the fluid. He was thus led to infer that those cavities could 
not have been filled at a temperature above 84°, and certainly not 
above 94° of Fahrenheit. 

As another proof that these cavities could not have been filled 
when the temperature of the surrounding rock was higher than the 
temperature above indicated, the author drew attention to the fact, 
that the bubble of air occupied always a much smaller portion of 
the cavity than the fluid, a condition which could not obtain, if, as 
other writers hold, the fluids were enclosed under intense heat and 

For the purpose of accurately determining the temperatures at 
which the bubble vanished and reappeared, the author constructed 
an apparatus which he exhibited and described. It consists of a 
microscope with a hollow iron stage, having a tube in the centre to 
admit light from the reflector. At one side, and inserted into the 
stage, is a small tin retort with a stopper ; at the other side, a tube 


146 Proceedings of Societies. 

is inserted and .attached to a reservoir of water, from which the 
hollow stage and retort are filled. On applying heat to the retort, 
by means of a spirit-lamp, any required temperature under the 
boiling-point of the water may be obtained in the stage and retort. 

Above the stage is placed an iron saucer, in the centre of which 
an iron tube is rivetted, through which the light is admitted ; this 
vessel is filled with mercury, and in it is placed an upright ther- 
mometer, with the bulb shielded with cork or any other good non- 
conductor ; by this means it indicates the actual temperature of the 
mercury bath. The cavity to be observed is cemented with Canada 
balsam to a plate of glass 3x1 inch, and is floated on the surface 
of the mercury, so that the glass and mercury are in absolute con- 
tact. When the temperature is raised until the bubble nearly 
disappears (which is seen by its contraction), the spirit-lamp is 
withdrawn, and the vanishing point carefully watched, and the tem- 
perature noted. The stopper of the retort is then withdrawn, and 
the stop-cock of the reservoir of water opened, so that the tempera- 
ture of the stage and mercury bath is soon reduced, and the ebulli- 
tion or reappearance of the bubble takes place, when the tempera- 
ture is again recorded. By this method the author felt confident 
that his results were correct, as they always were consistent when 
observing the same cavity. By means of this instrument the author 
had found fluid cavities in the trap tufFa of Arthur's Seat, the 
greenstone of the Crags, and the basalt of Samson's Ribs. He had 
also found that the porphyry of Dun Dhu in Arran, which most 
geologists assumed as of igneous origin, was full of fluid cavities 
contained in the doubly acuminated crystals of quartz for which 
this remarkable porphyry is distinguished. He also showed doubly 
acuminated crystals of quartz in the saliferous gypsums of India, 
both of which were full of fluid cavities, and the quartz impressed 
with the gypsum ; and as no geologist would hold that this forma- 
tion was of igneous origin, but that the quartz, if not contempo- 
raneous with the gypsum, must have been subsequent, and as the 
same phenomena were presented by the porphyry of Dun Dhu, he 
was forced to the conclusion that it was as much aqueous in its 
origin as the saliferous gypsum of India. The author exhibited a 
specimen of quartz which contained a crystal of iron pyrites, to 
which was attached a crystal of galena and also a small massy zinc 
blende, while over these three metals was laid a covering of gold. 
From this specimen he argued, that as all these metals were 
fusible at a much lower temperature than quartz, they must have 
aggregated during a gelatinous condition of the quartz ; and further, 
that as the sulphides of the three metals were in chemically com- 
bining proportions, any heat which would have fused the quartz 
would have made an alloy or a slag in which chemical combining 
proportions could not occur. 

Boyal Society of Edinburgh. 147 

He also exhibited specimens of schorl which he had obtained in 
the granite of Aberdeen, and drew the inference that schorl, which 
crackles and splits with a very small increment of temperature, 
could not have been present during a molten condition of the 
quartz ; and that it was crystallized prior to the solidifying of the 
latter, as proved by the schorl impressing the quartz. The author, 
from a careful examination of the schorls in the quartzite of Aber- 
deen, was led to believe that the quartz, while in the process of 
crystallization, expanded one twenty-fourth of its bulk, a force 
which appeared to him to be sufficient to cause all the upheavals 
and disruptions which had led geologists to account for such pheno- 
mena by a molten condition of the primary rocks. If this view is 
correct, and if the highest peak is granite, as the lowest is known 
to be granite, the author calculated that as the highest mountain is 
only j|- T part of the radius of the earth, a thickness of the crust 
of 168 miles is quite sufficient to yield expansive force to raise the 
highest peak of the Himalayan range. He further stated that the 
cause of the temperature at which the fluids were confined being 
higher than the normal one, depended on the rise of temperature 
which takes place during solidification. 

The author, in conclusion, trusted he would soon be in a position 
to confirm these views when he had finished the investigation of the 
trap rocks with which he is now engaged. 

2. Notes of Excursions to the Higher Ranges of the Anamalai 
Hills, South India, in 1858 and 1859. By Hugh Cleghorn, 
M.D., F.L.S., Conservator of Forests, Madras Presidency. 

The southern ranges of the Anamalai (i.e., Elephant Hills) hav- 
ing been little explored, and only known through the manuscript 
report of Captain J. Michael, 39th N.I., formerly of the Forest 
Department, the author was induced to project an excursion to these 
heights, in concert with Dr D. Macpherson, Inspector- General of 
Hospitals, and the Collector and Engineer of the Coimbatore District 
(Messrs Cherry and Fraser). The arrangements were made under the 
auspices of the Right Hon. Lord Harris, Governor of Madras, and 
His Excellency Sir P. Grant, complied with the request that Major 
Douglas Hamilton, 21st N.I., should accompany them as artist, to 
delineate the characteristic features of the country. (This officer's 
sketches, seventeen in number, some of them panoramic, were ex- 
hibited. A selection will appear in the Transactions). Notwith- 
standing the unfavourable state of the weather, the result was not 
without interest, much additional information having been obtained, 
which elucidates Col. Fred. C. Cotton's narrative of an expedition 
over the Anamalai mountains (northern range). (See " Madras 
Journal of Literature and Science," vol. ii. p. 80. 1857.) 

The main results of the excursion were extracted from his Diary, 

148 Proceedings of Societies. 

beginning 15th Sept. 1858. " Teak occurred on some undulating 
knolls, two or three miles before reaching the village (Punachi), and 
on the slopes of the basin leading to the river (Torakadu). The teak 
tree is not of superior dimensions, but is thickly scattered, forming 
nearly half of the forest. Many of the trees would yield second-class 
logs, and they increased in size as we descended the gorge. Being 
in flower, the white cross-armed panicles formed a striking feature 
in the landscape. There was much fallen and decaying teak within 
three miles of our huts. I inspected the jungle both in going 
and returning, and walked across in different directions to esti- 
mate approximately the number and size of the trees, and came to 
the conclusion that the value of standing wood might be 50,000 
rupees, and of fallen timber at least 5000 rupees, a sum which 
could easily be realised, if there was easy transport. We saw, 
farther up the valley, much Venge {Pterocarpus marsupium) 
and blackwood, which became more abundant, as the elevation in- 
creased. These trees seem to prefer an altitude somewhat greater 
than teak, whilst the Vella Naga (Conocarpus latifolius), of great 
size, occurs with the teak, or prefers a lower range. The sholas 
(glades) near Punachi, between 3000 and 4000 feet above the sea, 
are very dense and rich in their flora. The following are a few 
remarkable forms observed, a new species of Jenkinsia (Wallich), 
Solenocarpus Indicus, a tree called by the Kaders Palli-illi, the 
leaves of which are eaten. Eloeocarpus Monoceros, a new species of 
Cookia (Mur Kuringi), with a delicious fruit. Glycosmis penta- 
phylla, Pierardia macrostachys, with an edible fruit. Cleidion 
Javanicum (Wall) ; Mesua, with very large fruit ; Calophyllum, a 
species with narrow lanceolate leaves ; Orophea, two new species ; 
Unona pannosa, Guatteria coffeoides, Cyathocalycc zeylanicus ; 
Garcinia, Pterospermum obtusifolium, Sterculia guttata, Machilus, 
Casearia, a new species ; Euonymus, two apparently new forms, one 
with downy leaves, and the other much like a lime tree. Agrostemma, 
two species, Ophioxylon, a new species, with falcate bracts ; and Otho- 
morphe subpeltata. Acranthera zeylanica, JVephelium erectum, a 
very gorgeous species of Pachycentria, and two rare Euphorbiaceous 
trees, Dimorphocalyx glabellus, and Desmostemon zeylanicum, lately 
described by Mr Thwaites. 

" Many of the trees in the dark sholas are covered with beautiful 
epiphytes, especially the Hoya pauciflora, ^Eschynanthus zeylani- 
cus, and Sarcanthus filiformis. The dripping rocks are adorned 
with Klugia (two species), JEpithema, &c. Cardamoms with rich 
aroma, and the true ginger plant, abound in these sholas. The 
rocks in the bed of all the rivers, from 3000 to 4500 feet, are quite 
covered with a showy orange-coloured Balsam (Impatiens verticil- 
lata). It often forms a fringe at the line of watermark, or appears 
in patches between the forks of a cascade. At a higher elevation, 
other species seemed to take its place, especially the " Impatiens 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 149 

Tangachee" (Beddome). A truly aquatic fern, a new species of 
JPleopeltis, grows in great abundance on rocks at the bottom of the 
Torakadu river. 

" The Rhododendron arboreum was first seen at an elevation of 
about 5000 feet." 

Mr Beddome has favoured me with the following note of his 
ascent : — " The rocky Akka Mountain, which is probably upwards 
of 8000 feet, is quite covered near its summit with several new 
species of Impatiens. The only other new form observed on this 
mountain was a curious Crassulaceous plant with fleshy peltate 
leaves, growing in sheltered moist nooks of the rock. Balsams are 
very abundant on these hills. Impatiens Balsamina, dasysperma, 
Hensloviana, maculata, Campanula, chinensis, tomentosa, verticil- 
lata, oppositifolia, Kleinii, filiformis, tenella, and rivalis" 

" Some of the herbaceous plants observed adorning the higher hill- 
side pastures were : — Flemingia procumbens, Phaseolus JPulniensis, 
Anemone Wightiana, Lysimachia Leschenaultii and deltoidea, 
Utricularia, Ranunculus reniformis, Gentiana pedicellata. This 
list might be extended, but the examples are sufficient to show the 
similarity of the Flora to that round Utakamand." 

The general appearance and character of these high lands re- 
semble much the Nilgiri Hills. Here are the same rounded emi- 
nences and dense sholas, extending continuously for miles, their 
edges fringed with Strobilanthes, and ceasing abruptly ; the hills 
are conical, and the slopes covered with short, rich grass, abounding 
with such plants as Exacum bicolor, and Ophelia elegans : the woods 
contain Hymenodyction excelsum, and other species of the Cinchona 
family. Heavy rains, evidently the breaking up of the south- 
west monsoon, fell continuously during the period of our stay in 
these upper regions. The want of shelter, and the difficulty of 
procuring supplies, prevented us from proceeding to the highest 
parts of the range, which appeared to be about twelve miles in a 
south-east direction from the extreme point the party reached. We 
therefore reluctantly returned to the low country without fully at- 
taining our object, having been absent eight days. Three distinct 
tribes inhabit the Anamalai hills ; they are denominated Kaders, 
Paliars, and Malsars. The Kaders perform no menial labour; 
as their name implies, they are the lords of the hills; they will carry 
a gun, and loads also as a favour, and are expert at stalking game, 
but are deeply offended if they are called coolies. They are a 
truthful, trustworthy, and obliging tribe, and exercise some in- 
fluence over the Paliars and Malsars. Small in stature, their fea- 
tures resemble the African ; they have curly hair tied in a knot be- 
hind, and file the four front teeth of the upper jaw to a point, as a 
marriage ceremony. The upper ranges are in undisturbed possession 
of wild beasts ; we saw a large herd of bison, with samber and ibex 
in numbers, and also traces of wild elephants. 

150 Proceedings of Societies. 

The soil on the summit of these fine mountains is deep, and 
covered with good pasture. Streams of water are numerous, and 
flow throughout the year. From the extent of forest, the resem- 
blance of the Flora to that of Ceylon and the corresponding altitude, 
these hills seem suitable for the cultivation of coffee on a large scale, 
and for colonisation of small communities of Englishmen. 

3. On the Contractions suffered by Sulphuric Acid on being 

mixed with Water. By Dr Lyon Playfair, CB. 

4. On the Constitution of Anthracene or Paranaphthaline, 
and some of its Products of Decomposition. By Professor 

Royal Physical Society. 

27th February. — James M'Bain, M.D., R.N., President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. Observations on British Zoophytes and Protozoa. On Atractylis 
coccinea (new species). By T. Stkethill Weight, M.D. 

(1.) On Atractylis coccinea. — The subject of this notice was found at 
Inch-Garvie, in August last, growing on the roots of Laminaria sac- 
charina. The poiypary consists of an open network of milk-white fibres 
which closely invest the branches of the root. From this network the 
polyp -stems are given off, each about a quarter of an inch in length, of a 
rich pinkish-cream colour, and bearing at its summit a single crimson 
polyp with a double row of transparent, colourless tentacles. The body 
of the polyp is spindle-shaped, sometimes nearly cylindrical, and consists 
of an endoderm, having its cells laden with granules of a deep rich carmine 
colour, covered by an ectoderm of transparent white. The polyps, like 
others of this class, have the habit of turning themselves inside out, when 
the internal surface of the deep-coloured velvety endoderm is readily 
observed. On such occasions, masses of crimson granular matter are fre- 
quently ejected, which are composed of small globules filled with deep 
coloured fluid. These globules, which in other zoophytes are variously 
coloured in tints of brown, vermilion, orange, purple, and green, have 
had various functions assigned to them, as being the rudiments of a ciliary 
element, nutritive centres, &c, but nothing is certainly known of their 
nature. The tentacles are eight in number, four of which are long, and 
held nearly erect, and alternate with the rest, which are shorter and much 
more expanded. The thread-cells of the tentacles are inconspicuous. 

(2.) On Rhizopod structure. — One of the most interesting and im- 
portant questions of the day to the comparative physiologist is that of 
the constitution of Rhizopod structure. The Foraminiferous or Rhizopod 
animals are before our microscopic eye every day. We see their beauti- 
fully chambered shells imitating some of the most graceful objects of 
nature and art, — the living streams of nearly fluid sarcode, of which they 
are composed, flowing forth from the almost invisible pores of their 

Royal Physical Society. 151 

shells, uniting with each other, and forming glairy masses, and reticula- 
tions, and expansions, which absorb animal matter coming in contact 
with them, — single and compound animals building their aggregated 
homes in the most graceful lines and spirals, — single dwellings and 
populous towns slowly moving along, of which the inhabitants are but 
patches of transparent slime, — vast Polythalamian cities, where the huge 
primordial Rhizopods reign, surrounded by the multitudes of their 
dwarfed descendants, in widening circles and triple tiers. Such is Rhi- 
zopod life. At present, no true generative elements have been re- 
corded as discovered in the Rhizopods, though Carpenter and Schultze 
have noticed bodies which they have suspected to be ova. In the 
autumn of 1859, I was preparing a number of specimens of Hydrac- 
tinia for the microscope. They were first soaked in whisky for 
several weeks, then immersed in dilute nitric acid to remove them 
from the crab's shell, and finally washed in strong spirit, and put 
up in Canada balsam. On examining one of these preparations under 
the microscope, it was found that two specimens of Truncatulina 
had been accidentally prepared at the same time. The development 
of Truncatulina commences with a single cell ; this multiplies by gem- 
mation in series until a colony of animals is formed, each larger than 
its predecessor, arranged in a spiral, somewhat resembling the shell of 
the nautilus. In the nautilus, the last chamber of the shell only is 
occupied ; but in Truncatulina every chamber contains its tenant, while 
the whole colony are united by a band of sarcode, which passes from 
chamber to chamber along the inner curvature of the shell. All the 
cells or houses in this Rhizopod town are full of minute pores, from 
which the inhabitants protrude their delicate arms of slime in search 
of prey, or to move the assemblage from place to place. When the 
Truncatulina is treated as before mentioned, the shell is removed, and 
the separate zooids appear united by their connecting band. One of 
the two Truncatulinas, when examined by aid of the microscope, was 
found to consist entirely of homogeneous matter ; but the other presented 
a far different appearance. Its segments or zooids, and their connecting 
bands, all appeared to be inclosed in a well-defined membrane. Each 
segment was nearly destitute of sarcode, and contained a highly refractive 
body, in which appeared, with the utmost distinctness, a germinal vesicle 
or spot. I can regard this body only as a true egg, which has been deve- 
loped at the expense of the sarcodal element of the segments, in all of 
which the reproductive process is occurring simultaneously. Yet it may 
be objected that the ova in the larger segments are greatly larger than 
the young or original animals of Truncatulina. In some animals, how- 
ever, as in Spongilla, Gregorina, &c, many individuals are produced from 
a single egg ; and it is not improbable that a process of great division of 
the egg or swarming may take place in Truncatulina, by which a great 
number of animals are produced from each segment. 

2. Mr R. H. Traquair exhibited some specimens of Trilobites from the 
Carboniferous Limestones of Eifeshire. 

3. Note on the exposure of the Liberton Old Red Sandstone Conglo- 
merate Bed, in a quarry recently opened near the Grange House, 
Newington. By Andrew Taylor, Esq. 

4. On the occurrence of the Argentine, Anchovy, and other Fishes, on the 
Coast of Caithness ; with a note on the termination of the Vertebral 
Column in the tails of the Salmon tribe. By Charles W. Peach, 
Esq.. Wick. 

152 Proceedings of Societies. 

5. Specimens of the Glaucous Gull and Bewick's Swan were exhibited 
by P. A. Dassauville, Esq. and J. A. Smith, M.D. 

Wednesday the 27th March. — Thomas Strethill Wright, M.P., 
President, in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read :— 

1. Note on the occurrence of Vanessa polychloros and Cheimatobia bore- 

aria in Edinburghshire. By R. F. Logan, Esq. 

2. Remarks on some Comparative Anatomical Distinctions between the 

Skull of the Manatus Senegalensis and that of a Manatee, from the 
Bay of Honduras. By James M'Bain, M.D., R.N. 

Having pointed out the anatomical modifications between the two skulls, 
Dr M'Bain stated that it appeared to have been from the American species 
that Daubenton, Cuvier, Gray, and others, had adopted the dental formula 
of the genus Manatus. In the British Museum Catalogue for 1850, the 
number of grinders in the genus Manatus is said to vary according to the 

9 9 

age or state of the specimens, but when complete to be M. q_q = 36. 

Dr M'Bain said there was no skull of the African species mentioned in 
the Catalogue as existing in the British Museum, and that there was none 
described in the Catalogue of the Royal College of Surgeons of London ; 
and at a meeting of the British Association, held at Cheltenham in 1856, 
Professor Owen stated that he had notthen had an opportunity of examining 
the dentition of the known African Manatee. Dr M'Bain concluded by 
stating that the difference in the number of the molar teeth in these two dis- 
tinct species corresponded with the difference in the length of the alveolar 
portion of the palate, and with other corresponding modifications which 
had been shown to exist between the two skulls. He was indebted to the 
kindness and liberality of Professor Rogers of Glasgow for an oppor- 
tunity of comparing the skull of the Manatus australis with that from 
the west coast of Africa ; and the result of that anatomical comparison 

appeared to him to confirm the necessity for adopting M. -z — ^—r = 4:4:, 

as the normal number of the dental formula for the genus Manatus, which 
were found to have been present in the skull of the Manatee inhabiting 
the rivers of Old Calabar. 

3. Historical Review of the State of our Knowledge respecting Meta- 

morphism in the Mineral Kingdom, with special regard to certain 
recent researches. By John S. Livingston, Esq. 

Wednesday the 24th April 1861. — Alexander Bryson, Esq., President, 

in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read :< — 

1. Some statements in Cuvier' s " Natural History of Fishes," as to the 
Herring, shown to be erroneous. By J. M. Mitchell, Esq. 

Royal Physical Society. 153 

2. Observations on British Zoophytes and Protozoa. By T. Strethill 
Wright, M.D. 

(1.) On Dendrophrya radiata, a new dendritic Ehizopod. — The ani- 
mal I have now to describe is not new to me, at least I have seen it re- 
peatedly attached, to all appearance, as a small calcareous patch, to the 
fronds of Algae and Flustras. It was only while examining these fronds 
for the smaller Rhizopoda that I began to suspect its true nature, but it 
was some time before I could make out the truth of my suspicions. Its 
general appearance is that of a small shelly mass, from the borders of 
which radiates a system of blanched membranous tubes, more or less 
coated with fine grains of sand or other matter. In young specimens the 
central shell is as yet absent, and the animal merely presents the appear- 
ance of an irregular system of branches radiating from a centre. The 
shape of the adults is very various and irregular. They attain sometimes 
a diameter of nearly a quarter of an inch, though generally much smaller. 
The shell is not acted on by acids, and is therefore siliceous. Occasionally, 
especially when the animal is attached to the under surface of stones, the 
branches rise from the surface, and we can then see the arms, or pseudo- 
podia, like delicate, straight, or forked lines, protruded from their ex- 
tremities. The animal itself, which is doubtless a mere mass of semi- 
fluid sarcode, is never seen, being concealed within its central stronghold 
of finely cemented flint, and the complicated system of earthworks sur- 
rounding it. 

(2.) On the Reproduction of Ophryodendron. — I have now to give to 
the Society another chapter in the history of Ophryodendron abietinum. 
In my first account of this creature I figured one or two globular bodies 
in its interior. Professor Claparede, to whom I showed the figure, thought 
I must be mistaken as to these structures, as he had never observed any- 
thing similar. Within the last few weeks, I have again found many 
Ophryodendra loaded with these globules, and have, by cautious pressure, 
succeeded "in bursting the body of the parent, and, by this somewhat 
"meddlesome midwifery," liberated the young. At an early stage, the 
young consist of ovoid bodies of higher refractive structure than the body 
of the parent, and contain olive-brown corpuscles, shaped like the chloro- 
phyll of Hydra viridis. At a later stage, when the wrinkled trunk of the 
parent hangs lax and dead^ the young larvae assumes a slightly pyriform 
shape, flattened on their inferior surface. This surface is also marked 
with longitudinal striae, carrying short, soft, slowly-moving cilia. The 
young Ophryodendron, when first attached, is an irregular sac, from which 
arises a short, stumpy, un wrinkled proboscis, surmounted by three or 
four tentacles. As development proceeds, the neck gradually loses its 
granular character, acquires the power of elongating itself, and puts forth 
other tentacles, until it becomes the magnificent appendage of the adult. 

(3.) On Lecythia elegans. — This animal is found not unfrequently on 
the polypidoms of zoophytes. It is exceedingly minute, and requires the 
highest microscopic powers and most careful adjustment of the light for 
its accurate definition. The body is flask or caraffe-shaped, mounted on 
a long, thin, rigid pedicle, and enclosed in a closely fitting envelope or 
cell. The summit is dilated, and furnished with a variable number of 
long, slender, diverging tentacles, which appear to correspond to those of 
Actinophrys, or to the pseudopodia of the Rhizopods. When the tentacles 
are contracted, they assume the form of a bossed coronet. These animals 
sometimes occur in immense numbers, forming a dense mass over the 
surfaces to which they grow ; in these cases it is impossible to make any- 


154 Proceedings of Societies. 

thing of them. It is only when we catch a single individual alone, 
under favourable circumstances of position and light, that we can per- 
suade him to give a satisfactory account of himself. 

(4.) On the Reproduction of the Rhizopoda. — Since the last meeting of 
the Society, I have discovered the occurrence of spermatozoa in Gromia. 
Schultze has observed the occurrence of living young in Rotalia, and I 
have confirmed the same fact in Spirulina, which had been observed by 
Ehrenberg, but was doubted by Williamson. It is a question whether 
these young are gemmae or the product of ova. 

8. Notes of Deep-Sea Soundings. By E. W. Dubuc, M.D., R.N. 
Communicated by Mr J. B. Davies. 

4. Further notice of the Herring and Sprat Fishery of the Firth of 
Forth. By George Logan, Esq., Convener of the Society's Commit- 
tee on Marine Zoology. 

Mr J. M. Mitchell exhibited several specimens of the gnrvie herring, 
Clupea sprattus, with well developed milt and roe. These fish were 
taken above Queensferry about the end of March. 

A Specimen of the ^Equoreal Pipe-Fish, taken at Inchkeith, was ex- 
hibited by William S. Young, Esq. 

Dr J. A. Smith exhibited a specimen of the Spotted Crake or Rail 
(Crex porzana) in beautiful plumage. It was shot near Bathgate on the 
17th of March. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 
Ikth March 1861.' — Professor Balfour, V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. Notes on Horticultural Experience at Russelconda, South India. 
By Dr William Traill. Communicated by Dr Clegiiorn. 

The author described the difficulties of forming a garden in the wilds 
of Orissa, the peculiarities of climate, and the results of his experience, 
which showed how much can be done by a zealous horticulturist in a 
rather wild country at a small cost. Many Cape and Australian plants, 
chiefly Acacieo? and other Leguminosai, appear to have grown well, and 
many British specimens, as Viola odorata, Dellis perennis, &c. With a 
little care, many annuals ripened their seeds abundantly, nearly as well 
as in England, such as mignonette, larkspur, &c. A variety of English 
vegetables, as beetroot, knolekole, cabbages, and onions, were successfully 
cultivated. Bombay onions from Bellary seeds attained the size of 10J 
inches in circumference, and weighed 8} oz. He grew tomatos of 7] oz. 
in weight. Cabbages formed solid hearts, and, stripped of the outer 
leaves, measured 3 feet 4 inches in circumference. The seeds were ob- 
tained from the Nilgiris, and proved excellent. On the whole, the author 
believes Gumsur to be an admirable climate for horticulture, and it seems 
important that similar observations should be made and recorded at the 
different stations of our vast Indian empire. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 


Tabular list of Annuals, &c, soivn at Russelconda in 1858 and 1859, 
shoiving their time of germination, flowering, <$cc. 

Name of Plants. 




Sweet Peas 

Do., another parcel ... 
Poppy (red) 

Oentaurea Cyanus . . 

Centaurea depressa. . . 

Larkspur, purple 

and pink 

Antirrhinum majus, ) 

of mixed colours . J 

Ten-week Stocks 


Tropseolum majus .... 
Nolana prostrata 

Do. do 

China Pink 

Sweet William 

Globe Amaranth, \ 

orange coloured J 
Geranium, Scarlet ... 











































Oct. 29 
Nov. 13 

— 16 

— 11 

— 22 

— . 4 

— 1 

— 14 

— 2 

— 15 

— 20 

— 22 

— 3 
Dec. 3 
Nov. 16 

— 17 

— 20 
Oct. 29 

When in 



Dec. 27 
Jan. 3 

— 4 

— 31 

Feb. '5 
Jan. 17 
— 15 


Feb. 10 

Jan. 15 
Mar. 9 
Jan. 6 
Dec. 25 
Jan. 15 
Feb. 15 
Mar. 6 

Jan. 6 


I Ripened many seeds. 

i Ripened a few good 
\ seeds. 
Did not flower. 
Ripened many seeds. 

1 Ripened many seeds. 

f Ripened very few 
\ seeds. 

Ripened many seeds. 



Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Ripened a few seeds. 

I Ripened many seeds 

Do. do. 

Ripened a few seeds. 

Ripened many seeds. 

Do. do. 

2. Description of a new species of Cladophora from the river Ouse in 
Sussex ; with additions to the local distribution of British Marine 
Algce. By Mr Robert Brown of Campster. 

3. On the varieties of Mango Fruit (Marjgifera Indica) in Southern 

India. By Dr Cleghorn. 

The author remarked — The Mango-tree is one of the most common in 
India, and is generally cultivated throughout the warm parts of Hin- 
dostan, yet there is no full account of the varieties produced in gardens. 
Dr Roxburgh {Flora Indica, i. p. 640) has given a good description of 
the tree ; and Sir William Hooker published an excellent figure in the 
Botanical Magazine, tab. 4510. 

There are many varieties of the fruit in cultivation, differing remark- 
ably in size, shape, colour, smell, and flavour. Some are large, fleshy, 
and luscious, while others are so stringy and terebinthaceous that they 
have been compared to M a mouthful of tow soaked in turpentine." The 
fine varieties, free from turpentine flavour, should be the objects of 
special culture. 

A series of forty varieties, delineated by Walter Elliot, Esq. and Dr 
Cleghorn, in various parts of South India, was exhibited, including the 
best kinds obtained from carefully grafted stocks. 

The fruit assumes different shapes; some are kidney- shaped, while 
others are roundish and compressed with a point at the apex or at one 
side. The absence of the peak or point in a graft mango usually indi- 
cates a -fine variety. The weight of the mangoes examined varied from 

156 Proceedings of Societies. 

18J oz. to 3j| oz. When the fruit attains a large size, the flavour is 

generally inferior. 

Horticulturists propagate this fruit-tree by layers and grafts. The 
natives generally are acquainted with the system of layering, but not of 
grafting, which perpetuates the flavour of the parent stock. In the 
different horticultural gardens, a great number of mango grafts are taken 
from the choicest kinds, and are annually distributed over the presidency. 

The Alphonzo and Mazagon varieties are preferred, from their honey- 
flavour and the absence of fibres ; the former, which is distinguished by 
its russet rind and deep orange mesocarp, is known at Madras as the 
Petre pasand, from the circumstance of its having been introduced from 
Bombay by a former governor, Mr Petre. Other kinds are highly 
esteemed, as Ramani (after Rama), Dil pasand (Delight of the Heart), 
Shah pasand (Delight of the King), &c. Some have a slightly acid taste, 
and the mesocarp varies in colour from orange to nearly white. 

Mangoes of very fine quality are produced in the Chittur, Salem, and 
Bangalore districts of the Madras Presidency. 

Report of the Flowering of Plants in the Botanic Garden. 
By xMr M'Nab. 

Scilla bifolia-alba, . Mar. 9 

— 26 

Hyoscyamus Scopolia, — 


— 28 

Rhododendron Nobleanum — 


Mar. 4 

Pulmonaria mollis, . — 


— 6 

Corydalis nobilis, . — 


— 6 

Primula nivalis, . — 


— 7 

Erj'thronium Dens-canis, — 


— 7 

Puschkinia scilloides, — 


— 8 

Symphytum caucasicum, Feb. 24 
Muscari botryoides . 
Anchusa sempervirens 
Orobus vermis 
Narcissus puniilus, 
Arabis albida, 
Primula denticulata, 
Scilla bifolia, blue, . 
„ sibirica, 

Thursday lllh April — Dr W. H. Lowe, President in the Chair. 
The following communications were read : — 

1. The Flora of Iceland. By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., F.R.S.E., 

F.L.S., &c. 

(This paper appears in the present number of the Journal.) 

2. On the species of Dioscorea (yams) occurring in South India. By 

Dr Cleghorn. 
The author adverted to the great importance of these tropical esculents, 
which are of such value in eastern countries, particularly in seasons of 
famine like the present, when the rice crops have failed and the suffer- 
ing population resort to the forests in quest of yams and other indigenous 
roots. The Arcbcece and Dioscoreacece yield starchy tubers, which are 
much more wholesome than the Cucurbitaceous fruits so extensively used 
by the natives. The former contain a large amount of nutriment, and 
when roasted or steeped in cold water are deprived of their acridity ; but 
the latter are a fruitful source of diarrhoea and mischief. A good con- 
Bpectus of the genus is still a desideratum. The best description of the 
Asiatic species was given forty years ago by Roxburgh, who cultivated 
seventeen species in the Botanic Garden, Calcutta, the roots having been 
transmitted to him from different districts of Bengal. Of these, thirteen 
species are now recognised in the public gardens. The student will find re- 
presentations of these in Wight's lt Iconcs," and in Rhoede's " Hortus 
Malaharicus." The growth of some of the yam tribe is very remarkable. 
A tu'hcr of Dioscorea (data, lib in weight, was planted at Madras in 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 157 

June, and lifted at the end of nine months, when the weight was found to 
be 27]j lbs. The best known and most esteemed kinds are D. acideata, 
"Goa potato;" D. Batatas, "Chinese yam/' D. purpurea, "Pondicherry 
potato;" and D. fasciculata, " Tenasserim yam." Besides these, D. glo- 
bosa and D. alata, with Arum campanulatum, are much cultivated ; 
whilst D. bulbifera, pentaphylla, and oppositifolia are common species 
in the jungles. 

3. Effect of the late Winter on the Coniferce and other Trees and Shrubs 

at Belstane. By Mr P. S. Robertson. 

4. Report on the effects of the Frost on the Trees at Borthwich Hall 
and Vicinity, the Property of Charles Lawson, Esq. By Mr W. 

Thursday, 9th May. — Dr W. H. Lowe, President, in the Chair. 
The following Communications were read : — ■ 

1. Observations on some hitherto undescribed Plants from New Zealand. 

By Dr Ferdinand Mueller, Melbourne. Communicated by Professor 


Amongst a considerable number of living plants forwarded by Th. H. 
Hulke, Esq. from the vicinity of New Plymouth, to the Botanic Garden of 
Melbourne, and also in a fine collection of dried botanical specimens, 
which the Melbourne Phytological Museum owes to the zeal and liber- 
ality of Julius Haast, Esq., of Nelson, I had the gratification of observ- 
ing several plants which appear to me novel and deserving special 
notice. In making these plants known through the medium of the Edin- 
burgh Botanical Society, T avail myself of the opportunity thus afforded 
of publicly recording the services rendered by their discoverers in pro- 
moting our knowledge of the New Zealand Flora, the foundation of which 
has been so well laid by Dr J. D. Hooker, in the justly celebrated Flora 
Novo? Zealandice. Whilst the misfortune of one of the above gentlemen, 
who saw in the northern island a flourishing estate and garden establish- 
ment annihilated by the hordes now waging war against British so- 
vereignty, calls for our deep sympathy ; we cannot but with the utmost 
pleasure turn to the southern or middle island, where, under the shelter of 
peace, an ardent geographical and geological explorer finds leisure and 
exhibits a desire to bring within the range of his observation forms of 
vegetation which are yet replete with novelty. 

Veronica Hulkeana. — Shrubby ; branches very finely downy, cylindri- 
cal ; leaves opposite, subcoriaceous, rather distant, long-stalked, subcor- 
date-ovate, coarsely and almost doubly crenate-serrate, soon glabrous ; 
spikes distant, terminal, simply paniculate ; bracteoles deltoid- ovate, 
shorter than the calyx, as well as the ovate lobes of the latter ciliolate ; 
corolla glabrous ; its lobes considerably longer than the tube ; capsule 
obcordate -roundish, turgid ; seeds few, curved- ellipsoid. In mountain- 
forests towards New Plymouth. — Th. H. Hulke, Esq. 

The specimen cultivated in the Melbourne Botanic Garden forms a small 
shrub. Leaves generally from 1" to \\" long, shining on both surfaces, 
paler beneath, strongly one-nerved, with thin pinnately spreading veins. 
Spikes many, opposite, usually with conspicuous special peduncles, l ;/ to 1\" 
long ; the lowest supported by a diminutive leaf. Segments of the calyx 
almost equal, nearly V" long. Corolla about 2^" long ; three of its lobes 
rhomboid-orbicular, the fourth orbicular ovate. Anthers ovate, with 
bilobed bases about fy" long. Style capillary, hardly longer than 2'" . 
Stigma minutely bilobed. Capsule not seen in a matured state ; already, 
when young, somewhat longer than the calyx. 

158 Proceedings of Societies. 

Oingidium Ilaasiii (sect, Aeiphylla). — Stem erect ; vaginae blunt ; 
radical leaves long- stalked, in circumference rhomboid-ovate, tripin- 
nati-sect, plurijugate ; general and special raches jointed ; pinnae pluri- 
jugate ; segments small, crowded, narrowly lanceolate -linear, almost 
flat, acute, entire, pellucidly one-nerved, without streaks, veinless, 
terminated by a short capillary bristle ; peduncles, with exception of the 
base, leafless; general involucre few- leaved ; leaflets of the involucelia 
several, shorter than the umbellula, as well as those of the involucre 
linear and acuminate ; styles capillary, rather long, finally recurved ; 
fruits short-pedicelled, oblong, more attenuated upwards ; mericarps 
usually equal, each acutely five-ribbed. 

On the subalpine summit of the " Black Hill," the middle island of 
New Zealand, at an elevation from 4000 to 4500 feet. Julius Haast, 

This species differs from Gingidium procwmbens (F. M. Fragm. 
Phytogr. Austr. i., 15; Jos. Hook. Flor. Tasm. ii., 363), in erect taller 
growth, larger, much more divided leaves, more elongated and slender 
styles, and longer fruits. G. antipodum and several other allied species 
differ in the want of the bristles, which terminate the lobes of the leaves 
in G. Haastii. 

Senecio Traversii.^—'Tierlon.ceous, perennial, stemless ; leaves radical, 
ovate oblong, on elongated downy petioles, blunt at the base and apex, 
slightly crenulated, emitting a stalked gland from between each notch, 
above sparingly hispid from short rigid hairs, beneath finely downy, and 
when old glabrescent ; scape hardly extending beyond the leaves, as well 
as the petioles, clothed with an imperfect toment and with scattered arti- 
culated hairs, bearing a few remote broad-linear bracts and two flowers ; 
special peduncles longer than the flowerhead, provided with a few linear 
tomentose bracteoles ; involucre almost campanulate, outside glandulous 
and hispidulous downy, consisting of 10 to 12 scales, not sphacelate at the 
apex, with exceedingly few bracteoles at the base ; discal flowers some- 
what longer than the involucre ; ligules 11 to 13, their lamina oblong- 
linear, longer than the involucre ; anthers exserted ; achenes glabrous. 

Alps, near Nelson — Julius Haast, Esq. The only specimen seen by 
ine is about a span high. Petioles emerging from a long soft tomentum, 
nearly as long as the leaves. The latter herbaceous, 3" to 4" long ; their 
mid-rib, lateral nerves, and netted veins, more conspicuous beneath. 
Bracts less than 1" long. Scales of the flower-bearing involucre about 
2%" long, green. Ligules usually three-toothed. Corollae of disk hardly 
longer than 2'". Setae of pappus white, forming several rows, slightly 
scabrous, at least in a young state not quite so long as the corresponding 
corolla. Achenia, before being perfectly ripe, V" long. 

This very distinct species is allied to $. primulifolius (F. M. in 
Transact. Vict. Inst, ii., 69; J. Hook. Flor. Tasm. ii., 365). We 
have distinguished it with the name of the Honourable Judge Travers of 
Nelson, an acute and zealous observer of the New Zealand Flora. 

Dr Mueller has requested me to add a note to the above descriptions, 
expressing my belief that they refer to hitherto undescribed species. 

Jos. D. Hooker. 
Kew, April 20, 1861. 

3. Account of a Botanical Trip to Ben Ledi, with Pupils, in July 1860. 
By Professor Balfour. 

< >n Saturday 21st July I860, at 0.30 a.m., a party of about 100 met at 
the Scottish Central L'ailway Station, and proceeded to Callander. After 
breakfasting at Mr M'Gowan's inn they walked towards Ben Ledi, a 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 159 

mountain which rises to the height of 2863 feet above the level of the sea, 
and which lies on the junction of two formations — the clay slate and mica 
slate — being a true mica slate on the northwest, and a clay slate, or rather 
greywacke, on the south-east declivity. After leaving Callander the party 
crossed the river in the Pass of Leny, and proceeded towards Loch Lub~ 
naig. On the way they gathered Corydalis claviculata, Hypericum 
humifusum, Galium Mollvgo, G. boreale, Lysimachia Nummularia , 
Car ex irrigua, which was observed by Mr A. Bell, as well as Vaccinium 
Oxycoccus. In Loch Lubnaig, Isoetes lacustris, Lobelia Dortmanna, 
Subularia aquatica, were gathered. Lysimachia vulgaris was also met 
with. From Loch Lubnaig the party ascended Ben Ledi : they pro- 
ceeded by the side of a stream which has cut out a deep passage for itself, 
and they examined especially the rocks near the summit on the northern 
side. The best plants were found on the mica slate soil. Among the in- 
teresting plants gathered were the following : — Thalictrum alpinum, 
Draba incana, Silene acaulis, Alchemilla alpina, Bubus saxatilis, R. 
Charnozmorus, Sibbaldia procumbens, Epilobium alpinum, Sedum angli- 
cum, Saxifraga aizoides, 8. hypnoides, 8. nivalis, 8., oppositifolia, 8. 
stellaris, Meum athamanticum, Cornus suecica, Antennaria dioica, 
Hieracium alpinum, 8aussurea alpina , Vaccinium uliginosum, V. Vitis- 
idosa, Armeria maritima, Oxyria reniformis, Polygonum viviparum, 
8alix herbacea, Gymnadenia albida, Habenaria chlorantha, Listera 
cordata, Tofieldia palustris, Juncus supinus, J. triglumis, J. trifidus, 
Rhynchospora alba, Carex rigida, Poa montana, Botrychium Lunaria, 
Allosorus crispus, Asplenium viride, Hymenophyllum Wilsoni. 

4. Letter from Dr Kirk of the Zambesi Expedition, dated 2d December 
1860. Communicated by Professor Balfour. 


1. On the Geology of the Country between Lake Superior and the 
Pacific Ocean (between 48° and 55° parallels of latitude), explored 
by the Government Exploring Expedition under the command of 
Captain J. Palliser (1857-60). By James Hector, M.D. Communi- 
cated by Sir R. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S. — This paper gave the geo- 
logical results of three years' exploration of the British Territories 
in North America along the frontier line of the United States, and 
westward from Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean. It began by 
showing that the central portion of North America is a great triangular 
plateau, bounded by the Rocky Mountains, Alleghanies, and Lauren - 
tian axis, stretching from Canada to the Arctic Ocean, and divided into 
two slopes by a watershed that nearly follows the political boundary- 
line, and throws the drainage to the Gulf of Mexico and the Arctic Ocean. 
The northern part of this plateau has a slope, from the Rocky Mountains 
to the eastern or Laurentian axis, of six feet in the mile, but is broken 
by steppes, which exhibit lines of ancient denudation at three different 
levels ; the lowest is of freshwater origin ; the next belongs to the Drift- 
deposits, and the highest is the great Prairie-level of undenuded Creta- 
ceous strata. This plateau has once been complete to the eastern axis, 
but is now incomplete along its eastern edge, the soft strata having been 
removed in the region of Lake Winipeg. The eastern axis sends oif a 
spur that encircles the west shore of Lake Superior, and is composed of 

1 fiO Scientific Intelligence. 

metamorphic rocks and granite of the Laurentian Series. To the west 
of this follows a belt where the floor of the plateau is exposed, consisting 
of Lower Silurian and Devonian rocks. On these rest Cretaceous strata, 
which prevail all the way to the Rocky Mountains, overlaid here and 
there by detached tertiary basins. The Rocky Mountains are composed 
of Carboniferous and Devonian limestones, with massive quartzites and 
conglomerates, followed to the west by a granitic tract which occupies the 
bottom of the great valley between the Rocky and the Cascade Mountains. 
The Cascade chain is volcanic, but the volcanoes are now inactive; to the 
west of it, along the Pacific coast, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata prevail. 
The description of these rocks was given with considerable detail on 
account of their containing a lignite, which for the first time has been 
determined to be of Cretaceous age. This lignite, which is of very 
superior quality, has been worked for some years past by the Hudson 
Bay Company, and is in great demand for the steam-navy of the Pacific 
station, and for the manufacture of gas. Extensive lignite-deposits in the 
Prairie were also alluded to ; and, like those above mentioned, were con- 
sidered to be of Cretaceous age ; but, besides these, there are also lignites 
of the Tertiary period. The general conclusion was that the existence of 
a supply of fuel in the Islands of Formosa and Japan, in Vancouver's 
Island, in the Cretaceous strata of the western shores of the Pacific, but 
principally within the British territory, and in the plains along the 
Saskatchewan, will exercise a most important influence in considering the 
practicability of a route to our Eastern possessions through the Canadas, 
the Prairies, and British Columbia. — Proc. Geol. Soc, Lond. 


2. On the Prevalence of certain forms of Disease in connection with 
Hail and Snow Shoivers, and the Electric condition of the Atmosphere. 
By Dr Thomas Moffat, F.G.S. — In 1852, while deducing results from 
the meteorological observations of the two previous years, the author 
observed that an intimate connection existed between falls of snow and 
hail and diseases of the nervous centres, such as apoplexy, epilepsy, 
paralysis, and vertigo ; and the results of eight more years bear out 
the truth of the observation. A table formed from two hundred and 
thirty-six cases of the above diseases, and upwards of one thousand 
observations of the electrometor, is given, showing the percentage of 
hail and snow showers, the cases of diseases of the nervous centres, 
and the times that the air was positive and negative with each wind. 
From this table it appears that with the wind from the N., N.E., E., 
and S.E. points, which the author calls the snow points, the percentage 
of hail and snow showers is 23*2 ; of cases of apoplexy, &c, 367 ; of 
positive electricity, 27'0 ; and of negative electricity, 34*1 ; while with 
the wind from the hail points, S., S.W., W., and N.W., the per- 
centages are respectively 76'6, 65 - 7, 72*6, and 67'5, thus showing that 
the number of cases of disease increases with the frequency of hail and 
snow showers, and the consequently increased frequency of the alternations 
of positive and negative electricity. All observers agree that the air is 
negative on the approach of great storms, and negative, or alternately 
negative and positive, in unsettled weather ; and the author remarks, that 
such storms are almost invariably accompanied by convulsive diseases, or 
diseases of the nervous centres in some form ; and in support of his state- 
ment he quotes many cases from his notes of the storms of the last twelve 
months, but more particularly the succession of gales which occurred from 
the 21st to the 30th of October 1869 (in one of which the " Royal 
Charter" was lost), the gales of the 25th, 26th, and 27th, of May last, 
which were accompanied with frequent hail-showers ; and those of the 

Meteorology. 161 

24th of August and four following days. Other forms of disease accom- 
pany these atmospheric conditions, such as premature uterine action, 
epistaxis, and diarrhoea, with vomiting and cramps; and cases of this class 
are quoted by the author from his notes ; and he remarks that it would 
thus appear that negative electricity plays an important part in the above 
atmospheric conditions and morbid actions. After describing the elec- 
trical phenomena of continued heavy rains, and of thunder storms and 
heavy showers of hail and snow, the author observes that as the electrical 
tension of the clouds which produce these storms and showers is always 
strong, it must have a coercive force upon all bodies at the earth's surface ; 
and that as, according to our notions of electrical action, the moment the 
influence of the inducing body is removed, a re -arrangement of the 
electricities in the induced body takes place, we cannot well avoid the 
conclusion that during the period of induction, and when the re-arrange- 
ment — the rebound — the bach stroke occurs, some important action must 
take place in the organic forces, such as the nervous and the muscular. 
Cases are quoted in illustration ; and the author then remarks that from a 
long series of observations it would appear that there is an intimate con- 
nection between hail and snow showers, stormy weather, atmospheric 
electricity, and certain forms of disease ; and he ventures to add that hail 
and snow are formed under the influence of opposite electrical conditions, 
and concludes by suggesting the means of putting this opinion to the test 
of experiment. — Proceed, of Lit. and Phil. Society of Manchester. 

Tiveeddale Prize for Meteorological Observations. — Much yet remains 
to be done by meteorologists ere we can predict what is to be the nature 
of the weather during any season. Dr Lindley justly remarks, " For 
ourselves, we venture to think that meteorology is too much in its in- 
fancy to afford sufficient data on which to ground predictions of future 
weather with such a degree of accuracy as to make them of any great 
practical use. Situated as we are in the midst of the ocean, at so com- 
fortable a distance from the tropics, whence moisture is brought over in 
a moment, without any particular wind, or apparent cause, it seems to 
be peculiarly difficult, if not impracticable , to predict weather many hours 
before its occurrence.' 1 

By country people many meteorological phenomena have been ob- 
served from generation to generation, which give indications of weather. 
To some of these the Marquis of Tweeddale has recently called attention 
in the following circular : — 

" The observers intending to compete for the premium offered by the 
Marquis of Tweeddale, on temperature affecting exposed self-registering 
thermometers, are requested by his Lordship to pay attention to, and 
record the dates of, the following phenomena, for the observing of which 
no aid by instruments is required, and which are expected to be recorded 
only when any marked change takes place in the weather following the 
occurrence of any of the phenomena enumerated. These phenomena 
are : — 

" Clouds, whether singly or in combination, their kinds — and espe- 
cially, whether a convergence of cirri or cirro-cumuli clouds (commonly 
called ' mares' tails/ or ' mackerel sky'), at opposite points of the horizon, 
is followed in about twelve hours, in winter by snow, and in summer by 
rain ; and whether the line of such convergence is always at right angles 
to the direction of the wind. 

" Sunrises and Sunsets — especially, whether, when the sun rises in red, 
and the colour or clouds subside behind him, it will be fair weather ; and 
whether, when they rise before him, it will be rain. 

** Rainbows — especially, whether single rainbows, and in the afternoon, 
are indicative of fair weather, and double rainbows, and a rainbow in 


162 Scientific Intelligence. 

the morning, foretell rain ; and also, whether stubs or pieces of rainbow 
foretell storms and rain. 

" Aurora BoreaUs — especially, whether a brilliant aurora, in early 
autumn, is followed in forty-eight hours by a storm of wind and rain 
which lasts two or three days. 

" Haloes, Coronas, and Parhelia ; whether they are all indicative of 
rain in connection with the sun and moon — and especially, whether, when 
a break is observed in a corona round the moon, the wind will ultimately 
blow from that quarter. 

" Thunder and Lightning — especially, whether a severe storm of thun- 
der and lightning at the end of May or beginning of June is followed, for 
six weeks or more, by a low temperature ; and whether flashes of sheet 
lightning in the night indicate snow in winter, and rain in summer. 

"Meteors or Fire Balls; whether they certainly predict a storm of 
wind and rain. 

" Falling Stars, and their effects* — and especially, whether the wind 
will chop round quickly in the direction to which the star falls. 

" Stars — when visible very near the moon, whether they predict rain. 

" Mists and Fogs — especially, whether, when the mist is seen going 
up the hill-side and passing away behind the hill, it is followed by fine 
weather ; and whether, when the mist descends the hill-face, it is fol- 
lowed by rain ; and what follows a fog in frost, and an eastern fog from 
the sea in spring' — whether these are signs of wet or dry weather. 

" Distant Objects — when apparently nearer, or with better defined - 
outlines than usual — whether a sign of rain, and how soon after. 

11 Rain and Drought, their duration and effects— and especially, 
whether, when a slight shower of rain falls in the morning, and but for 
a short time, the weather will be fine for the rest of the day ; and 
whether, when rain begins to fall heavily about midday, it will continue 
to fall until dark or afterwards. 

" Seed-time. — First sowing of seed in spring, specifying the kinds. 

11 Harvest. — First day and last day of harvest. 

" Trees. — Whether, when the oak puts forth its leaves before the ash, 
the following summer is wet or dry. 

u Hoar-Frost. — Whether the arrangement of the crystals of hoar-frost 
on the margin of the leaves of evergreens is always the same on the 
same kind of plant, and different on different kinds of plants. 

" Animals. — Whether the actions of animals — such as sheep making 
their lair in a sheltered place, pigs carrying straw in their mouth — are 
indicative of a change of weather. 

11 Birds. — The cries of birds — as the whistling of the curlew, the call of 
the partridge, the scream of the peacock, the drumming of the snipe in 
the air — whether they indicate any change. 

" The flocking of birds in large numbers, and its effects. 

" The first and last appearance of the swallow, specifying the different 

" Sounds. — The roaring of the ocean, the hearing of distant sounds, 
and their effects. 

" Any other phenomena which the observers have noticed, would be 
desirable to have noted down. 

11 It would be also desirable to have the opinion of the observers as to 
the cause or causes of the phenomena they observe and record. 

" A collection of the popular sayings in regard to the weather, from 
shepherds, ploughmen, fishermen, and seamen, would be a valuable ac- 
quisition for the Meteorological Society, in order to their being corrobo- 
rated or refuted." 

Stephen* on Meteorological Phenomena. — Mr Henry Stephens (the well- 

Meteorology. 163 

known author of the " Book of the Farm"), in a letter to Professor Bal- 
four, remarks : — " When Noah's ark, or the boat, as it is called by the 
country people — I don't know its scientific name — occurs, a fall is indi- 
cated. The ark consists of a convergence of clouds towards a point on 
each side of the horizon, and the line between the points is always at 
right angles to the wind for the time being. When the clouds consist of 
the cirri, which they usually do, the fall will occur in twelve hours, snow 
in frost, and rain in summer. I had a confirmation of this result, which 
I never saw fail, while visiting Lord WharnclifFe this Christmas at Wort- 
ley, near Sheffield. The ark appeared distinctly in the heavens, with a 
clear sun, on Monday afternoon, and a heavy fall of snow took place on 
Tuesday, Christmas -day, and which I predicted firmly on the Monday. 

" Another certain indication is, that when a severe thunder storm occurs 
in May or early in June, cold weather will follow for six weeks. This 
was verified to the letter this season. 

"Another indication is, that when a bright aurora borealis occurs in 
autumn, and for the first time in the season, a heavy rain and storm will 
be sure to come in forty -eight hours, and for two or three days together. 
This has been repeatedly verified by Dr Christison, from whom I ob- 
tained the information. 

" I may mention, that while at Wortley I placed the self- registering 
thermometer in the snow, a slight shower of which had fallen before I went 
to that part of the country, from where it usually stood in front of a large 
hedge of Portugal laurels, and it there showed a difference of 7° during 
the course of the twenty-four hours, and on Christmas morning it marked 
2° below zero. This shows how important it is to know the position of a 
thermometer before you can judge of its indications. 

" From this circumstance, I am persuaded that the Marquis of Tweed- 
dale's prizes for ascertaining the temperature as affecting the thermo- 
meter when exposed as the crops are, will reveal some curious and im- 
portant results ; for to take the temperature constantly in the shade, is 
equivalent to taking it only in a cloudy day, in so far as the heat from 
the sun is concerned. — I am yours sincerely, Henry Stephen. 

On the Temperature of the Earth! s Crust, as exhibited by Thermome- 
trical Observations obtained diwing the sinking of the Deep Mine at 
Duhinfield. By W. Fairbairn, LL.D., &c. — During the prosecution 
of researches on the conductivity and fusion of various substances, an op- 
portunity occurred of ascertaining by direct experiments, under favour- 
able circumstances, the increase of temperature in the crust of the 
earth. This was obtained by means of thermometers placed in bore- 
holes, at various depths, during the sinking of one of the deepest mines 
in England, namely, the coal mine belonging to F. D. Astley, Esq., at 
Dukinfield, which has been sunk to a depth of 700 yards. The increase 
of temperature in descending, shown by these observations, is irregular ; 
nor is this to be wondered at, if we consider the difficulties of the en- 
quiry, and the sources of error in assuming the temperature in a single 
bore-hole as the mean temperature of the stratum. At the same time, 
it is not probable that the temperature in the mine-shaft influenced the 
results. The rate of increase has been shown in previous experiments to 
be directly as the depth, and this is confirmed by the experiments. The 
amount of increase is from 51° F. to 57f°, as the depth increases from 
5-f to 231 yards, or 1° in 99 feet ; but, in this case, the higher tempera- 
ture is not very accurately determined. From 231 to 685 yards, the tem- 
perature increases from 57f° F. to 75^°. This is a mean increase of 1° in 
76*8 feet, which does not widely differ from the results of other observers. 
Walferdin and Arago found an increase of 1° in 59 feet ; at Rehme, in 
an Artesian well 760 yards deep, the increase was 1° in 5-1*7 feet ; De 
La Rive and Marcet found an increase of 1° in 51 feet at Geneva. 

164 Scientific Intelligence. 

Other experiments have given 1 in 71 feet. The observations are 
affected by the varying conductivity of the rocks, and by the percolation 
of water. The author has exhibited upon a diagram, in which the ordi- 
nates are depths, and the abscissae temperatures, the results obtained 
between the depths of 231 and 717 yards. The strata of the mine are 
also shown in section. Additional to these, the author gave a table of 
similar results in another pit at the same colliery, taken between the depths 
of 167* and 467 yards, and showing an increase of temperature of 1° in 
106 feet of descent. Assuming as an hypothesis, that the law thus found 
for a depth of 790 yards, continues to operate at greater depths, we 
arrive at the conclusion that at 2\ miles from the surface a temperature 
of 212° would be reached, and at forty miles a temperature of 3000°, 
which we may suppose sufficient to melt the hardest rocks. The author 
then discusses the effect of pressure and increased conductivity of the 
rocks in modifying this result. If the fusing point increased 1°*3 F. for 
every 500 lbs. pressure, as is the case with wax, spermaceti, &c, the depth 
would be increased from 40 to 65 miles before the fluid nucleus would be 
reached ; but as the same increase is not observed with tin and barytes, 
the influence of pressure on the thickness of the crust cannot yet be deter- 
mined. Again, Mr Hopkins has shown that the conductivity of the dense 
igneous rocks is twice as great as that of the superficial sedimentary 
deposits of clay, sand, chalk, &c. And these close-grained igneous rocks 
are those which we believe must most resemble the strata at great depths. 
Now, if the conductivity of the lower rocks be twice as great as that of 
the strata in which the observations were made, correcting our former 
estimate, we should probably have to descend 80 or 100 miles, instead of 
40, to reach a temperature of 3,000°, besides the further increase due to 
the influence of pressure on the fusing point. On entirely independent 
data, Mr Hopkins has been led to conclude that the minimum thickness of 
the crust does not fall short of 800 miles, in which case the superficial tem- 
perature of the crust would have to be accounted for from some other cause 
than an internal fluid nucleus. — Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Manchester. 


On the Alleged Practice of Arsenic Eating in Styria. By Dr H. E. 
Roscoe. — Dr Roscoe being anxious to obtain further definite information 
respecting the extraordinary statements of Von Tschudi, quoted by 
Johnston in his " Chemistry of Common Life," that persons in Styria 
are in the habit of regularly taking doses of arsenious acid, varying in 
quantity from 2 to 5 grains daily, was supplied, through the kindness of 
his friend Professor Pebal, of Lemberg, with a series of letters written 
by seventeen medical men of Styria, to the Government medical inspector 
at Gratz, concerning the alleged practice. After reviewing the opinions 
of Dr Taylor, Mr Kesteven, and Mr Heisch, upon the subject, and having 
mentioned the results and conclusions arrived at by those who had pre- 
viously interested themselves with the subject, Mr Roscoe stated that all 
the letters received from the medical men in Styria, agree in acknow- 
ledging the general prevalence of a belief, that certain persons are in 
the habit of continually taking arsenic in quantities usually supposed 
sufficient to produce death. Many of the reporting medical men had no 
experience of the practice ; others describe certain cases of arsenic eating, 
which have not come under their personal notice, but which they have 
been told of by trustworthy people whose names are given ; whilst others, 
again, report upon cases which they themselves have observed. Pro- 
fessor Roscoe proceeded to bring forward, in the first place, evidence 
bearing upon the question, — Is, or is not, arsenious acid, or arsenic in 
any other form, well known to, and distributed amongst the people of 
Styria V He said that he had received 6 grins, of a white substance, for- 

Miscellaneous. 165 

warded by Professor Gottlieb, in Gratz, accompanied by a certificate 
from the district judge of Knittelfeld, in Styria ; stating that this sub- 
stance was brought to him by a peasant woman, who told him that she 
had seen her farm-labourer eating it, and that she gave it up to justice 
to put a stop to so evil a practice. An accurate chemical analysis showed 
that the substance was pure arsenious acid. Extracts from many of the 
reports of the medical men were then read, all stating that arsenious 
acid, called "Hidrach" by the Styrian peasants, is well known and 
widely distributed in that country. The second question to which Mr 
Roscoe sought to obtain an answer was, whether arsenic is, or is not, 
regularly taken by persons in Styria in quantities usually supposed to 
produce immediate death ? The most narrowly examined, and therefore 
the most interesting case of arsenic eating, is one recorded by Dr Schafer. 
In presence of Dr Knappe of Oberzehring, a man thirty years of age, 
and in robust health, eat, on the 22d February 1860, a piece of arsenious 
acid, weighing 4^ grains ; and, on the 23d, another piece, weighing 5% 
grains. His urine was carefully examined, and shown to contain arsenic ; 
on the 24th he went away in his usual health. He informed Dr Knappe 
that he was in the habit of taking the above quantities three or four times 
each week. A number of other cases, witnessed by the medical men 
themselves, of persons eating arsenic, were then detailed. Dr Holler of 
Hartberg says that he and other persons, named in his report, guarantee 
that they are together acquainted with forty persons who eat arsenic ; 
and Dr Forcher of Gratz gives a list of eleven people in his neighbour- 
hood who indulge in the practice. Professor Roscoe did not think it 
necessary to translate the reports in extenso ; he gave extracts containing 
the portions immediately bearing upon the two questions at issue, and 
deposited authentic copies of the original reports with the Society, for 
the purpose of reference. He concluded, that decisive evidence had, in 
his opinion, been brought forward, not only to prove that arsenic is well 
known and widely distributed in Styria, but that it is likewise regularly 
eaten, for what purpose he did not at the moment investigate, in quantities 
usually considered sufficient to produce immediate death. — Trans, of 
Manch. Lit. and Phil. Soc, 1860. 

Dr Livingstone and his Researches. — The following letters from Dr 
Livingstone, addressed to Sir Roderick Murchison, were read at a meet- 
ing of the Royal Geographical Society in London : — 

" Sesheke, Sept. 10, 1860. 

" My dear Sir Roderick, — Feeling in honour bound to take the Mako- 
lolo back to their own country, and disliking the idea of coming to a stand- 
still while waiting for news of a real steamer, we started on the 16th of 
May from Tete, and in three months accomplished a distance of some 600 

" Our route lay along the north bank of the Zambesi, crossing the 
mountain mass in which Kebrabasa lies, and the Loangua and Kafue at 
their confluences ; then along the fine fertile valley in which the Zam- 
besi gently flows (being new ground) for about 100 miles ; then turning 
westward, in lat. 17. 18. S., up a sandy river (the Zongue) till we saw 
the source of the fragments of coal strewed on its bed. Ascended about 
2000 feet above the Zambesi, or 3000 feet above the level of the sea, to 
the base of Tabacheu ; breathed for a short time the clear, cold, reviving 
air on the highlands, and actually saw hoar frost and a little ice ; then 
descended into the great valley of the Makololo. When within 20 miles 
of Victoria Falls, we could see the columns of vapour with the naked 
eye, and there I could not resist the temptation of acting the showman to 
my companions, Dr Kirk and Mr C. Livingstone, though by diverging 
from our straight course to Sesheke we added some 40 miles to our 

160 Scientific Intelligence. 

tramp. The hippopotami had eaten all my trees, so henceforth we shall 
have war with them to the knife. They are good food, half beef and half 
pork, and lots of fat, that serves as butter. This is part of the casus belli. 
By the way, our good friend Professor Owen and the gastronomic com- 
mittee will stand very much in their own light if the she-giraffes die a 
natural death. If they praised the eland so, which we consider but so-so, 
a dinner off she-giraffe will leave them all lying on their backs. 

" Our plan of returning is to pass Victoria Falls, and buy camels at 
Sinamanes ; then drop down the stream, so as to be at the sea in November. 
This goes by an elephant-hunter, whom we met at the Falls, to Mosili- 
katze, and thence to Kuruman. 

u We found Sekeletu labouring under a skin disease, believed to be 
leprosy, the effect, of course, of witchcraft; and several headmen had 
been executed for the alleged crime. Many influential men had died of 
fever, and the tribe is altogether in a shaky condition. They are anxious 
generally to go to the highlands, and were much disappointed at my not 

bringing Mrs L ; for all believe that she, or any member of Mr 

Moffat's family, would be a protector to them against Mosilikatze. Dur- 
ing our month's sojourn here, we have been treated to tea, American bis- 
cuits, and preserved fruits daily. We have tried to cure Sekeletu's com- 
plaint, and he is recovering ; but time and patience are required for the 
cure. It is probably an obstinate skin disease, and not leprosy. 

" But I must tell you that we were saddened by the loss of a party 
of London missionaries, as we suppose by fever, at Linyanti ; six out 
of nine Europeans perished in three months. By a remedy first tried 
on my own children at Lake Ngami in 1850, we, at a lower and more un- 
healthy part of the Zambesi, cured severe cases of the complaint in Euro- 
peans so quickly that our march was rarely interrupted more than a day 
or two ; a man stricken prostrate was sometimes able to resume his march 
on foot a day after the operation of the remedy, and this while those good 
people were helplessly perishing. The proper medicines, too, for its com- 
position were found by me in the waggon, which has been carefully 
guarded for seven years, within a few hundred yards of their grave. 1 
think it is mentioned near the end of the "Missionary Travels" which 
you made me write ; but I am now anxious that it becomes generally 
known, and there is great difficulty in the matter. Medicines so often 
deceive people ; panaceas in one hand, and nonentities in another. 1 
have, however, never failed to cure during ten years. — I am," &c. 

" David Livingstone." 

" Tete, Nov. 26, 1860. 
11 My dear Sir Roderick,' — We unfortunately missed the opportunity 
of sending overland by the elephant hunters, so I open the letter written 
at Sesheke to insert some further particulars. The river was so low we 
could easily see the bottom of one-half of the fissure which forms Victoria 
Falls ; and, indeed, people could wade from the north bank to my Garden 
Island, to form a stockade for fresh seeds. The depth is not 100 feet, 
but 310 feet — probably a few feet more, as the weight attached to the 
line rested on a slope near the bottom. The breadth from bank to bank 
is not 1000 yards, as I conjectured in 1855, but between one statute and 
one geographical mile — we say 1860 to assist the memory, but it is a little 
more, yet not quite 2000 yards. The lips of the crack at Garden Island 
may be more than 80 feet, as we could not throw a stone across, but the 
sextant gave that. Now, come to the other, or south-eastern side of the 
crack, and the fissure, which from the upper bed looks like the letter L, 
is prolonged in a most remarkable zigzag manner. The water, after leaping 
sheer down 310 feet, is collected from both ends to the upright part of the 
letter as the escape, and then flows away on the zigzag part. The promonto- 

Miscellaneous. 167 

ries formed thereby are flat at the top, and of the same level as the bed of the 
river above the Falls. The base of the first on the right is only 400 paces 
from the Fall fissure, and that on the left about 150. Their sides are as 
perpendicular as the Fall, and you can walk along among the trees, and 
by a few steps see the river some 300 or 400 feet below, jammed in a space 
of some twenty or thirty yards, and of a deep green colour. As a whole, 
the Victoria Falls are the most wonderful in the world. Even now, at 
extreme low water, or when it is^two feet lower than we ever saw it, 
there are 800 feet of water falling on the right of Garden Island. And 
the two columns of vapour, with the glorious rainbows, are a sight worth 
seeing. A fall called Momba or Moamba, below this, is interesting, 
chiefly because you look down it from a height of some 500 feet. It is 
really nothing after Mosloatunya. 

11 We visited the river twice on our way down to Sinamanes, and found 
it in a very deep crack. The boiling point gives 1600 of descent from 
the Falls of Sinamanes. Mr Moffat informs me that all the rivers in 
Mosilikatze country run N.W. or N.N.W. They enter Zambesi above 
Sinamanes, and above a remarkable mountain which possibly was the dam 
that shut in the waters of the ancient lake, before Mosloatunya was made. 
They are therefore not where, from oral information, they have been put 
in the map. The whole country below and around the Falls has been the 
scene of comparatively recent volcanic operations. Some parts look as 
recent as Eden ; some are of frothy lava, and all present a burnt appear- 
ance. A conjecture that the calcareous tuffa of Sesheke valley was emitted 
from a volcano like that which covered the cities of Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneura does not account for the roots of reeds therein, nor the bidental 
saurians of the ancient lakes ; and I question if a volcano ever threw mud 
over 200 miles square, as this lake has done. Wherever we have had 
igneous action in this country, we have had large quantities of tuffa 
bearing water after it. I cannot aecount for the enormous quantity of 
gravel and shingle below the Falls. The bed of the river and country 
generally are covered with it to a considerable depth. There is none 
above the Falls, and none below Chicova. 

" We purchased canoes and dropped down stream in order to examine 
all at low water. Kansalo is no difficulty. Kariba, a few miles below it, 
is a basaltic dyke stretched across the stream ; but it has a wide opening 
in it, dangerous for canoes, the gunwales of which were only six inches 
above the water. At Varumas there is a rapid of about 100 yards in 
length, which runs at six knots an hour. This is the most rapid part we 
have seen in the whole river. We measured the most rapid part below 
Chicova on our way up, and found it to be under four knots ; but a fall of 
about fifteen feet before our return developed several dangerous rapids 
and even cataracts, which were quite smooth when we passed Chicova. 
There seemed from the shore to be a trap dyke across the stream, like 
Kariba, but it had two openings. We passed through either the one or 
the other without observing the dyke, but we saw a large seam of fine 
coal in the bank. There is another in the bank at Manyerire Hill ; and 
besides seeing fragments of the minerals in many rivulets on both banks, 
we verified the existence of the coal-field, not to Zumbo only, as I for- 
merly pointed out, but to nearly Sinamanes, below Victoria Falls. The 
only real difficulty in the river is Morumbua, and that could be passed in 
full flood , for a rise of 80 feet must smooth it over. 

" On arriving here two days ago, we had travelled from Linyanti and 
back, some 1400 miles — the greater part on foot. We have thus kept faith 
with the Makololo, though we have done nothing else. We were swamped 
once ; but the men behaved admirably, leaping out and swimming along- 
side till we got into smooth water. In another place one canoe was up- 

168 Scientific Intelligence. 

set and property lost. We then abandoned the canoes and came home on 
foot, thankful to say ' all well.' '* 

The Victoria Falls. — Letters have been received from Dr Livingstone, 
dated January 19, 1861, and from other members of the expedition down 
to the beginning of February, giving an account of a second visit to the 
Victoria Falls. The following is Mr Livingstone's description of this 
remarkable cataract : — " On reaching the foot of the island, the singularly 
unique character of this magnificent cataract becomes apparent. A deep 
cut in the basaltic rock of the bed extends from the east to the west bank 
of the stream, here running nearly from north to south. This gash is 
but a few yards longer than the river is broad, the latter being by measure- 
ment 1860 yards. We tried to sound its depth by letting down a line, to 
the end of which was attached a weight with more than a foot of white 
calico. When 310 feet had been paid out, the weight rested upon some 
projecting rocks near the bottom, and the calico seemed no larger than a 
crown piece. There were no means of measuring the width of the cleft, 
which may be 70 yards at its narrowest and 100 at its broadest points. 
Into this yawning chasm, of more than twice the perpendicular depth of 
the Niagara Falls, the Zambesi leaps with a deafening roar, constituting 
the Victoria Falls of Mosloatunya. The waters of the Falls near the east 
bank now run in an exceedingly narrow channel along the bottom of the 
chasm, exactly at right angles to their previous course, or nearly west, 
for about 600 yards ; at which point they meet the waters of the Falls 
from the west in a fearful boiling whirlpool. The Zambesi, now ap- 
parently not more than 20 yards wide, rushes out of this furious caldron, 
rolling south through the narrow escape channel for some 150 yards. 
Here the volume of water enters a second chasm somewhat resembling 
the first, and nearly parallel to it. Abandoning the easterly third of this 
gorge to the growth of large trees, the confined river turns off to the 
west, leaving behind it a jutting promontory on either side of the escape 
channel. The westerly one is 1200 yards long, with a breadth of 400 
yards at the base, and 150 at the head ; the easterly one is about half the 
length. The stream now winds round the head of a second promontory, 
flowing back again towards the east through a third chasm ; afterwards 
gliding past a third point, and away west down another rift in the rock. 
\Ve could see in the distance that it rounded another headland, and re- 
turned once more towards the east. At the point of the third promontory 
the river was about 500 feet beneath the land, which, below the Falls, is 
about the same general level as above. Our whole party walked forth on 
the promontories, and looked down with dizzy heads to the green and 
narrow stream far, far beneath. From Garden Island the spectator com- 
mands a good view of the great chasm of the western promontory with 
its evergreen trees, and, above all, of the brilliant rainbow resting on the 
face of the vast, unbroken, perpendicular rock opposite, with occasionally 
a second, and even a third, fainter and more faint, above the grand iris. 
Just, however, as at Niagara (with which Mr Charles Livingstone was 
able, from personal observation, to compare the scene) one has to go to 
the Canada side in order to behold the great Horse-shoe Fall, so here we 
had to cross over to Mosilikatze's, or the west side, to gain the finest view 
of the two chief falls of Mosloatunya. By far the best is that from the 
longest promontory. Beginning at the west end of the chasm, there is 
first a romantic fall of about 60 feet in breadth, then an island of 600 feet 
diameter ; after which comes the main fall, consisting of an unbroken 
volume of water nearly 600 feet wide. This is separated by a few yards 
of projecting rock from the fall which is second in point of size and 
volume, being upwards of 300 feet from side to side. East of this lies 
Uarden Island, succeeded, the water being then at its lowest, by a 6eries 

Miscellaneous. 169 

of bare rocks alternating with a score of narrow falls, any one of which 
would make an English county famous. When the river is full, these 
may probably be blended into one or two larger falls. Near the east end 
of the chasm are two falls of considerable size, though nothing like the 
two betwixt the islands. The spray from these last is thrown up to an 
immense height. We saw the mass of vapour from a Batoka village four- 
and-twenty miles beyond, at which distance it appeared to be 300 feet 
high. The early morning sun paints this vapoury mass with all the 
colours of the rainbow. It descends in a never-ending shower upon the 
large green trees opposite, from the leaves of which heavy drops are con- 
stantly falling. No bird sits and sings upon their twigs, or builds her 
nest amidst their branches. Hornbills and flocks of a pretty little black 
bird with brownish wings flitted across from the mainland to the islands, 
and thence to the promontory and back again ; but they always shunned 
the evergreen trees, ever dripping with ever-falling showers. After a 
descent of some twenty feet the white waters suddenly became, as it were, 
animated. Comets, with heads resembling stars of the first magnitude, 
spring into existence, and leap out like living things, three, eight, or a 
dozen score at once, till the whole Fall seems like a mass of salient comets, 
each having a distinct and beautiful train of pure white vapour. Every 
few seconds some vigorous little fellow, as if anxious to escape the in- 
evitable abyss, springs out far beyond the range of his companions, with 
a long train waving behind him. If Niagara has any such phenomenon, 
I failed to observe it, and never saw anything of the kind in any other 
waterfall. We tried to get to the bottom of the chasm at its east end. A 
too adventurous antelope had made the attempt before us, and got within 
fifty feet of the lowest ground. He could proceed no further, and there 
left its bones and horns ; and, though we got back with ours, we would 
not advise any one else to try the experiment. 


The Rev. John Stevens Henslow, Professor of Botany in the University 
of Cambridge, was born at Rochester on the 6th of February 1796, 
where his father was a solicitor. He was the eldest of eleven children, 
of whom four sisters only survive him. His grandfather was Sir John Hen- 
slow, surveyor of the navy. He was educated first at the Free Commer- 
cial School at Rochester, and afterwards at Camberwell in Surrey, under 
the late Rev. W. Jephson, D.D. At the latter institution he acquired a 
taste for collecting, arranging, and illustrating objects of natural history. 
This became a ruling passion through life, and placed him in a high 
position as a benefactor of mankind. He entered St John's College, 
Cambridge, in October 1814. He graduated B.A. (16th Wrangler) in 
1818, and in the same year he was elected a Fellow of the Linnean 
Society. During his college career he devoted himself assiduously to 
science, which in those days did not occupy a prominent position in the 
University of Cambridge. He studied Chemistry under Prof. Cumming, 
and Mineralogy under Dr Clarke. He also prosecuted geology with 
vigour, and in 1819 became a Fellow of the Geological Society. In 1821 
he passed on to M.A., and during that year he communicated to the Geo- 
logical Society "Observations on Dr Roger's Account of the Isle of Man," 
and to the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions an account of the 
Geology of the Isle of Anglesea. 

In 1822 he was elected Professor of Mineralogy, succeeding Dr Clarke, 
the celebrated Russian traveller. He held this office for three years. 
In July 1825 he succeeded Martyn as Professor of Botany in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge, and resigned the Mineralogical Chair. He now made 


170 Scientific Intelligence. 

botany the chief object of study and prelection, and in the elucidation o£ 
the subject he applied his chemical, physiological, and mathematical 
knowledge with the highest success. He diffused a taste for botanical 
science among the undergraduates, as well as among other members of 
the University, not merely by his lectures, but by his excursions into the 
country. His herborizations were well attended, and much practical in- 
formation in field-work was conveyed. He contributed botanical papers 
to the Cambridge Philosophical Society, and wrote the volume on botany 
in Lardner's Cyclopaedia. This little work is an excellent introduction to 
the structure and physiology of plants. 

In 1823 Henslow married a daughter of the Rev. George Jenyns of 
Bottisham Hall, in Cambridgeshire. He was ordained in 1824, and be- 
came perpetual curate of Little St Mary's, Cambridge. In 1833 he was 
presented by Lord Brougham, then Chancellor, to the vicarage of Cholsey- 
cum-Moulsford, Berks, and in 1837 he received from the Crown the Rectory 
of Hitcham in Suffolk, which he held till his death. During sixteen years 
of his professorship he resided at Cambridge, and subsequently at the 
Rectory, going to Cambridge for five or six weeks in the Easter term to 
deliver his lectures on botany. 

He was an able and successful lecturer, and was distinguished for the 
clear popular manner in which he illustrated science. He took an espe- 
cial interest in bringing Botany and Horticulture under the notice of the 
young, and in this way he did much good to the children of his parish. 
His method of teaching botany to the village children has long been a 
model of scientific instruction, and the Horticultural fetes at the Rectory 
of Hitcham have been celebrated for years. 

The knowledge of botany displayed by the Hitcham children was truly 
wonderful, and those who had the pleasure of being present at the Rec- 
tory gatherings speak in the highest terms of the beneficial effects pro- 
duced by the introduction of natural history among the juvenile popula- 
tion of the parish. 

Henslow also originated great improvements in the farming of Suffolk. 
He introduced ploughing matches with much success, and elevated the 
character of the agricultural labourers. This was not accomplished, 
however, without a struggle. The Rector had to encounter deep-rooted 
prejudices which it required no small amount of prudence, persever- 
ance, and conciliation to overcome. The allotment system, which he 
initiated, is now carried out fully, and the produce of the land has 
been highly improved and augmented. He published letters to the 
farmers of Suffolk, which did much to diffuse correct views as to farm- 
ing operations; and he called attention to the phosphatic nodules, which 
have been of great use in adding to the fertility of the soil. 

Henslow paid much attention to the health and recreations of the 
people, and organised excursions of various kinds for their benefit. He 
thus has aided in remedying many social evils. He lectured not only in 
Hitcham, but also in the neighbouring towns, and thus helped in diffusing 
knowledge among all classes of the community. He gave a short course 
of lectures at Buckingham Palace to the junior members of the Royal 
Family, on the invitation of H.R.H. the Prince Consort. 

Henslow was one of the founders of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society, and sent large donations to the Ipswich Museum which was 
planned and arranged by him. He founded a botanical museum at Cam- 
bridge, and assisted materially in the arrangement of the Kew Museum 
He also made valuable contributions to the Great Exhibition of 1851 and 
to the South Kensington Museum. The rooms at the Rectory of Hitcham 
were filled with specimens belonging to all departments of natural his- 
tory and antiquities. He prepared a catalogue of British plants, and pub- 

Obituary. 171 

lished a Flora of Suffolk. His illustrations of natural orders, published 
by the Department of Science and Arts, are of great value, and deserve 
a place in every school where botany is taught. At the time of his death 
he was employed revising the third edition of his " Principles of Botany," 
and in preparing a popular volume on botany. He strongly advocated 
the importance of botany in an educational point of view. In a letter 
written by him in February last, he says : — " In my opinion botany is 
the best adapted of all the classificatory sciences for strictly educational 
purposes. It offers greater facilities to both pupils and examiners for 
avoiding mere cram. My promised little volume on ' Practical Lessons 
in Botany for all Classes,' is at length in a forward state, and I hope and 
trust I shall be able to convince people of the value of this science in 
training the mental faculties when it is properly pursued and insisted on, 
and not made a mere plaything." In the same letter he writes : — "I 
am intending next week to deliver a lecture at Ipswich on the Pre-Celtic 
Celts, which are confounding all our geological notions, and turning the 
world upside down in regard to received chronologies. I strenuously 
advise caution, and repudiate some of the inferences which have been 
deduced from these remarkable discoveries. We shall hear of more of 
them. A new locality has just turned up at Heme Bay." 

Henslow was one of the founders of the British Association, and 
was a regular attendant at its meetings. He was an Examiner in the 
University of London and a Member of its Council. 

In political matters he took a deep interest at one time, and was a 
decided liberal. He was strongly opposed to bribery, and involved 
himself in much trouble by his unflinching exposure of corrupt proceed- 
ings in the town of Cambridge. 

He was the chief promoter of science in Cambridge, and his efforts to 
establish the scientific tripos and degrees in science were crowned with 
success. He has also done much to adapt natural history in all its de- 
partments to the wants of the common people, and to induce the working 
classes to enter upon the study of common things. During the latter 
years of his life, Professor Henslow's health became impaired by in- 
cessant mental and manual labours, and he suffered from symptoms of 
disease of the heart, accompanied with dyspepsia. During the spring of 
the present year these were aggravated by an attack of bronchitis caught 
during a visit to the south of England, and after protracted suffering he 
expired at the Kectory at Hitcham on the 16th May last in the sixty-fifth 
year of his age. A biographer in the " Gardener's Chronicle" says of 
him:' — -" There are few men whose loss will be more generally deplored, 
To give even a sketch of the varied attainments and personal qualifica- 
tions that were so blended in Professor Henslow, as to render him at 
once the most popular and useful man of science of his day, is quite im- 
possible here, for they depended on a combination of rare qualities of 
head and heart, each natural, but all well trained and conscientiously 
cultivated by their possessor during a long period of his life. These 
were a sense of truth and fair play so instinctive, that deception or even 
reticence, when the cause of truth was at stake, were things almost unin- 
telligible to him ; a geniality of disposition that rendered him an attrac- 
tive companion from his childhood upwards ; a temper of which he was 
never known to lose command even by his most intimate friends; an 
organisation of brain that rendered all subjects of study equally easy of 
acquirement ; a keen love of nature and of natural knowledge ; an ardour 
in communicating it ; a quick perception ; excellent powers of generalisa- 
tion ; the largest charity ; a total absence of vanity or pride ; a winning 
countenance, and a robust frame. Few men, indeed, were more gifted by 
nature to take a commanding position in the many spheres of life, in one 

172 Publications received. 

or other of which he was always busy." His name will descend to 
posterity associated with great and successful efforts to diffuse the know- 
ledge of the natural sciences among all classes of the community, and to 
illustrate in the productions of nature the wisdom and goodness of God. 


Compte rendu Annuel, address^ a S. Exc. M. de Knajevitch. Ministre 
des Finances, par le Directeur de l'Observatoire Physique Central, A. T. 
Kupffer, 1858. St Petersburg. — From the Author. 

American Journal of Science and Art, November 1860 and January 
and March 1861. — From the Editors. 

Discussion of Magnetic and Meteorological Observations made at Phila- 
delphia. By Professor A. D. Bache, LL.D. Part I. — Fromthe Author. 

On certain Storms of Europe and America, December 1856. By Elias 
Loomis, LL.D. — From the Author. 

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey for 
1858. — From Professor A. D. Bache. 

Check-Lists of the Shells of North America. — From the Smithsonian 

The Motions of Fluids and Solids relative to the Earth's Surface. By 
W. Ferrel, A.M. — From the Author. 

Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester 
for April 1861. — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Californian Academy of Sciences, 1855 to 1859. — 
From the Academy. 

A Treatise on Attraction, Laplace's Function, and the Figure of the 
Earth. By Archdeacon Pratt. — From the Publishers (Macmillan and Co.) 

The Quadrature of the Circle ; Correspondence between an Eminent 
Mathematician and James Smith.. Esq., Member of the Mersey Docks and 
Harbour Board. — From the Publishers (Simpkin, Marshall and Co.) 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. IV., for I860.— From the 

Mineral Veins, an Enquiry into their Origin, founded on a study of the 
Auriferous Quartz Veins of Australia. By Thomas Bett. — From the 

List of American Writers in Recent Conchology, with Titles of their 
Memoirs and dates of publication. By George W. Tryon. — From the 

The Past and Present Life of the Globe. By David Page.— .From the 
Publishers (Messrs Blackwood). 

Errata and Addenda in last Number of the Journal. 

Page 237. — It should have been stated that the degrees given by M. Martins 

are Centigrade. 
Page 2G9, line 8 from the bottom. — For injured, read uninjured. 

'Ediri.Iw Phil Journal. 

^m Series Vol.JIV f/,1 

"W H.M C "FarUne, Li+K iam T 

Sanar preparing to climb a Coco -Pah 

■Ml h-.->> 

dirt' New Fkil. Journal 

New Series Vol XIV PL II. 

W. H M'Tarlame.lith'iam 

Process of extracting Toddy. 

EdtriNfw Pkil JovrnxxL 

JUm Series, VollIV.Plffl. 




Apparatus foT collecting Toddy 

W. H. W. Marline, Lift? E 3«f 




Notes upon the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses* By Hugh 
Cleghorn, M.D. (Plates I. to III.) 

It seems needless to bring under notice the many useful 
purposes to which Palms are applied, the high position which 
the tribe holds in the vegetable kingdom, and the peculiar 
Oriental character they give to the landscape. The majestic 
character of the palm, its gigantic foliage, and its economical 
importance, are facts familiar to all ; and of the coco-nut 
and palmyra trees especially, it may with truth be said, that 
there is scarcely a single part of them which is not applied to 
some particular purpose. In India, we are readily convinced 
of this; for we can scarcely look abroad without observing 
some use or other made by the ingenious native, of the foliage, 
the fruit, or the stem of these wonderful plants. "We see the 
leaves rendered serviceable for thatch, screens, baskets, and mat- 
work, and as a material to write upon ; we see the fibrous coat- 
ing of the fruit twisted into the pliant and durable coir rope, 
and used for stuffing mattresses ; we are indebted to the 
kernel for a rich clear oil, in most extensive use over India, 
and one of her chief exports ; while the trunks of the trees 
are employed for rafters, for boats, and for building purposes. 

Of all the palm tribe, by far the most important is the 
genus Cocos. This contains twelve species, of which the 
coco-nut tree, or Cocos nucifera of Linnseus is the most 
valuable. Many varieties of the Cocos nucifera have been 
observed. Mr Berthold Seemann, in his " Popular History of 

* Read to the Botanical Society, May 9th, 1861. 

174 Dr Cleehorn on the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses. 


the Palms," mentions five varieties as indigenous to Ceylon. 
The first, or King Coco-nut, " the Tembili of the Cingalese, 
must be well known to those who reside in Ceylon ; its 
bright orange colour, and somewhat oval shape, cannot fail 
to attract notice, and it is usually presented to respectable 
Europeans by the Modeliars, or by the priests, as a compli- 
ment to those whose curiosity may have induced a visit to the 
shrine of Buddhoo. The second is of a similar colour to the 
preceding, but of a more spherical shape. The third is of a 
pale yellow, and rather heart-shaped; it is the Nowasi or 
edible husk, and has the peculiar quality, that, after the epi- 
carpium has been removed the inner rind (mesocarpium) 
turns to a pale red, and is edible. The fourth is the common 
coco-nut which is in general use, and the one most known. 
The fifth is a species of Maldivia or dwarf coco-nut, about 
the size of a turkey's egg, which, being rare, is more 
esteemed as a curiosity than for any peculiar good quality it 

The principal difference in the several varieties appears to 
consist in the shape of the nut, which takes a different form, 
and varies in size in different countries. In Canara it is more 
oval, for instance, than on the Coromandel coast; and it is 
smaller and more spherical in the Maldives than elsewhere. 

The different names for the coco-nut tree in Southern 
India are as follows : — Tamil, Tenna-maram ; Telugu, Ten- 
kai-mdnu ; Canarese, Tengani-maram ; Malayalam, Ten- 
gana-maram; Hindostani, Narel-ka-jhdr. A description of 
the tree is unnecessary. It is found all over the tropical 
parts of the world. It grows to 60, 70, or 80 feet high. Dr 
Hunter, who measured a coco-nut tree at Pairur, found it to 
be 85 feet high, and a palmyra tree 65 feet. The size and 
fruitfulness of the coco-nut tree varies considerably with the 
nature of the soil. It seems partial to the sea-coasts, where 
it flourishes in great luxuriance. All along the Malabar 
coast, in particular, forests of coco-nut trees line the water's 
edge, and yield abundant crops of fruit. 

Notwithstanding its partiality for the sea, however, there 
seems to be no arid sandy drift too barren to admit of the 

* Popular History of the Palms, p. 165. 

Dr Cleghorn on the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses, lib 

processes of assimilation and nutrition on which its growth 
and reproduction depend, and this qualification alone increases 
its value a hundred- fold to the natives of a sandy coast or the 
dry and sultry plain. Possessed of a habitation darkened by 
a clump of coco-nuts, a jak, and a palmyra tree, a native is 
envied, and considered an independent proprietor.* 

The stem of the coco-nut tree at the bottom varies from 
one to two feet in diameter, gradually lessening towards the 
top, where its girth is considerably reduced. The leaves 
sprout from the top in the form of a crown, and are about 
twelve in number ; those at the top and in the centre stand 
erect, while the middle and the lower range bend gracefully 
over, and are often from 14 to 15 feet long by about 3 feet 
broad in the widest part. 

In the middle of the leaf runs a strong mid-rib, thick and 
grooved at its base, but tapering to a point at the extremity. 
From the side of the rib hang pinnce, or long thin strips 
called ole by the natives. They are usually from a foot 
to a foot and a half long, according to their position on the 
rib, and give to the leaf a light and feathery appearance. 
These pinnce, when plaited, form what are called Kithu, and 
answer a number of purposes in the domestic arrangements of 
a native hut. They come into play to form temporary sheds 
in their numerous festivals. The poorer classes have no other 
roof over their heads than one made of Kithu. Everywhere 
they meet the eye in the form of mats, partition-walls, or 
screens, contributing to the privacy of their humble dwellings. 
The fruit grows in clusters at the top of the tree and around 
the base of the leaves (vide Plate II. fig. 2). Each nut is 
rather oval in form, and when full grown, with the outer husk 
on, is about the size of a man's head : with the outer husk off, 
about the size of an ostrich's egg, with three small depressions 
of a quarter of an inch in diameter at the end next the stem. 
These depressions are the eyes of the fruit, one of them form- 
ing the hole through which the germ sprouts when the nut is 

* " The Indian nut alone 

Is clothing, meat and trencher, drink and can, 
Boat, cable, sail, mast, needle, all in one." 

G. Herbert. 

176 Dr Cleghorn on the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses. 

planted in the ground eyes upwards. From the position of 
the eyes giving the end of the shell something of the appear- 
ance of a monkey's face, some have derived the tree's name, 
coco or cognesa being Portuguese for monkey. In the Parlia- 
mentary papers we find there were imported of these nuts 
into the United Kingdom, in 1858, " 2,508,869, which were 
almost wholly retained for consumption. They are used in- 
stead of wedges to fill up the interstices between casks and 
packages in the cargoes of ships, so that the freight costs 
little. In the same year our imports of coco-nut oil amounted 
to 197,788 cwts."* 

Ceylon and the Laccadives have long been famous for their 
coco-nut trees, and the oil, arrack, and coir (or kayar) manu- 
factured therefrom form the chief articles of export of those 
islands ; about 2J millions of pounds of coir are annually ex- 
ported from Ceylon to Calcutta and other parts in the East 
Indies alone. By the " Report of External Commerce of 
Madras," the quantity and value of coco-nut and coco-nut 
kernel exported from the Madras territories in 1858-59 stood 



Coco-nuts, . 

. 2,73,42,940 No. 

. 3,60,740 Rs 

Coco-nut Kernel, 

1,09,053 cwt. 

. 4.34,000 „ 

Of this, Rs. 357,287 worth of the coco-nut, and Rs. 430,944 
worth of the kernel, were exported to the Indian or home 
ports, such as Rangoon, Kutch, Moulmein, Scinde, Bombay, 
and Concan. Of the remainder some went to the Mauritius, 
some to the Persian Gulf, &c, and a little to the United 
Kingdom. Nearly the whole was exported from Malabar and 
Canara. Ganjam supplied a little to Moulmein. The quan- 
tity and value of coco-nut oil and coir exported from the 
Madras territories in 1858-59 were as follows: — 

Foreign or External Ports. 

Indian or Home Ports. 


Value, Rs. 


Value, Rs. 

Total Value, Ry. 

Oil, gal. . . 
Coir, cwt. 






* Anni^i! Statement of Trade and Navigation for the Year 1858, pp. 68 and 82. 

Dr Cleghorn on the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses. 177 

Topes of coco-nut trees pay a small tax to Government, 
varying in amount in different districts. Single trees in 
gardens or on cultivated land pay no tax, unless the latter is 
left waste, when a small assessment is imposed upon each 
tree. Ward, in his work on the Hindus (III. 107), written 
forty years ago, gives the following rate at which trees were 
rented at that time in Bengal : — ■" A mango tree, one rupee ; a 
coco-nut tree, eight annas ; a jak, one rupee ; a tamarind, one 
rupee ; a betel nut, four annas ; a talu,* four annas ; a date, 
two annas ; a vilvu,f four annas ; a lime tree, four annas." 

The tree is propagated by the nuts, which, when planted 
thoroughly ripe, come up usually in a few months. The coco- 
nut tree is planted with the fibrous shell in May, one foot and 
a half deep, and in good ground comes up in November. The 
first leaf is single, and the young plant is transplanted before 
it divides. In seven years the tree begins to bear, and at about 
fifteen years it is in full bearing. In the notes descriptive of 
the Laccadives, in the " Madras Journal of Literature and 
Science," it is stated that the coco-nut tree " requires some 
attention for the first year, and after transplanting, until it 
takes root ; it may then be left to itself, and comes into bear- 
ing in periods varying from ten to twenty years, according to 
the soil. It continues bearing from seventy to eighty years. 
From 60 to 70 nuts is a fair average annually, of which 5 rupees 
per 1000 is the value in the islands." This is something 
less than one pie for each. In Madras they sell from 3 to 5 
rupees a hundred; in the adjoining districts, from 1 rupee to 
2 j- a 100. Each tree is said to throw out one leaf and one 
flowering spathe every month. It is probable that the time 
which an individual tree takes to come into flower, and the 
number and size of the leaves and spathes it throws out, de- 
pend more upon exterior causes, as soil, climate, and the care 
bestowed upon its nurture, than upon any uniform law which 
would enable us to speak positively upon the subject. Porter, 
in the " Tropical Agriculturalist" (p. 255), writes, " Where the 
plant has been constantly watered, the first bud will appear in 
the fourth or fifth year ; but if it has been left merely to 
obtain moisture from rain, the flowering will be delayed till the 

* Palmyra Palm. t Wood apple. 

178 Dr Cleghorn on the Coco- Nut Tree and its Uses. 

seventh or eighth year. Plants of vigorous growth send forth 
nine, ten, and even twelve clusters of buds in the year ; but 
those on which little care has been bestowed, and which are 
consequently feeble, produce only four or five of these spathes." 

Having made these remarks upon the coco-nut tree, and 
upon the many uses to which it is applied, I shall now give 
some account of the extraction of toddy from the trees, and of 
the means and appliances used in the process. When a tree 
has thrown out a spathe (called in Tamil pdlai) from which it 
is intended to extract toddy, about a month is usually allowed 
to elapse for the flower-buds inside the spathe to become 
sufficiently juicy to yield a fair return to the toddy-drawer. 
The spathe, at that time elliptical in form and pointed, will 
have attained a length of two feet, and a diameter of about 
two inches in the thickest part. The sheath of the spathe will 
be about an eighth of an inch thick, and very hard. At this 
stage the nut is a small, round-looking knob, of the same 
colour as the flowers — pale yellow, and of about the size of a 
marble. A few of the spathes are barren of nuts ; some of 
them contain two or three, some five or six, and others as 
many as ten or twenty. When a month or five weeks have 
elapsed, and the spathe is considered in a fit state to com- 
mence operations upon, it is tightly bound round with strips 
of young leaves, to prevent the expansion of the sheath, and 
is cut transversely at the point, bruised, and otherwise care- 
fully treated from day to day. To do this is the business of 
the Sanar or toddy-drawer. In Plate I. a representation is 
given of a Sanar, accoutred with the toddy-basket, back-rope, 
and regular paraphernalia peculiar to his employment. 

First in importance among his appointments is the Arival- 
petty (lit. knife-box) made from the sheath of the spathe, and 
bound round tight with two binders of ratan (Plate II. fig. 3). 
Inside is a thin wooden collar of palmyra bark, circling round 
and made fast with fibrous cording. A wooden partition 
divides the petty longitudinally into two divisions, in one of 
whicli he carries his knife, in the other his mallet, sandbox, 
and fibre. An iron hook is fixed to the arivalpetty, in order 
to take a chatty up a tree or bring one down, a string being 
tied to the mouth of the chatty, and fastened to the hook. 

Dr Cleghorn on the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses. 179 

The chatty is attached with about a foot of line, swings clear 
of his legs as he mounts, and away from the tree, and is drawn 
up a tergo. The hook also serves to hang up the arivalpetty 
in his house. Alongside of the hook are some small iron 
ornaments, which make a jingling noise as he climbs, and 
scare away snakes and other vermin that might prove un- 
pleasant neighbours. 

A strongly plaited rope is permanently fastened to one side 
of the arivalpetty, as in Plate III. fig. 1. The short arm a 
is about half as long as b, and with a much smaller loop. 
When fastened round the waist, the longer arm is passed in- 
side the small loop of the short arm. Through the loop of 
the long arm the toddy-drawer passes the end of his waist- 
cloth, and ties it into a knot. Next in importance is the 
Eropetty (Plate III. fig. 2), into which the toddy-drawer 
empties the toddy collected in the chatty up the tree. It is made 
of palmyra fibre closely plaited, and when well moistened is 
water-tight. Two wooden collar shavings, about two inches 
broad, encircle the mouth of the eropetty, one inside and one 
outside ; between them the plaited wicker-work is run up, and 
made fast. To keep the eropetty in its bulged bottle-like 
form, a piece of ratan about half way down is woven in, and 
encircles the vessel like the hoop of a barrel. The eropetty 
hangs suspended over the arivalpetty (vide Plate I.) by a 
roughly-twisted rope of palmyra fibre. The eropetty holds 
about 2J Madras measures, which make its cubic contents 
about 250 inches. In Plate III. fig. 3, is shown the Palai 
mattai, called also Vandal mattai. It is a little more than a 
foot long, and is made of the rachis or spadix inside the 
spathe. The end is jagged into a brush, whence its name 
palai a spathe, and mattai, a brush. Its place is in the 
eropetty (Plate II. fig. 3). It is used to brush away insects, 
or foreign matter floating upon the top of the toddy. It also 
serves to moisten the end of the spathe before cutting it with 
a knife. In Plate III. fig. 4, is shown the Arival or knife, 
shaped like a sickle, with the inner edge sharpened. It is 
used for trimming the spathe, and is very sharp. When not 
in the hand it is kept in the arivalpetty. The handle is of 
common wood, and about three inches long. The circle of this 

180 Dr Cleghorn on the Coco- Nut Tree and its Uses. 


blade carried round, would make a common sized dinner plate. 
The Pathady (Plate III. fig. 5), a wooden club or mallet, about 
a foot long, and an inch and a half in diameter in the thickest 
part, is used for hammering the end of the spathe, when cut, 
to crush the flowers, that the juice may flow freely. The 
Moongul is a small bamboo tube for holding finely-powdered 
white sand, to sharpen the knife with. This the Sanar accom- 
plishes by sprinkling the sand upon a flat piece of wood he 
carries about with him, called Arival tittu cuttd, one end of 
which being pressed against his chest, and the other against 
the trunk of a tree, he rubs the blade up and down, and makes 
an edge like a razor. The arival tittu cuttd is made of the 
Kanal-Mooraga maram (Erythrina indica\ and is generally 
about two feet long by two inches broad and deep. 

The Kaltol (Plate III. fig. 6), made of leather and lined 
with cloth, is put upon the instep, as represented, to prevent 
the chafing of the kdltaly (Plate III. fig. 7), a circular rope 
into which the Sanar's feet are placed to assist him in climbing. 
The Vada-cour is a strong rope, about 2 J yards in length, 
made of cow or buffalo hide. It encircles both the Sanar and 
the tree, as he climbs, and is, as the name denotes, the 
" back rope." The part which comes in contact with his back 
is usually lined with cloth to prevent chafing. 

Furnished, then, with the necessaries as described above, 
and sometimes with a small bamboo ladder, the Sanar starts 
early of a morning in the direction of his trees, to collect 
the toddy drawn during the night. Arrived at the foot of a 
tree, he first fastens the vada-cour round himself and the 
trunk, and puts his feet into the kdltaly, fitting the rope 
over the kaltols and under the soles of his feet. Then, in 
order to plant his two feet (which are thus kept from separa- 
ting by the kdltaly) upon the trunk of the tree, he presses 
the upper part of his back strongly against the vada-cour, 
and keeps his body poised upwards, as it were, by planting his 
left hand firmly against the tree — -fingers pointing downwards, 
and pushing in that direction, In Plate I. is shown the atti- 
tude of the man as he is preparing to mount, before he has 
attached the rope which keeps his feet in apposition. His first 
motion, after the kaltol has been tied on, is to lift his feet 

Dr Cleghorn on the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses. 181 

off the ground, and place them upon the trunk, by pressing 
his back against the rope, and his left hand against the tree. 

Immediately after this he moves up the vada-cour with 
his right hand, and fixes his left hand in a position higher up 
the tree. His left arm acts as a fulcrum as it were, on which, 
resting the weight of his body, he is enabled to set his legs 
free, and thus alternately to move up his arms and the upper 
part of his body, and to drag up his legs after them. When 
at the top of the tree, he lowers the vada-cour so far down 
from his shoulders, that he can sit upon it, and thereby ob- 
tains a rest, with his hands entirely disengaged to do any- 
thing that is required of them. It takes nearly a year's prac- 
tice to make a man master of this curious mode of climbing, 
after which the loftiest trees are ascended in a minute with 
surprising ease, and with perfect security. After a hard morn- 
ing's work, the left arm always aches more than the other 
limb, showing that there is more strain on it than anywhere 
else. When an accident befalls a toddy-drawer, it is usually 
occasioned by his left hand missing its hold on the tree and 
slipping aside, which brings him to the ground instantly, often 
with fracture or injury of that limb. 

When the spathe is a month or a month and a half old, the 
toddy-drawer begins his labours by binding the sheath to pre- 
vent its expansion, as represented in Plate II., after which he 
cuts about an inch off the end, and gently hammers the flowers 
which are thereby exposed. Finally, he binds up the end with 
a broad strip of fibre (Plate II.), and descends. This process 
he continues morning and evening for fifteen days, a thin slice 
being cut away on ea^L occasion. During this time, also, by 
shaving away a little of the under part of the sheath, he trains 
it to bend over. It is probable that the exact term of days 
during which the spathe undergoes this initiatory preparation 
varies in different places, and depends apon surrounding cir- 
cumstances. Mr Berthold Seemann, in his " Popular History 
of Palms," mentions five or six days as sufficient. Near Madras, 
a toddy-drawer assured me that fifteen days was the usual 
time. It is a matter of little moment, however, for the time 
when a spathe is ready to yield toddy will be easily known 
by the chattering of birds, the crowding of insects, the drop- 


182 Dr Cleghorn on the Coco-Nat Tree and its Uses. 

ping of the juice, and other unmistakable signs. When ready, 
the end of the spathe is fixed into a kuduve (small chatty); 
and a small slip of leaf is pricked into the flowers to catch 
the oozing liquor, and to convey the drops, without wastage, 
clear into the vessel. When the spathe begins to yield toddy 
he ceases to hammer it. It will give toddy for about a month, 
during which time, every morning and evening, he mounts the 
tree, empties the toddy into his eropetty, binds the spathe an 
inch lower down, smears the end of it with his pdlai mattai, 
and shaves a little away, then pricks in the slip of leaf, and 
ties the kuduve on again. 

The man who ascends the tree is generally a paid servant, 
receiving about Rs. 7 a month. He will attend to thirty or 
forty trees. Forty trees yield about twelve measures (Madras) 
of juice, seven in the morning and five in the evening. During 
the heat of the day the spathe does not bleed so freely as in the 
night. Twelve measures for forty trees is at the rate of a little 
more than one- fourth of a measure to each tree. A first-rate 
tree in a good soil, and carefully tended, will produce one mea- 
sure during the night, and three-fourths or one-half of that 
uantity during the day. But taking one tree with another, 
a quarter or half a measure is a fair average. Some trees, 
under favourable circumstances, continue yielding at this 
rate throughout the year, others only for six months. It is 
not prudent, however, to draw all you can from them, as 
they will be exhausted, and become barren. Every morn- 
ing and evening when the Sanar goes to draw the toddy, a 
servant or some one connected with the owner or contractor 
for the trees usually accompanies him with a chatty, into 
which is emptied the toddy from the eropetty. When all the 
trees have been visited, and the toddy measured into the 
chatty or cullu-pani, it is carried away to the bazaar rented 
by the contractor from Government at a fixed price. In Madras, 
there are 58 first-class toddy shops, to each of which 330 coco- 
nut trees are allotted ; the contractor paying daily Us. 2-12-10 
to Government for each such shop. There are 63 second-class 
toddy shops, to each of which 247 coco-nut trees are allotted — 
each shop yielding daily Us. 2-2-10 to government ; also 205 
third-class shops, to each of which 165 trees are allotted — each 

F.dut fflew PhiL Journal./. 

Iw Serves Vol XIV 71. IV. 

Dr Cleghorn on the Coco-Nut Tree and its Uses. 183 

shop yielding Rs. 1-5-2 to Government ; and 81 fourth-class 
shops, to each of which 110 trees are allotted — each shop pay- 
ing Rs. 1-2-5 to Government. The gross collections annually 
upon all the shops amount to about Rs. 2-32-567. It is not 
always men of the Sanar caste who rent these shops ; rich 
sowcars and natives of other castes generally contract for 
them, and place men of the Sanar caste in charge. There is 
nothing very peculiar about the habit, custom, or dress of 
the Sanars to separate them from other Hindu castes, apart 
from their occupation, which, being exclusively that of the sale 
and manufacture of toddy, may be said to distinguish them. 
Around Madras the Sanars are divided into two classes, 
the higher and the lower ; the latter are called Pully Sanar, 
and permit their widows to marry. For a brief account of 
the mode of extracting toddy, illustrated by coloured plates, 
see " Kew Miscellany," vol. ii. p. 23. Much information 
regarding the culture of the coco-nut will be found in Buch- 
anan's "Journey through Mysore."* 

Description of Plates. 
Plate I. 
Coco-nut palm ; Sanar preparing to ascend with apparatus. 

Plate II. 
Fig. 1. Coco-nut ; end of spathe tied up. 2. Coco-nuts on spadix. 3. Basket 
[Arival petty), with apparatus. 
Plate III. 
Fig. 1, Rope for binding.. 2, Toddy vessel (EropStty). 3. Brush (Palai 
mallai). 4. Knife {Arival). 5. Mallet (Pathady). 6. Pads on 
feet (Kaltol). 7. Circular rope for feet (Kaltaly). 

On some of the Stages of Development in the Female Flower 
o/Dammara australis. By Alexander Dickson, M.D. 
Edin.t (Plate IV.) 

In a short notice upon the morphology of the cones of Arau- 
earia, Dammara, &c, which I read before this Society in 
January last, I called in question the ordinarily received inter- 
pretation of the structures in the female cones of these plants. 

In the first place, I drew attention to the easily demonstrated 

* For some of the local statistics given above I am indebted to Mr Breeks, C.S. 
t Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, July 11th, 1861. 

184 Dr Dickson on some of the Stages of Development 

and incontestable fact, that the so-called squamee fructiferce 
in Araucaria are serially continuous with the leaves of the 
shoot which the cone terminates, and that, therefore, these 
"squamae" are in the position of the bracts, and not of the 
scales of a larch, or any of our ordinary Abietinese. It is a 
fact which cannot be too strongly insisted upon, thatm Arau- 
caria the leaves of a cone-hearing shoot pass by gradual tran- 
sitions into the so-called l( squamce fructiferce" of the cone; 
these leaves and " scales " forming a continuous series of 
homologous parts. 

Regarding Dammara, I could not at that time give any 
special particulars of importance, as the specimens (cones de- 
veloped in the summer of 1859?) which I then obtained were 
about half-grown, and had lost the bud-scales surrounding the 
base of the cone. I could only argue from the close analogy 
between Dammara and Araucaria, that what holds good for 
the one genus may be presumed to do so for the other. Being 
compelled to recognize in the so-called scales of Araucaria 
structures corresponding to the bracts in Abies, Pinus, &c, 
I endeavoured to show that the scale-like " appendage to the 
seed" in Araucaria might be considered as representing the 
free portion of an otherwise adherent true squama fructif era; 
this view being supported by the somewhat similar structure 
in Cunninghamia, and by the greater or less amount of ad- 
hesion between bract and scale even in our ordinary conifera?. 
As to Dammara, I held that the free portion of the true 
squama fructif era, which is much reduced in Araucaria, 
had here entirely disappeared.* 

Since offering this explanation of the structures in question, 
I have fortunately had an opportunity of examining, to a cer- 

* In my paper on the Morphology of Araucaria, &c, (Edin. New Philosophi- 
cal Journal, April 1861, pp. 198-9), I erroneously referred to an absence of 
the squamula in the " scales " of A. brasiliensis. I have since then, through 
the kindness of Mr Bennett, obtained some of these scales, in which the squa- 
mula is very distinctly developed, even more fully than in A. imbricata. This 
error on my part arose from my having inadvertently misread a passage in 
Richard's Memoires, in which he speaks not of the squamula but of the apex 
(languette) of the scale as being absent in A. brasiliensis. As, however, the 
state of the question under discussion is not materially affected, any evils re- 
ulting from my unfortunate mistake can be but trifling. 

in the Female Flower of Dammara australis. 185 

tain extent, the development of the female flowers of Dammara 
australis, a plant of which has this summer produced cones 
in one of the hot-houses in the Botanic Garden here.* 

These cones were first observed in the early part of May, 
but would have attracted attention sooner had they not been 
confined to the uppermost branches of the tree. The cones 
which I then obtained (May 10th) are axillary shoots. They 
are roundly oval in form, and vary from a little under to a little 
above an inch in length, exclusive of the stalk and that portion 
bearing the bud-scales of the cone. 

The scales of the cone are nearly triangular in outline, and 
more or less elongated ; broadest a little above the base, at 
that part where the scale is bent upon itself. Just at its base 
the scale is rounded at its angles or slightly auricled. (See 

% i.) 

In the best developed of these cones (see fig. 7) the scales 
are more or less patent, the lower ones deflexed. The lower 
scales are more elongated and acute than the upper ; and a good 
number of them, although persistent and becoming enlarged 
along with the other scales, are sterile. The bud-scales vary 
in extent of development in different cones. In the cone re- 
presented in fig. 7 the lowermost pair, which are identical in 
form to those found in leaf-buds, present a diminished, almost 
bar-like lamina, with dilated base (fig. 7, a). In the pair next 
above, the lamina is still further reduced, with the base more 
manifestly dilated. In the succeeding ones we lose the ap- 
pearance of a lamina altogether; the scales being short and 
rounded, or slightly pointed. They soon pass off above into 
more elongated and pointed structures (fig 7 d), which lead 
at once to the so-called squamaz fructiferaz. Of these bud- 
scales the first two pairs are opposite and decussate, but they 
gradully pass off above into the more complex spiral of the 
cone. They soon wither, and ultimately fall off. 

* This plant had produced cones previously (in 1859 ?), some of which I ex- 
amined last winter. I accordingly asked one of the gardeners, William Bell, 
an enthusiastic and intelligent botanist, to look at the plant from time to time, 
so that the cones might be obtained early, in the event of its flowering this 
season. To his attention, and to the kind permission of Mr M'Nab and Pro- 
fessor Balfour, I am indebted for the materials of this investigation. 

186 Dr Dickson on some of the Stages of Development 

Thus, since the lower of these bud-scales do not differ from 
the first leaves of the leaf-bud, and since they certainly form 
a continuous series with the cone-scales, it follows, as might 
have been anticipated, that in Dammara, just as in Araucaria, 
the scales so called are in fact the leaves of the cone-shoot. 

Not to pursue this subject further at present. I will now pro- 
ceed to detail the principal points which I have been able to 
investigate in the development of the female flower. 

The earliest condition which I have seen is that represented 
in Plate IV. figs. 1 and 2. It consists in a small, somewhat 
flattened mammilla, springing from a broadish base, on the 
inner or upper surface, and in the middle line of the scale 
close to its base. Even at this period it is inverted, its apex 
being directed towards the axis. The attachment of the mam- 
milla is about 7V of an inch from the base of the "scale;" 
the length of the " scale " itself being about \ of an inch, or 
a little more. 

In a further advanced stage two shoulder-like projections 
are to be seen, one on either side of the apex of the mammilla 
(Plate IV. fig. 3); which, when looked at in the direction of the 
apex (Plate IV. fig. 4), are found to be two semilunar eleva- 
tions embracing it. These manifestly correspond to what 
Baillon has described as carpels occurring in Pinus, Taocus, &c. 

I cannot say that I have seen these elevations actually 
free from one other at their bases, although very nearly so. 
At first they appeared to me as being quite free from each 
other, and I had even made a drawing representing such to be 
the case ; but on closer scrutiny and more careful adjustment 
of them to the light, there can always be detected an extremely 
faint elevation of the surface between their bases. I regret 
extremely that my materials have not enabled me to make 
certain of this point, as it is of great importance in confirming 
Baillon's view of the primitive duality of the structure enclos- 
ing the " nucleus " or ovule, and which I am strongly inclined 
to hold as correct.* 

* I must here state that the flowers near the apices of the cones, and whence 
I obtained the specimens such as are represented in figs. 1 and 3, are often im- 
perfectly developed, nnd that many of the apparently very young flowers are 
probably in reality older than they seem, and so be liable to induce misconcep- 

in the Female Flower of Dammara australis. 187 

In the next stage, the connation of the carpels by their bases 
is very manifest (Plate IV. figs. 5 and 6). The central mam- 
milla is now very well marked, and, I daresay, may with pro- 
priety be termed " ovule." After this stage there exists a 
slight gap in my materials, as I was somewhat delayed in ob- 
taining my second supply. 

In the flower represented in fig. 8, the different parts, although 
very considerably grown, are easily recognised in their rela- 
tion to the corresponding parts in the earlier stage. (To avoid 
confusion in description, I shall term that surface of the pistil 
which is applied to the " scale" the posterior, and that which 
is exposed, the anterior.) 

The "nucleus" still projects to a comparatively large ex- 
tent beyond the two carpels which surround it, and by whose 
connate bases it is covered to about its middle in front, and to 
a somewhat less extent behind. The pointed apices of the 
free portions of the carpels extend at the sides nearly as far 
as the extremity of the ovule, falling only a little short of 
it. There is thus a deep, rounded notch, both before and 
behind, between the apices of the carpels ; the posterior notch 
being the deeper. The pistil is somewhat compressed from 
before backwards, but it is more convex before than behind. 
Its thin lateral margins (corresponding to the mesial dorsal 
lines of the carpels) do not yet exhibit any of that want of 
symmetry which afterwards occurs, from the formation of a 
wing on one side. 

The extremity of the ovule (" nucleus ") is now found to be 
compressed from before backwards, or, better to express it, 
thinned off to an edge which is curved slightly forwards (see 
Plate IV. figs. 8 and 9). In the subsequent stages this edge 
is often developed into a more or less leaf-like lamina, which 
is folded over the anterior surface of the exposed portion of 
the ovule. This lamina varies very much in the extent of its 
development ; it is usually small and irregularly shaped, as in 
fig. 13 ; but in one specimen which I possess, it is produced 
into a beautifully tapered point (Plate IV. fig. 14). This pro- 

tion. Even the structure represented in figs. 1 and 2, although no doubt repre- 
senting truly enough the essentials of the early stage, yet in minor particulars 
may not be perfectly trustworthy. 

188 Dr Dickson on some of the Stages of Development 

longation of the extremity of the ovule, although very curious, 
cannot I think be of much importance, either morphologically 
or physiologically, since it is comparatively late in its appari- 
tion, and, although of very frequent, is not of universal occur- 

Regarding the subsequent stages in the development of the 
pistil, I need not say much. The ovule always remains ex- 
posed by the anterior and posterior notches between the apices 
of the carpels, but always to a relatively less extent as de- 
velopment advances. The apices of the carpels never pro- 
ject as style-like prolongations, but are closely applied to the 
sides of the ovule. (See figs. 12 and 13.) 

In the flower represented in fig. 10, the unsymmetrical 
development of the wing-like margins of the pistil has com- 

The great wing is developed sometimes on the right, some- 
times on the left side of the pistil ; but the side upon which it 
occurs is constant in any given cone. This, I find, is de- 
pendent upon, or at least correlated with, the direction of the 
generating spiral of the cone. If the cone-spiral be from 
right to left (supposing the observer to be in the axis of the 
spiral), the wing is developed on the right side of the pistil ; 
but if on the contrary, the cone-spiral be from left to right, 
the wing is developed on the left side of the pistil* The 
relation of the unequal development to the disposition of the 
scales may be briefly described as follows : — If we take a bract- 
scale — say No. 1 of the cone- 
spiral — we find that of the two 

bract-scales immediately applied ft\ ) v^^^ y 

to its upper or inner surface, 
No. 6 extends from one side to i 
past its middle line, and entirely \ 
covers the flower of bract No. 1 ; 
while bract No. 4 extends from 

the opposite side just to the margin of No. 6, without overlap- 
ping it. It would appear almost as if the development of the 

* I have examined six conee with reference to this point — three with right- 
handed, and three with left-handed spiral — and all with the result stated 

in the Female Flower of Dammara australis. 189 

margins of the pistil was limited, on the one side by the margin 
of its own bract (No. 1), and on the other by that of bract 
No. 6 ; so that, according to the position to right or left of 
bract No. 6, so is the great wing developed on the right or left 
side of the pistil. Rarely, nearly equal wrings are developed on 
both sides of the pistil. 

The " scales " of the cone, as development advances, become 
much broader, with thin auricled margins at the base. A 
great increase in thickness occurs at the angle which the apex 
of the scale makes with the basal portion, so that the back of 
the scale at that part projects as a well-marked gibbosity. 
This thickening is precisely analogous to what is seen in the 
" scales " of Araucaria, where it is also well marked. In the 
furthest developed cone* which I have examined, this swelling 
is so great that the apices of the scales appear almost as if sunk 
among the gibbosities. Almost the only increase in the length 
of the scale, and that is considerable, occurs in its basal por- 
tion. To illustrate this last point, I have given a series of 
drawings representing longitudinal mesial sections of scales 
at different stages. During its growth the form of the cone 
becomes considerably altered. As before mentioned, it is 
oval at first ; from this it passes to pyriform (in second sea- 
son ?) ; and, finally, it becomes oblately spheroidal, or orange- 

In conclusion, I must express my regret that these obser- 
vations are so imperfect. Indeed, I hesitated for some time 
whether I should publish any of these results before I could 
render them in some measure more complete. But when I 
reflected that possibly I might not have another opportunity 
of continuing the investigation, and that what facts I had 
observed were not without importance, I decided upon laying 
them before the Society. 

Although I have not been able actually to demonstrate the 
perfect independence of the two carpels in their origin, yet I 
have shown sufficient to make it highly probable that they 
are so. 

* One of those developed, as I suppose, in the summer of 1859, and picked 
in the middle of last month. 


190 Dr Dickson on some of the Stages of Development 

As regards determining the relations between the " scale" 
and pistil, it is unfortunate that I obtained no cones sufficiently 
young to allow of tracing the floral rudiment to its first origin. 
When, however, we review the phases in the development of 
the scale, and take note of the manifestly determinate or " basi- 
petal" character of its evolution ; when, in running the eye 
back upon the different stages, we find the basal portion be- 
coming rapidly shorter, while the terminal portion remains 
comparatively stationary, until we find the attachment of the 
floral rudiment only T Vth of an inch from the base of the 
scale, I think we may confidently expect a still earlier con- 
dition in which the mammilla will be found to be actually at 
the base of the bract-scale, in the position of axillary bud. Add 
to this, the extreme improbability that a structure such as I 
have described in the female flower should be developed, ab 
origine, from a leaf, which the bract-scale certainly is, and 
the truth of the theory which I proposed as to a connation 
between the bract-scale and the peduncle of the flower, may 
be considered as virtually proved. 

Description of Plate. 

Fig. 1. Bract (br) from young cone of Dammara australis; with floral rudi- 
ment (m) close to its base. 

2. Base of the same, more highly magnified, showing the floral mam- 

milla (m). 

3. Flower further advanced, showing the carpellary elevations (ce) on 

either side of the apex of the mammilla (ov), and which are almost 
free from one another at their bases. 

4. A similar flower looked at towards the apex ; c c, the two semilunar 

carpellary elevations, embracing the termination of the mammilla 
or ovule (ov). 
5 and 6. A still further developed flower seen from the same points of 
view as the preceding. The carpel (c) are now very manifestly 
connected by their bases, and the ovule (ov) is more distinctly 

7. Young cone (natural size), whence the flowers represented in Figs. 5 

and 6 were taken ; (a), (6), (c), and (d), bud-scales, showing the 
transition between these and the " scales " of the cone. 

8. Flower considerably further advanced than the preceding (its length 

being rather more than double of that represented in fig. 5). The 
ovule (" nucleus ") (ov) is still exposed to a relatively great extent 

in the Female Flower of Dammara australis. 191 

from between the apices of the carpels (c, c). The extremity of the 
ovule is thinned off or compressed antero-posteriorly. 
Fig. 9. Longitudinal mesial section of a flower, a little older than the pre- 
ceding ; (br) portion of base of bract, (a) anterior higher, an (6) 
posterior lower wall of the pistil. The extremity of the ovule com- 
pressed to an edge, which is slightly curved forwards, is well seen. 

10. Flower considerably further advanced. The thin margin of the pistil 

on the left side is now becoming developed as a wing (w), while 
that opposite (W) remains small ; (ov) ovule exposed between the 
apices of the carpels. 

11. Longitudinal mesial section of a similar flower ; (br), (a), (b), and (ov) 

as in fig. 9. The edge of the termination of the ovule (ov) has 
here become developed into a lamina (I), which is turned over upon 
the anterior surface of the exposed portion of the ovule. 

12. Pistil much further developed (in second season ?); (w) the developed, 

and (m) the undeveloped, wing of the pistil, the great wing being 
here on the right side. 

13. Portion of the extremity of the same, showing a small irregularly- 

shaped lamina (I) turned over upon the anterior surface of the ex- 
posed portion of the ovule, between the apices of the carpels (c, c). 

14. Portion of the extremity of the nucleus from a flower of the same age, 

with its leaf-like process (Z) elegantly pointed. The carpels have 
been removed. 

15. Longitudinal section of bract, with its flower at a stage corresponding 

to fig. 5 ; (br) bract, (fl) flower. 

16. Similar section, at a stage corresponding to that in fig. 9. 

17. Similar section, corresponding to fig. 10. 

18. Similar section, corresponding to fig. 12; (p) walls of pistil; (ov) 

ovule ; (x) vascular bundle supplying the pistil ; (w) mesial vas- 
cular bundle of the bract. 

19. Similar section from cone in its third season (?). 

Observations upon Sixteen Ancient Human Skulls found in 
Excavations made on the Kirkhill, St Andrews, 1860. 
By Joseph Barnard Davis, F.S.A., &c. (With a Table 
of Measurements). Communicated to the Literary and 
Philosophical Society, St Andrews. 

This series of fine skulls is of considerable interest from 
their unquestionable antiquity, the district in which they have 
been obtained, and from the peculiar aboriginal, or commonly 
named Celtic, air which pervades one section of them. This 
latter aspect it may be difficult to describe, but it will be at 

192 Mr Joseph Barnard Davis on Human Skulls 

once apparent to the eye of an anatomist who has been accus- 
tomed to the examination of ancient British crania, and per- 
haps may be made obvious to others by reference to accurate 
figures of -well-authenticated examples. The series divides 
itself into two sections — viz., those skulls derived from cistic 
tombs, and those found in graves and other tombs. Of the 
former, there are four specimens, Nos. 4, 8, 9, and 13 ; of the 
latter twelve, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, and 16. 
Being requested by Mr Robert Walker of the University Mu- 
seum, St Andrews, to make a few observations upon this series 
of skulls, — which it affords me much pleasure to do, — I will take 
a somewhat particular survey of them, making a note on any 
peculiarity I may observe, and add an enumeration of the sex, 
age, measurements, &c, of each in a table ; and then proceed 
to anymore general remarks that may suggest themselves; 
premising, in limine, that objects of this kind, discovered 
under circumstances which evince the period to which they 
have belonged to be uncertain, do not admit of that definite- 
ness which imparts such special value and interest to some 
antiquities. The skulls may go some way towards determin- 
ing the era and the race to which they have appertained ; but 
the evidence they afford is to be taken cautiously, and not 
estimated at more than it is worth. Therefore more must not 
be expected from the proposed observations than approximate 
results. If approximate results can be attained with any de- 
gree of assurance, they will have a certain amount of interest, 
but they cannot fully satisfy a keen curiosity. To begin with 
the crania derived from cists. 

No. 4 found on the north-west of the foundations of the 
church, in a cist the full length of the skeleton, and with the 
head to the west. One of the covering stones of this cist, that 
above the head, was thought to have some sculpture on its 
lower surface. 

This is the globular skull of a man of advanced age, pro- 
bably as much as seventy years, as the principal sutures are 
almost obliterated, and the bones are thin, notwithstanding 
the teeth have all been present, although considerably worn. 
It is a very decidedly lr achy cephalic skull, and exhibits 

found at St Andrews in 1860. 193 

considerable breadth both of face and calvarium. Its principal 
difference from the aboriginal series consists in its being more 
regular and equable, not so uneven and nodular ; for instance, 
the frontal sinuses are not so prominent, and the nose does 
not descend so abruptly from a deep depression, as is usual in 
the aboriginal series. 

No. 8 belongs to a skeleton which was found extended on 
the bottom of a rude cist, formed of undressed flags, on the 
southern side of the church. This skull is that of a man of 
about fifty -five years of age, and just enters into the brachy* 
cephalic series.* It is a thick heavy skull, with a particularly 
short and massive lower jaw, which is in some places eight - 
tenths of an inch in thickness ; and it is remarkable for its 
small internal capacity — in truth, in this respect, it is the 
smallest of the sixteen skulls, although there is no doubt of its 
being the relic of a man. It presents that perpendicularity 
of the occipital region, common among the aboriginal skulls 
of these islands. It does not agree closely with any of the 
skulls figured in the " Crania Britannica," but somewhat 
resembles both that from the Caedegai Barrow in Denbyshire, 
plate 23, and that from Norton, in Yorkshire, plate 37. 

No. 9, also derived from a skeleton lying in a rude stone 
cist near the last. This skull is that of a man about 75 years 
of age, and likewise just enters the br achy cephalic series, 
although it presents much of the low swoln-out, discoid form 
which I have named platycephalic. The frontal sinus is 
prominent, and the nasal bones rise abruptly from a rather 
deep depression ; the occipital region is also flat — all aborigi- 
nal forms. The cheek depressions are so unusually deep, that 
the cavities of the antra are encroached upon to a consider- 
able degree. This no doubt is an indication of the great age 
of the individual. The skull closely resembles an ancient 
British specimen, derived from a barrow on Wetton Hill, 
Staffordshire, and figured in the " Crania Britannica," plate 

* It is desirable to state that I use this term to express the form, in a verti- 
cal aspect, of all crania in which the extreme transverse diameter is to the 
extreme longitudinal, as 4, or more, is to 5 ; or as 80, o? more, is to 100. 

194 Mr Joseph Barnard Davis on Human Skulls 

No. 13, from a rude cist, is probably the skull of a woman 
of about forty-five years of age. It presents a good deal of 
resemblance to No. 8, but the face has apparently had pre- 
tensions to womanly beauty, and the nose has been aquiline. 

In describing these skulls as having an aboriginal or Pictish 
air, it is not to be understood that they present precisely 
the same peculiarities of form as the skulls which are de- 
rived from the short stone cists of Scotland, belonging to the 
primeval period, one of which, from Kinaldy, in Banffshire, is 
figured in the " Crania Britannica," plate 25, and others in 
plates 15 and 16 ; but they appear, in the eyes of the writer, 
to have a tendency towards those peculiarities of form, whilst 
they are not precisely the same, and not so rude in their 
traits ; indeed, they certainly do not differ from them mate- 
rially. The average measurements of the three skulls of 
men, Nos. 4, 8, and 9, will be found to be slighly below the 
averages of twenty male skulls of the aboriginal series of the 
" Crania Britannica," which I have added to the table for 

In approaching the second section of the skulls, or those 
derived from graves or tombs, of which Nos. 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 
11, 12, and 15, are all those of men, we are at once struck 
with their fine capacious appearance. This will be clearly 
apparent by an examination of their average measurements. 

Nos. 5 and 12 are decidedly brachy cephalic ; No. 3 just 
comes within the brachy cephalic category ; and all the rest 
are dolichocephalic ; No. 6, the largest skull of the whole 
series, deserving the name of platycephalic. It will thus 
be at once apparent, that, in this section of the skulls, the 
brachycephalic character is much less prevalent ; so it is also 
with the other peculiarities which appertain to aboriginal 
crania. The boss over the frontal sinuses is not very promi- 
nent ; the nasal bones do not descend very abruptly from a 
great depression ; the forehead is of good size and elevation ; 
the occipital region well developed and generally prominent ; 
the entire calvarium is well and equally swollen out and 
smooth, a peculiarity mostly strange to the skulls of all abo- 
riginal people ; and the ovoid outline, when viewed vertically, 

found at St Andrews in 1860. 195 

greatly prevails among them. In the cases of the old men, 
Nos. 11 and 15, the cheek depressions are deep. The crania 
in this section approximate more to. the form of the modern 
Scottish skull than those of the first section ; indeed, we 
believe they resemble this form closely. 

This section of the skulls does not lend any support to a 
doctrine maintained by phrenologists, and still more generally 
received, that the cranium undergoes a development or en- 
largement in the progress of society and the advancement of 
civilization — a doctrine which the examination of ancient 
skulls in general does not tend to confirm. I am persuaded 
that differences in size and form in human crania are more 
deeply rooted and more unchangeable, and that they depend 
on difference of race. The skulls of this section may be re- 
garded as fine " domes of thought," and are equal in develop- 
ment to those of many modern Scotchmen. No. 6 is a cra- 
nium of even unusual capacity, which may be easily tested 
by applying to it the hats which fit the generality of heads ; 
although denuded of soft parts, it will be found to fill them, 
or more than fill them. If an attempt were made to trace 
out the resemblances which may be detected among individual 
skulls of this section and those depicted in the plates of the 
" Crania Britannica," it would be found that these likenesses 
are apparent between them and the Anglo-Saxon series of 
the work, not the aboriginal series. Sometimes such resem- 
blances are even striking, as between No. 10 and the Anglo- 
Saxon skull, derived from the cemetery at Firle, in Sussex, 
forming the subject of plate 29. 

No. 5 presents a very unusual development of the lateral 
portions of the inferior semicircular ridge of the occiput, in- 
dicating the vigour of the recti postiei majores, and other 
muscles which extend and turn the head upon the spinal 
column. The femur of this skeleton measured 19£ inches, so 
that the man must have been tall and powerful. 

No. 12, a fine large brachycephalic skull of a young man, 
of probably about thirty-five, appears to have received a 
severe injury on the left side of the upper part of the frontal 
bone during life, producing a fracture five inches long, 

196 Mr Joseph Barnard Davis on Human Skulls 

and a considerable loss of substance, with depression on one 

No. 15 presents a certain degree of obliquity in the calva- 
rium, most apparent on the right side of the occiput, which, is 
flattened. I believe this is a posthumous distortion. It will 
be seen to have occasioned a slightly greater prominence on 
the right side of the frontal bone. It is this very kind of dis- 
tortion which has been noticed so frequently in the skulls 
lately exhumed from the ruins of the Roman city of Urico- 
nium (Wroxeter), and which has given rise to so much that 
is truly absurd, both in speaking and writing, respecting the 
monstrous barbarians, with one eye before the other, and with 
frightfully misshapen heads, supposed to have been engaged 
in the destruction of this city. As it is probable that the 
famous Picts and Scots effected the overthrow of the city of 
Uriconium, and as we are now engaged with ancient skulls, 
which show their relationship to the former people, and were 
excavated in their own land, there only needs a knowledge of 
the fact that a skull so deformed has been met with in a 
Pictish cemetery, to hatch in the brains of some antiquaries 
" confirmations strong as proofs of holy writ" in behalf of 
these fictions of the imagination, truly monstrous in absurdity. 

So far, I have spoken of the skulls and the appearances 
they present on an anatomical examination only ; and I have 
wished, in what I have said, expressly to avoid anything pre- 
sumptive and dogmatical. A still more generally interesting 
subject remains, on which I shall only venture a few words. 
Many persons much more thoroughly acquainted with Scottish 
history than I can be, especially those versed in the history 
of the district and city from which these crania are de- 
rived, possess, I am persuaded, better information and ability 
than I do to arrive at any conclusion as to the antiquity 
of these interments, and the particular period to which they 

All the interments apparently belong to Christian times, the 
bodies not having been placed in the pagan contracted posi- 
tion. There seems no ground for implicating any battle or 
any plague to account for their presence ; on the contrary, 

found at St Andrews in 1860. 197 

the j appear to be the usual burials of the people inhabiting 
St Andrews, who had come to their deaths by ordinary 
causes, and were brought by sympathizing friends to be 
laid in the grave, on a spot rendered sacred by the erection 
of a Christian church, and the supposed presence of the relics 
of St Andrew ; as we know that it was the custom of this 
early age to inter bodies around, not within, places dedicated 
to religion. The fact that six of the persons interred are 
about or above seventy years of age, is decisively against 
either plague or battle, when we recollect that these occur in 
sixteen only. Many of the graves have contained the bodies 
of women, not warriors ; and it appears, from what was ob- 
served in some cases, that a practice prevailed of interring 
the husband and wife in one_tomb, which ever might die the 
first. We know that Christianity was propagated at an early 
age among the Picts ; and also, that in this very district it 
was professed. It has been thought probable that near, if not 
upon, this hill, called the Kirkheugh, the first humble build- 
ing dedicated to Christian service in Scotland was con- 
structed.* Columba of Iona converted the Picts under their 
king, Bridei, before the middle of the latter half of the sixth 
century, a period at which this ancient aboriginal people 
may be considered to have received very small, if any, mix- 
ture of alien blood, t There does not appear to be any certain 
authority for determining the date of the foundation of a 
Culdee church at St Andrews ; and it is believed that about, 
or at least, 250 years elapsed before such church was founded. 
Whether this were the earliest church or place of worship 
erected on the Kirkhill seems very doubtful. There is, how- 
ever, no reason to suppose that even this building would be 
anything more than a structure of the simplest and rudest 
character, — perhaps scarcely better than those formed of 
wattles and mire in previous use, — for of such materials the 
best houses were built in the time of Columba, whose monks 

* Martine, " Reliq. Div. Andr.," 1683, p. 24. 

t "From this epoch, the Picts may be considered as Christians, a circum- 
stance which seems not to have much changed their principles or much altered 
their customs." — Chalmers's Caledonia, i. 209. 


198 Mr Joseph Barnard Davis on Hainan Skulls 

were clothed in the skins of animals. The legend is, that 
Hungus, the king of the Picts, whose death is placed in the 
year 833, was the founder of the religious house of Kil-rule, 
or the Church of Regulus, who brought the relics of St An- 
drew to this spot.* How soon after this time the Christian 
people, who have so long occupied the rude cists in the Kirk- 
hill, were placed in them, as their last resting place, it is 
impossible to tell. From the inartificial character of these 
cists, which, I am informed on good authority, were con- 
structed of undressed flags of the natural stone of the district, 
piled at the sides, with other stones of the same description 
covered over the top, but without any pavement at the bottom, 
and which seem to be only one stage in advance of the 
scarcely less rude, short, primeval cists of the unconverted 
Picts, — a step in advance taken in obedience to ecclesiastical 
rule for extending the body, with the face regarding the east, — 
I am inclined to conclude, that the interval of time to that at 
which these cists were constructed could not have been long, 
possibly not more than one hundred years. If we might rely 
with unhesitating confidence on the cranial relics of the 
cists, it is likely that the period of their formation was at 
least as early as that we have mentioned, when the Pictish 
blood was still pure, and that the relics of the cists belong to 
the ninth century, if not earlier. Those derived from the 
tombs and the graves are probably of a later age. In support 
of this view, we have both the superior construction of the 
tomb, with a further departure from the primeval cist, and 
the more modern aspect of the skulls. This latter seems to 
me to indicate an admixture of extraneous blood with that of 
the Picts. Judging from cranial evidence alone, and with the 
little knowledge I possess of the skulls of the Scandinavian 
nations, I am inclined to think that the mixture is not derived 
from a northern source — the Danes — but, more likely, from a 
Saxon source. Still this, like all the rest that I have said, 
I wish to be taken, not as by any means definite, but merely 
for as much as it may be worth. I fear that it may be 

* Chalmers's Caledonia, i. 429. 

found at St Andrews in 1860. 199 

thought that mine is but " a judgment maimed and most im- 
perfect." I shall, however, be very happy if some one better 
informed will " amplify my judgment in other conclusions." 

P.S. — On a revision of what I have previously written 
relative to the skulls from the Kirkhill of St Andrews, there 
are a few points which appear to stand out rather more 
strongly than I at first thought, and which afford a little 
more definiteness to the conclusions we may arrive at respect- 
ing both the period and people to which these crania have 

In the first place, there seems to be good ground for consi- 
dering this spot to have been used for funeral purposes from 
great antiquity, and during pre-Christian times. Three small 
places on the hill were found to be distinctly marked as the 
positions of fires, by ashes scattered about. One of them was 
surrounded with stones. These are probable indications of 
the rite of cremation. The want of orientation in some of the 
interments is a like indication of pre-Christian times. And 
the fact of one of the interments, in a rude cist, being situated 
within the foundations of the nave of the ancient church, 
brought to light by the recent excavations, proves that the 
site was used for sepulchral purposes before the erection of 
this church, the foundations of which alone now exist. 

Upon the whole, it seems very probable that some of the 
cistic interments belong to pre-Christian times, and may date 
from the sixth century; others are clearly the sepulchral 
relics of the early Culdees, or the first Pictish converts to 
Christianity; whilst a third series of remains, or some of 
them, it is fair to infer may be those of Anglo-Saxon 
or other Teutonic settlers* 

* The Flemings, the great commercial people of that age, visited this east- 
ern coast of Scotland much in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and settled 
in the towns. In the reign of William the Lion (1165-1214), St Andrews was 
inhabited by Scots, French, English, and Flandrenses. 


On Human Skulls found at St Andrews in 1860. 

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Ancient British Caves. The Bee-hive Cave at Chapel Euny, 
and the Longitudinal Cave at Chyoyster, each built with 
overlapping stones* By R. Edmonds, Esq. 

The "bee-hive hut' 1 constructed with overlapping stones, 
appears, from the paper of Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson in the 
last year's Report of this Institution, to be found in Cornwall 
only on Brown Willy. But no " bee-hive" cave seems to have 
been found any where except at Chapel Euny, on the west of 
Penzance. This cave, and the cave at Chyoyster.t on the 
north of Penzance. I have described in the Report of this 
Institution for 1857. J Having in that year, when in the 
neighbourhood of Chapel Euny, accidentally heard that an 
ancient cave had been opened by some miners, I went imme- 
diately to the spot, and observed that the innermost part of it 
was in the form of a bee-hive, and so built that each succes- 
sive layer of stones projected considerably over the layer next 
below it. This led me to suspect a similar overlapping of the 
layers forming the walls of the longitudinal cave at Chyoyster, 
and having gone thither shortly afterwards with a neigh- 
bouring farmer, we found the stones overlapping one another 
in the manner I had anticipated. Prior to this no one appears 
to have noticed this very remarkable and most striking pecu- 
liarity. I will now add a few more particulars respecting 
these caves, both of which are built of uncemented stones 
unmarked by any tool. The longitudinal one at Chyoyster, or 
rather the exposed part of what remains of it, is internally 
about four feet wide at the roof, and the highest layer of 
stones which supports the massive slabs (five or six feet long) 
forming the roof, projects over the lowest layer, now in sight, 
about a foot on each side in a depth of three feet perpendicu- 
larly, so that when the soil now deeply covering the floor is 

* Read at the Meeting of the Royal Institution of Cornwall on the 10th of 
May 1861. 

| This village is called Chysoyster in the Ordnance Map, but I have omitted 
the fourth letter, as Martyn spells it without that letter in his very much 
older map of Cornwall. 

X See also Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal for Jan. 1858, p. 146 

the author's name being by mistake printed Edwards. 

202 Mr R. Edmonds on Ancient British Caves. 

removed, it will probably be found that this cave is six feet 
deep, and that the top of each wall overhangs its base two feet. 
It extended originally, as appears from its remains and the 
rubbish left by its recent spoilers, fifty feet or more in a 
straight line up the sloping side of the hill. Nor was so 
long a cave, six feet high, four feet wide on the top, and eight 
feet wide at the bottom, a larger storehouse (if used as such) 
than so considerable a village as old Chyoyster required. It 
appears to have been built on the natural surface of the hill- 
side, and then covered over with stones and earth, and planted 
with the evergreens which still abound there. So much 
of the old village has been lately removed, that the cave, 
although originally within, now lies outside it, towards New 
Chyoyster. The pit in the centre of one of the old dwellings 
is a recent excavation. 

The structure of this cave at Chyoyster is very different from 
that of the well-known cave at Boleit on the south-west of 
Penzance, six feet deep and thirty-six feet long. In the walls 
of the Chyoyster cave every successive layer overlaps consi- 
derably the layer next beneath it. The walls of the Boleit 
cave, on the contrary, are perpendicular, and none of the 
stones overlap, except where the capstone happens to be too 
short, in which case a stone or two on the top of the wall is 
projected a little to enable the short capstone to rest upon it. 

Another longitudinal cave, constructed, like that of Chyoy- 
ster, with overlapping stones, as appears from the very small 
portion of it at present exposed to view, adjoins and opens in- 
to the " bee-hive" cave at Chapel Euny. In the " bee-hive" 
cave itself the now remaining highest circular layer of stones 
overhangs the lowest about three feet in a depth of about six 

Should a deputation from the Cambrian Archaeological 
Association favour us with a visit next year, as is contem- 
plated, I know of no antiquities in the west of Cornwall more 
worthy of their exploration, or more likely to reward them for 
their labour, than these caves near Penzance. 

Penzance, lOthMay 1861. 


Notes on Earthquakes and Extraordinary Agitations of the 
Sea.* By R. Edmonds, Esq. 

I stated many years since that extraordinary agitations of 
the sea and of inland lakes are probably produced by vertical 
earthquake-shocks acting on the waters perpendicularly to 
the plane or surface of the ground on which they rest. The 
effect of such a shock in the bed of a canal would be not only 
to drive the water from its sides towards the centre where it 
would rise into a long ridge, but also to drive the water from 
its higher towards its lower end. In this latter case the water, 
when its momentum ceased, would flow back to the higher end, 
where, rising probably to a higher level than it had before, it 
would dam back any stream gently entering there. All this was 
exemplified in the Surrey Canal on the day of the great earth- 
quake of Lisbon. That canal was 700 feet long and 58 broad. 
" The water at its higher end usually deepens from two to 
four feet, growing gradually deeper to the west end, where it 
deepens to about ten feet." At and near the higher (eastern) 
end the ridge of water raised in the centre was about ninety 
feet long, and between two and three feet above the usual 
level. This ridge heeled northward, and flowed over the walk 
on the north side of the canal ; on the water's returning 
into the canal, another such ridge was raised in the middle 
which heeled southward, and flowed over the walk on the 
south side. During this second oscillation, the small stream 
at the higher end, which constantly flowed through the canal, 
was driven back thirty-six feet towards its source. This was 
considered f as the effect of the second oscillation; but no 
oscillation from side to side could have increased the depth 
at the higher end where the stream entered. It was probably 
the second oscillation from end to end that dammed back the 
stream, for it must then have reached the higher end of the 
canal, and deepened the water there. The oscillations from 
end to end no doubt escaped observation on account of the 
tenfold more striking oscillations from side to side. 

* Read at the Meeting of the Royal Institution of Cornwall on the 10th of 
May 1861. 

t Philosophical Transactions, vol. xlix. p. 354. 

204 Mr R. Edmonds on Earthquakes. 

Every extraordinary agitation of the sea (unaccompanied 
with a known earthquake-shock) that I have read of, where 
the state of the weather is mentioned, has occurred during a 
thunder-storm, or at or near a minimum of the barometer ; 
whereas earthquakes appear to take place equally in all 
states of the atmosphere. It is therefore important to ascer- 
tain why such earthquakes as are known only by the extraor- 
dinary agitation of the sea which they produce should occur 
exclusively during storms, or at or near minima of the baro- 
meter. Is it because submarine shocks are always vertical, 
while those on dry land are generally horizontal % In vertical 
shocks there may be electrical discharges between the earth 
and the atmosphere which might occasion the attendant 
minima, as in the case observed by Humboldt, where " the 
mercury was precisely at its minimum height at the moment 
of the third and last shock,*" whilst in horizontal shocks the 
discharges may be only between differently charged portions 
of the earth without much affecting the atmosphere. 

Mr Mallet, in his first report on earthquakes, asks whether 
the reason why ducks in ponds often rush suddenly from the 
water immediately before an earthquake may not be, " that 
with their heads immersed they are able to hear the first dis- 
tant mutterings while yet inaudible through the air 1 ?" But 
how can this be when sounds do not travel through the earth 
faster than shocks % It is true that earthquake sounds are 
often heard immediately before shocks are felt; but such sounds 
must have been produced, not by the vibrations which were 
afterwards felt, but by preceding vibrations which were not 
felt at all. The numberless rapid vibrations constituting a 
shock vary considerably in power, so that the weaker ones if 
they came first and reached no higher than the bottom of the 
pond, might have alarmed the birds before the stronger ones 
were felt on its banks. That shocks may reach ponds with- 
out being perceived by persons close by them was abundantly 
proved during the great earthquake of Lisbon. 

Humboldt, at Cumana, felt an earthquake during a thunder- 
storm at the moment of the strongest electrical explosion ; on 
the following day at the same hour was a violent gust of wind 

: Personal Narrative, vol. iii., p. 319. 

and Extraordinary Agitations of the Sea. 205 

with thunder, but no shock ; the wind and storm returned for 
five or six days at the same hour, almost at the same minute : 
and he states that such diurnal periodicities have been often 
observed at Cumana, and by M. Arago and himself at Paris.* I 
have observed periodicities equally striking, although the inter- 
vals, instead of being days, are lunations (29 \ days each) or mul- 
tiples of a lunation, and generally at the moon's first quarter. 
As these, as well as those observed by Humboldt, resulted pro- 
bably from changes in the magnetic or electric state of the 
earth or atmosphere, which is periodically varying not only each 
day, but also according to the positions of the sun and moon in 
respect of the earth, it seems probable that at the end of each 
lunation, when the circuit is completed, and the sun, moon, and 
earth have returned to nearly the same relative positions as they 
had at the beginning, the magnetic or electric states of the 
earth and atmosphere, and the weather consequent thereon, 
would also be nearly the same at the end as at the beginning, 
subject only to such modifications as other intervening influ- 
ences would occasion. These intervening influences are no 
doubt so considerable as to render it difficult to determine 
whether the examples referred to are merely accidental, or 
whether they depend in some measure on the relative positions 
of the sun, moon, and earth, and the locality of the observer. 
The very numerous examples, however, of lunar periodicities 
which I have given in the British Association Report for 1850 
(Sections), p. 32, cannot, I think, be merely accidental. These 
are exclusively remarkable maxima of the thermometer. 
Other tables of remarkable lunar periodicities I have given in 
the British Association Report for 1845 and elsewhere, con- 
sisting sometimes of maxima and sometimes of minima, and 
sometimes of the barometer and sometimes of the thermo- 
meter, and it might therefore be objected that the proof of 
lunar influences would have been more satisfactory had the 
examples been all maxima or all minima of the same instru- 
ment. But it must be borne in mind that the weather being 
at all times dependent on the ever-changing electric or mag- 
netic state of the atmosphere, must be very different in most 
respects immediately after a discharge (visible or invisible) 

* Personal Narrative, vol. iii., p. 319. 
NEW SERIES.-— VOL. XIV. NO. II. OCT. 1861. 2 D 

206 Mr R. Edmonds on Earthquakes. 

of its electricity or magnetism from what it was immediately 
before; and a considerable maximum one day might be fol- 
lowed by a considerable minimum the next. Some have con- 
cluded that the moon has no sensible influence on the weather, 
because the means of the observations of the barometer or 
other instruments on the days of new and full moon, and of the 
quarters respectively, show no difference between any one of 
these four days and any other. But this proves nothing, as 
the change expected rarely occurs at the precise day owing 
to other influences retarding or accelerating it. 

Others deny any such influence of the moon, because it is 
not apparent in the averages of the readings of each respective 
day of the new and full moon and quarter days conjoined with 
the two days before and the two days after it. But should 
any remarkable change occur, it could not be detected by such 
averages, as the maximum or minimum in the former part of 
these five days would be often neutralized by an opposite state 
of the instrument in the latter part. 

The only way, therefore, of ascertaining whether the moon's 
first quarter is or is not most remarkable for excessive meteoro- 
logical changes, is to refer each excessive or remarkable state 
of the atmosphere to such of the moon's four quarter-days as 
may be nearest, and then to compare the results. 

On the Geographical Distribution of the Coniferce in Canada. 
By the Hon. William Sheppard, D.C.L., F.B.S.C., of 
Fairymead, Drummondville, Lower Canada. * 

Pinus Banksiana (Gray Pine).t — This is essentially a 
northern pine, not having been observed south of the St Law- 
rence. It grows abundantly in Labrador, and up the north 
shore of the St Lawrence, among the rocks of the Laurentian 
formation. At St Paul's Bay it has taken possession of the 

* Read to the Botanical Society of Canada, 14th June 1861, and communi- 
cated to this Journal by Professor Lawson, Secretary. 

f Omitting the diagnoses, I give the botanical name from Dr A. Gray's 
" Manual of the Botany of the Northern States," a sufficient identification of the 
plants; the common names are for the most part local. 

On the Distribution of the Coniferce in Canada. 207 

sand dunes near the shore. It appears again at Quebec, on the 
road to Caprouge, though now nearly all cut away. A few full- 
grown specimens are preserved in Mount Hermon Cemetery, 
as a memorial of an extensive grove formerly inhabiting that 
vicinity ; the soil there being the shale of the Oneida sand- 
stones. Proceeding upwards, we find it in some quantity on 
the sandhills at Three Rivers. This pine inhabits extensively 
that Laurentian tract of country between the headwaters of 
the Saguenay westward to Lake Huron, occupying the fissures 
of the rocks. It appears to thrive on the dryest and worst of 
soils. It attains a height of 40 to 50 feet, but is worthless for 
any economical purpose. The branches are open and distant, 
not making a picturesque object, except in connection with the 
wild scenery in which it delights to dwell. 

Pinus rigida (Pitch Pine). — A scarce tree in Canada ; 
found by Mr C. Billings near Brockville, and may be sought 
for with probable success in the Laurentian Hills, between 
that town and Kingston, and among the Thousand Islands. 
Possibly the P. Banhsiana may also be discovered in the same 
locality. Its principal habitats are from Lake Champlain 

Pinus resinosa (Red Pine ; also, though improperly, called 
Norway Pine). — This pine is found in scattered localities on 
many of the tributaries of the St Lawrence and the Bay of 
Quinte, but in the greatest abundance at the headwaters of 
the Ottawa, growing in the poorest land. Very large quan- 
tities of this timber — principally from the last-mentioned tract 
of country — are yearly floated down to market at Quebec for 
exportation. It attains a height of from 60 to 70 feet ; and 
the trunks are straight, and generally free from branches to 
the height of 30 to 40 feet. The timber of this species, if not 
quite equal, at least approaches in quality to that of the Nor- 
way Pine, which is obtained in commerce principally from 
the ports in the Baltic. Next, after white pine, it forms the 
greatest article of exportation from Canada. The young 
branches are well furnished with long leaves of a dark-green 
colour, giving the tree a massive appearance, yet it is wanting 
in picturesque effect. 

Pinus Strobus (White Pine). — This pine is the most mag- 
nificent, and at the same time the most useful, of all our 

208 The Hon. William Sheppard on the Distribution 

Canadian trees. It grows scattered throughout the province, 
preferring richer soil than do the pines already mentioned » 
the quality of the soil causing it to be social or gregarious. 
The timber of the white pine furnishes by far the greatest 
article of exportation the produce of our forests affords. It is 
taken to market in the shape of square timber, of all sizes, 
from 12 inches to double that dimension, and in lengths from 
20 to 60 feet, and more. Larger sizes are partially squared, 
to bo afterwards wrought into masts and bowsprits, for which 
purpose it is admirably fitted, by reason of its lightness and 
strength. Large quantities are also floated to the many saw- 
mills scattered about the province, to be cut into planks and 
boards, principally for exportation, finding outlets from Quebec 
to Britain and Ireland, and by railroads and sailing craft to 
the neighbouring states. This pine is exclusively used in the 
province for carpentry and joiner's work for our buildings, 
being well adapted to all the purposes of house-building, easily 
worked, and generally free of knots. While this tree is the 
most useful and the largest product of our forests, it is the most 
picturesque of all those we possess, when growing in places 
where it has room to expand its massive branches from the 
ground upwards, densely clothed with foliage, and broken 
into great masses of light and shade, which the painter de- 
lights to contemplate. This tree is seen raising its head above 
all the other denizens of the forest, frequently attaining a 
height of 120 feet and upwards. 

Finns serotina (Pond Pine). — Dr Gray ignores this species, 
probably referring it to P. rigida as a variety merely, though 
he does not say so ; other authors making it a distinct species. 
On the authority of Pursh, it is here adopted as a native of 
Canada. The latter botanist found it at Anticosti, on the 
occasion of his visiting that island in 1817. As this is a 
southern species, its having established itself on that northern 
island is a singular circumstance ; yet Pursh was well ac- 
quainted with the pines of America, and could scarcely have 
been mistaken. On the same occasion he brought back, in the 
shape of dried specimens, a swell as in a living state, many 
plants which seem peculiar to the island. 

Assuming the existence of this pine in Anticosti, we possess 
five species in Canada. 

of the Coniferce in Canada. 209 

Abies balsamea (Balsam Spruce). — This tree grows spar- 
ingly throughout the province, on dry and rocky soils, in the 
company of the white and black spruce. It grows very sym- 
metrically to the height of about 30 to 40 feet, spreading its 
branches around the stem, from the ground upwards, in regular 
tiers, forming a tapering pyramid. It is much grown as an 
ornamental tree, especially in the south, where it is a favourite 
object for lawns and plantations. The well-known Canada 
Balsam is the produce of this tree, showing itself in blisters 
between the wood and the bark. The timber is soft, and of 
little practical utility, except for fence rails and for the manu- 
facture of butter firkins, for which latter purpose it is preferred 
to any other timber, in consequence of its communicating no 
unpleasant taint to butter. 

Abies canadensis (Hemlock Spruce). — A large tree, grow- 
ing abundantly throughout a great part of Canada, congre- 
gating densely on dry sandy soils little adapted for cultiva- 
tion. The timber is coarse, and not much used for economical 
purposes, except for the walls of farm-houses and barns. A 
moderate quantity is yearly cut up into lathwood, and taken 
to Quebec for exportation, to meet the limited demand which 
exists for this article of commerce. The bark abounds in 
tannin, and is exclusively used in Lower Canada by the 
tanner, being a good substitute for oak bark.* This is a 
beautiful and picturesque tree, where it has free room to dis- 
play its light spray and dark-green foliage, becoming varied 
in shape, and presenting large masses of light and shade. It 
is well worthy of a place in ornamental grounds. 

Abies alba (White Spruce). — A straight pyramidal tree, 
attaining the height of about 50 feet : growing everywhere in 
dry grounds in the company of the black spruce, but in smaller 
numbers. The timber is light, on which account it is used in 
common with the next species for the small spars of shipping ; 
it is also sawed into planks for exportation, being of a colour 
and texture resembling the white deal of Norway. The leaves 
are of a bright green, and are longer than those of the black 
spruce ; the cones also are of a different shape. These marks 
serve to distinguish the two trees, which have a great general 

* Hemlock bark is also exclusively used in the extensive tanneries in the 
neighbourhood of Kingston in Upper Canada. — G. L. 

210 The Hon. William Sheppard on the Distribution 

resemblance. It is a beautiful object on the lawn, with its 
graceful branches regularly feathered down to the ground. 

Abies nigra (Black Spruce). — This is a somewhat taller 
and stouter tree than the last-described species, on which 
account it is more useful as a deal-producing timber, the 
quality being very similar. It is widely diffused throughout 
the country, grows on dry and rocky soils, and is generally 
found along with the white spruce, though in some localities 
inhabited by this species the other is absent. This is the 
tree from whose branches the well-known spruce beer is manu- 
factured, a wholesome and pleasant beverage in warm weather. 
Larix americana (American Larch, Tamarac). — The leaves 
of our larch are in bundles of many, and are deciduous, like its 
congener of the Old World. It delights in rich moist lands, 
where it attains the height of sixty feet and upwards, with a 
proportionately stout stem, straight and taper; it is found 
scattered throughout the province, growing in such abundance 
in favourable soils as almost to exclude other trees. It is also 
often seen in sandy soils, in which the moisture is retained by 
what are called "hardpans" underlying them, and preventing 
the escape of water; in such situations it grows thickly together, 
but attains no size, and dies off prematurely. This tree fur- 
nishes timber of superior quality, strong, heavy, and durable, 
answering well for railway ties, and admirably adapted for 
ship-building, for which purpose it is floated to market dressed 
on two opposite sides only. It also makes first-rate firewood 
for steamers, and is used extensively as such by those plying 
on our rivers. 

This tree, when growing singly, forms a beautiful object, 
its slender, pendulous spray adding much to its gracefulness ; 
it well deserves a place in ornamental grounds. 

Thuja occidentalis (White Cedar ; in Canada erroneously) . — 
It grows in rich, moist soils everywhere, and on the banks of 
rivers, there taking a bowed shape, and crowding together, 
frequently to the exclusion of other trees. The foliage is of a 
dark olive colour, becoming foxey in winter. The wood fur- 
nishes the best rails and posts for fencing, being almost ever- 
lasting, except the portion sunk in the ground, where it is 
subject to slow decay. 

Juniperus communis (Juniper). — A recumbent bush spread- 

of the Coniferce in Canada. 211 

ing on all sides from a common centre. Grows along the banks 
of the St Lawrence on both sides from Quebec downwards. 
On the plains of Abraham a single specimen is found. Up- 
wards it is not met with till we reach the Falls of Chaudiere 
in Hull, where a few specimens exist.* Foliage, light olive ; 
berries blue, possessing the properties of the juniper berries 
of the North of Europe. 

Juniperus virginiana (Red Cedar). — A small tree growing 
along the shores of the Upper Lakes. It appears to dread the 
severe climate of Lower Canada, for, with the exception of a 
few specimens at the Falls of the Chaudiere in Hull, it is not 
found in this section of the province in the shape of a tree ; 
but a variety with a dwarf prostrate habit grows on the rocks 
on both shores of the St Lawrence below Quebec, generally 
associated with the common juniper ; the deep clothing of snow 
proving a protection to it in the severe winter weather of those 
localities, and in all probability causing its procumbent habit. 
This variety rises with a single stem, but, instead of assuming 
the shape of a tree, becomes quite prostrate, and is blown about 
in all directions by the wind. The timber of the tree, as grow- 
ing in Upper Canada, resembles in texture, and has the 
fragrance of, J. bermudiana> with which lead-pencils are 
made ; it is light, close-grained, strong, and indestructible : 
possessing these good qualities, it is much used for the ties of 

Taxus canadensis (Ground Hemlock). — Our yew can 
scarcely be distinguished botanically from the European tree, 
its decumbent habit constitutingthe greatest difference between 
them. It grows in rich shady woods, steep banks of rivers, 
and dark ravines throughout the province, forming extensive 
patches in its favourite localities. It never rises to the shape 
of a tree like its namesake of England, therefore it is un suited 
to the purpose for which our sturdy forefathers used this wood. 
It forms only a prostrate bush, the branches bending upwards. 
The berries are red, like those of the European species, yet I 
once found in a deep ravine a very marked variety, bearing 
white berries, partially translucent. 

* It is also common about Kingston, and along the banks of the Gananogue 
River and connected lakes. 


Physical Features of the Central Part of British North 
America, with Special Reference to its Botanical Physi- 
ognomy. By James Hector, M.D., F.G.S., &c* 

The following paper is intended as a sketch of the botani- 
cal results of a Government expedition which was sent out in 
the spring of 1857 to explore the British territories lying in 
the neighbourhood of the northern boundary line of the United 
States, and stretching westward from Lake Superior across 
the Rocky Mountains. The expedition was placed under the 
command of Captain Palliser, who had previously travelled 
among the Indians in the district of the Upper Missouri and 
Yellowstone Rivers. His party consisted of Lieutenant, now 
Captain Blackiston, R.A., who had charge of the magnetical 
observations ; Mr Sullivan, as secretary and assistant-astro- 
nomer to Capt. Palliser ; M. Bourgeau, a botanical collector 
whose name must be familiar to the members of this Society 
who have had occasion to consult the Herbarium ; and the 
writer of this paper, who filled the post of surgeon and natu- 
ralist. The expedition was in the field for three years, and in 
that time examined and mapped a region embracing 33° of 
longitude, and in some places 5° of latitude. 

Physical Characters of the Area explored. — Commencing 
at Lake Superior, the route of the expedition for the first 600 
miles to Lake Winipeg, crossed over a spur which diverges 
to the south-west from an axis of crystalline rocks that 
runs from Canada to the Arctic Ocean in a north-west direc- 
tion, and known as the " Intermediate Primitive Belt" of 
Richardson, or the " Laurentian Axis" of Logan. This 
belt of rocky country nowhere acquires a mountainous char- 
acter, but is throughout extremely rugged and traversed by 
innumerable watercourses, and by long narrow lakes. The 
greatest altitude passed over in this portion of the journey 
was 1000 feet above Lake Superior, or 1600 feet above the sea- 
level. The inequalities of surface, and the diversity in the 
nature and amount of soil, has given a greater degree of com- 
plexity to the flora of this district than we might expect from 
its other physical conditions. The winter experienced in this 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 13th June 1861. 

On the Physical Features of British North America. 213 

region is severe, but steady. From the commencement of 
November till May the whole country is ice-bound, so that 
the vegetation is perfectly dormant. The spring is very 
lingering, owing to the great extent of surface occupied by 
water, and the neighbourhood of the large lakes on the one 
hand, and of Hudson Bay on the other, the slow melting of 
the ice which accumulates on these sheets of water keeping the 
temperature depressed till far on in the season. Thus, in cross- 
ing Lake Superior, on the 9th of June, the expedition encoun- 
tered much cold weather, and got entangled in the ice floes that 
were, even so late in the season, drifting about the lake. The 
summer temperature is high, and for the same reason that 
renders the spring late, the autumn is prolonged beyond its 
normal extent, the influence of the large internal masses of 
water not having the effect of producing an equalised climate 
like that of a sea-coast, but merely prolonging the force exer^ 
cised by the half-yearly extremes of heat and cold. 

To the west of the Laurentian Axis commences the region 
of plains that extends to the eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains, and north and south throughout the whole central 
district of the North American continent. In the neighbour- 
hood of Lake Winipeg, the primitive rocks are overlaid by 
nearly horizontal strata of Silurian and Devonian age, consist- 
ing of limestones sometimes containing magnesia to such an ex- 
tent that the soil derived from their decomposition must be of 
inferior quality. Excepting along the margins of the group 
of lakes that lie close to the axis, outcrops of these limestones 
are, however, rarely met with, the floor of the plateau being 
almost everywhere concealed by superficial deposits, consist- 
ing of sands, gravels, and marls, the bulk of which have 
been derived by denudation from the cretaceous strata that at 
one time must have overlaid the area now occupied by the 
chain of lakes that extends from Lake Winipeg to Great 
Bear Lake. A succession of steps, composed of these super- 
ficial deposits, and covered with a great profusion of erratic 
blocks, raises the level as we proceed westward, until, at an 
altitude of 1600 to 2000 feet, the finely assorted and well- 
mixed soils of the drift deposits cease, and the surface of 
the plain is occupied by strata of the age of the chalk, but 

NEW SERIES. VOL, XIV. NO. II. — OCT. 1861. 2 E 

214 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

formed of plastic and sandy clays much impregnated with 
sulphates, and yielding little or no soil that can support vege- 
tation. In some localities sandstones prevail, which disinte- 
grate with facility, and give rise to immense wastes of blown 
sand, that are continually, though slowly, travelling before 
the prevailing winds. 

The whole prairie-slope of the continent is divided into two 
regions by a low watershed, which traverses it from east to 
west, nearly following the political boundary, which is the 
49th parallel of latitude, and throwing off the drainage, 
south to the Gulf of Mexico, and north to the Arctic Ocean and 
Hudson Bay. This watershed is very indistinctly marked, and 
has been formed entirely by denudation of the soft strata, being 
quite unconnected with any disturbance of the rocky frame- 
work of the basin. The prairies are traversed by several large 
rivers, but, excepting the sudden carrying off of the surface 
water when the snows melt in spring, these rivers can hardly 
be said to drain the country through which they flow, as their 
waters are derived throughout the greater part of the year 
from the Rocky Mountains ; and the excess of evaporation 
over the rain-fall is shown by the drying up in summer of 
those streams that do not rise in the mountains or from the 
swampy region along their eastern base. 

There is one physical feature, which has an important bear- 
ing on the question of botanical distribution, the effect of which 
will be alluded to in an after part of this paper. This is the 
manner in which the plains are traversed by deep and narrow 
valleys, with abrupt slopes, and cut into the otherwise level, 
or only slightly undulating surface of the country. Those 
troughlike valleys, by favouring variety in the exposure, soil, 
and drainage, have afforded continuous lines for the migration 
and diffusion of plants through tracts of country, where the 
prevailing conditions are quite unsuited for their support. 

The plains rise gently as the Rocky Mountains are ap- 
proached, and at their western limit have an altitude of 4000 
feet above the sea level. With only a very narrow intervening 
belt of hilly country, the mountains rise almost abruptly from 
the plains, and present lofty precipices that frown like battle- 
ments over the level country to the eastward. 

Central Part of British North America. 


When travelling in any of the transverse valleys, by which 
the chain is cut through almost to the prairie level, the moun- 
tains are seen to be composed of successive ranges formed by 
the escarpments of highly disturbed limestones and quartz- 
ites of palaeozoic age. * 

The average altitude of the highest part of the Rocky 
Mountains is 12,000 feet, but they never rise into marked 
peaks, and their cliff-like structure still further detracts from 
the grandeur of their appearance. The forest extends in alti- 
tude to 7000 feet ; and as some of the passes are much under 
this elevation, the chain cannot be considered as a direct bar 
to the passage of the more striking kinds of vegetation. 

Meteorological observations were obtained for the winter 
and spring seasons of both 1857-58 and 1858-59, at Fort Ed- 
monton, which is situated in the plain country, and about 100 
miles east of the Rocky Mountains, in Lat. 53° 32' N., Long. 
113° 20' W., and at an altitude above the sea of 2000 feet. 

In order to show more exactly the nature of the climate at 
these seasons of the year, the following abstract of the ther- 
mometric observations is given : — 

I. From Daily Observations, 

excluding Maxima and Minima. 

No. of 









1858. January, . . 












... March, 






• •• April, . 






. . . October, . 






. . . November, 






... December,. 




- 2*9 


1859. January, . 






February, . 






. . . March, . . 


- 2-5 




... April, . . . 






... May, . . 






Mean for January, February, > 

larch, and April 1858, . 25*12 

Do. do. 

do. 1859, . 18-62 

* A sketch of the geology of this country will be found in the " Geological 
Journal." November 1861. 

216 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

II. From Daily Maxima and Minima Observations. 













1858. January, . . 






. . . February, 





... March, 





. .. 

... April, . . 






. . . October, . 

.. • 







- 2- 



. . . December, 






1859. January, . , 




- 1- 


. . . February, 






... March, . . 



- 6- 



... April, . . . 






... May, . . . 



31- 37-2 


Mean of Minima for Jan., Feb., 

March, and April 1858, . 


Do. do. 

do. 1859, . 


The climate of the prairies, and of the eastern slope of the 
Rocky Mountains, a district having a mean latitude of 53° N., 
differs in many respects from that of the Eastern Lake District, 
the mean latitude of which is about 48° N., although they possess 
nearly the same average temperature for the year. Thus, 
while the Canadian and Eastern climate is expressed by a 
low but steady winter curve of temperature, which is counter- 
acted in its effect upon the vegetation by a correspondingly 
high summer curve, the manner in which the more northern 
and equally continental climate of the Western Saskatchewan 
acquires the same average, is by rapidly succeeding irregu- 
larities and variations of temperature, according to the direc- 
tion of the dominant wind for the time. The influence exerted 
by those winds during the winter months was very clearly 
observed at Edmonton during the first part of the year 1858. 
They may be divided into three groups at this place : — 
1. The clear winds, that in winter bring the intense extremes 
of cold, and which blow from the north-west. In summer, this 
direction is exactly reversed, when it becomes a clear, hot, 
and dry wind. This may be considered as the proper conti- 
nental current, and is the wind of fine steady weather. It 
often only affects the lower stratum of the atmosphere, the 

Central Part of British North America, 217 

clouds being seen to pass right across it in upper air. This 
wind must not be too rigidly defined by its mere direction, 
as it often blows from anomalous quarters, while its char- 
acter remains the same, being quite subordinate in form 
to either of the next two groups, which are both stormy 

2. This group includes all the winds that generally blow 
from between north and east, and which in winter bring snow, 
and in summer cold fogs. 

3. The south and south-west winds, that, blowing from the 
Pacific Ocean through and over the Rocky Mountains, always 
bring clouds, warmth, and sometimes even rain during the 

The struggle among these three climatic agencies gives 
rise to the following succession of phenomena. A few days 
of fine, steady, though perhaps intensely cold weather, with 
the wind from the north-west, is followed by a slight rise in 
the temperature, caused by the north-east wind having piled 
a canopy of cloud over the lower stratum, and so preventing 
radiation. This is effected gradually, every morning the sky 
being more and more overcast, and clearing later in each suc- 
cessive day, until at length it remains cloudy till evening, 
when a cutting north-east wind commences, that soon increases 
to a storm, followed by snow. This lasts for two or three 
days, till the snow begins to fall more gently, and with the 
temperature rising, at length the clouds break, when the upper 
stratum of air is seen moving rapidly from the south-west, carry- 
ing light fleecy clouds against a clear sky. Generally, in the 
course of the following night, the south-west wind affects the 
lowest stratum of air, and increases in violence, sometimes 
ranging rapidly through many points of the compass, showing 
that it takes the form of a cyclone, and at the same time 
bringing a high temperature and dense clouds discharging 
rain. One of these storms, for instance, passed over the Sas- 
katchewan Plains on the 3d of January 1858 ; and at Edmon- 
ton the minimum temperature for that day and night was 36°, 
while the maximum for the next twenty-four hours was only 
10°. Again, on the 24th of the same month, at the close of 
another of these storms, the temperature fell from 37° at 4 

218 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

P.M., to 13°.5 before midnight, or a difference of 50°.5 in eight 

After the storm from the south-west has passed, the light 
north-wester generally sets in irregularly, and the temperature 
falls in the course of a few days to an extreme, during which 
there is calm, followed by the haze and the overhanging cloud 
from the north-east as before. 

Along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains these 
changes are even more distinctly marked than in the longitude 
of Edmonton, and the effect they have in reducing the amount 
of snow is very remarkable, so that there is a narrow tract 
close to the mountains where there is never more than a few 
inches of snow on the ground, and the rivers, when rapid, 
remain open during the winter. In consequence of this, a few 
ducks are found to linger throughout the whole season in the 
mountains, while from the Plain country, in latitudes much 
further south, they are necessarily absent from October till 
May. Forty miles east of the mountains the snow-fall is much 
increased, but during the depth of winter rarely exceeds two 
feet in depth. From the prairies the snow evaporates rapidly, 
and excepting in hollows where it drifts, it never accumulates ; 
but in the woods, where protected, it often reaches the depth 
of three to four feet towards spring. 

During the steady cold of the winter the ground freezes 
to a considerable depth, especially in seasons when there is 
a small fall of snow. Thus at Edmonton the limit of the 
frozen soil was found on the 5th of March 1858 to be at the 
depth of nearly seven feet ; and in the same spot in the year 
following, on the 16th of March, it was marked at six feet. 
Regular observations were taken during both winters, and 
also when travelling in the plains, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the temperature of the soil at the depth of two or three 
feet, according to the method suggested by Dr Hooker. The 
following table gives the means of these observations : — 

Central Part of British North America. 
1857-8, Fort Carlton. 


Mean Temp. 

Mean at 

Mean at 


of Air. 

Two Feet. 

Three Feet. 













February,* . 




March, .... 




April, .... 




May, . . . 




June,t .... 

54-9 38*6 



3-9, Fort Edmonton. 

November, J . 















March, .... 




April, .... 




May,§ .... 



(The thermometers were sunk in brass tubes attached to a 
light wooden rod, and had the bulbs protected with flannel, to 
preserve them from the influence of the atmosphere while they 
were removed for examination.) 

At Fort Carlton observations were also made by M. Bour- 
geau almost daily, in order to determine the temperature 
within the trunks of large trees. For this purpose ther- 
mometers were placed obliquely into the heart of a Populus 
balsamifera two feet in diameter, and of an Abies alba of 
the same size. These observations only served to show that, 
as might be expected, the temperature of the trees accords 
much more closely with the mean temperature of the atmo- 
sphere than does that of the soil, even at the depth of only 
two feet ; and further, that there is no marked difference at 
very low temperatures between the resisting power of ever- 
green and deciduous trees. The means of these observations 
were as follows :|| — 

* First seventeen days only. t First eight days only. 

% From 9th to 30th. § First eight days only. 

|| Some of these observations have been printed in the Proceedings of the 
Linnean Society, 1859. 

220 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 





1857. December, 

1853. January, . 


March, . 






35 8 



35 54 



So long as the vegetation remains dormant during the win- 
ter season, the sudden changes which have been described, 
however great, can have little influence upon plant life ; but 
when the mean temperature for the twenty-four hours rises 
above the freezing-point, and the powerful sun of each day, 
with the abundant moisture derived from the melting of the 
snows, stimulate the ascent of the sap and the germination of 
seeds, these sudden alternations must have a very baneful 
effect, and exclude from the flora of the country many plants 
that it would otherwise be quite fitted to sustain. From the 
middle of March until the third week of April is the usual 
duration of this critical period ; but as late as the middle of 
May serious damage is frequently done to the vegetation by 
sudden variations of the temperature. This is without taking 
into consideration the night frosts, which are of common oc- 
currence almost throughout the entire summer, and which, of 
course, must completely prevent the growth of many kinds of 

During the summer months, even in the true prairie coun- 
try, rain, with cloudy weather, is much more frequent than 
might be expected from the position which the district occu- 
pies in the centre of a continent, and barred from the influence 
of the moist south-west winds by a continuous chain of moun- 
tains. On the prairies immediately to the west of the Red 
River settlement, as far as Turtle Mount, thunder-storms, with 
heavy rains, are of almost daily occurrence during the months 
of July and August. The temperature in that district was 
often very high, the thermometer several times reaching 95° 
in the shade. 

On the higher plains to the west, between Carlton and the 
Rocky Mountains, which range in altitude from 2000 to 

Central Part of British North America. 221 

3000 feet, thunder storms are more rare, yet a good deal of 
rain falls. During the latter half of June 1858, there were 
nine days of rain and cloudy weather to six of fine clear sky. 
The mean temperature for the same period was 58°-8, from 
observations taken at sunrise, 2 p.m., and sunset, the highest 
recorded being 72°, and the lowest 46°. This excludes the 
minimum night temperature, however, which often fell within 
a few degrees of the freezing point. The mean degree of 
moisture in the atmosphere was 064, saturation being 100. 
During the month of July in the same year there were twelve 
days of cloudy sky and rain. The mean temperature was 
59°*5, the extremes recorded being 70° and 40°, with the 
degree of humidity 0*59, or rather less than in June. 

In August, in the district along the base of the mountains, 
having an altitude of nearly 4000 feet, the mean tempera- 
ture was 54°, and the extremes recorded as occurring between 
sunrise and sunset were 79° and 40°*5. Almost every night, 
however, we found that ice formed in the kettles, and that 
the ground was covered with hoar-frost. 

The radiation, as might be expected, is very great during 
the summer nights in the northern prairies, so that when 
the sky is clear the quantity of dew that forms is great in 
proportion to the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. It 
is owing to this, combined with the sharp frosts in August 
and September, which arrest the sap before the grasses have 
fully flowered and faded, that the rich pasture along the 
North Saskatchewan plains is preserved green and juicy until 
the snow falls, after which the hard steady winter keeps it 
fresh and nutritious as artificial hay until the return of 
spring. Along the South Saskatchewan the country is arid, 
and without such pasture ; but in travelling in that region, no 
marked difference was observed in the frequency of rain- 
clouds during the summer than when further to the north ; 
and that a considerable amount of moisture passes over these 
plains is proved by the marked increase in the vigour of the 
vegetation on the high and isolated patches of table-land 
which are scattered over the arid country. It is probable 
that the prevalence of a hard clay soil, formed from the 
cretaceous strata, which bakes under the heat of the sun from 


222 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

the want of moisture in early spring, is the immediate cause 
of this barrenness. The little snow which falls on the open 
plain is at once swept off by the wind and evaporated during 
the winter, so that in spring the clear powerful sun at once 
bakes the soil and prevents the germination of seeds. 

The weather experienced in the Rocky Mountains was very 
irregular, with a great daily range of temperature. Thus, 
in the end of August the thermometer during the night was 
as low as 14° at an altitude of 6000 feet, and almost every 
night it fell considerably below the freezing point, although 
during the day it often reached 70° to 80°. In the valleys of 
the eastern slope the amount of rain-fall is very small com- 
pared to that on the first part of the descent to the west, when 
fine weather is the rare exception even in September. This 
only applies, however, to the mountains north of the fifty-first 
parallel of latitude, south of which, for some reason, the rain- 
fall on the western slope in the valley of the Kootani River 
must be much less, judging both from the experience of two 
seasons and from the nature of the vegetation, which is of 
the arid type. 

On the eastern slope, throughout the entire summer, there 
are occasional falls of snow at altitudes above 5000 feet ; but 
snow never lies deeply at any season. It is only on the various 
" heights of land" which have an altitude of from 6000 to 
7000 feet, and for the first few miles of the western descent, 
that snow appears to accumulate in the valleys in large quan- 
tities — sometimes to the depth of 16 to 20 feet. The higher 
valleys of the central mass of the mountains are occupied by 
glaciers, some of which are of very considerable size, even when 
resting on the eastern slope. They are, however, fed princi- 
pally by the snows that accumulate on the western slope, so 
that when ranges equally high are cut off from the influence of 
the western moisture, no glaciers have been formed. This 
exactly conforms to what has been observed by Dr Hooker and 
others regarding the diminished altitude of the snow-line as 
the nearest seaboard to a range of mountains is approached. 

In the Latitude of 49° the country to the west of the Rocky 
Mountains is very rugged and mountainous for the whole dis- 
tance to the Pacific coast. South of that parallel, however, 

Central Part of British North America. 223 

there are great expanses of desert plain, owing to the influence 
of the Cascade Range of mountains, which forms almost an un- 
broken wall 4000 feet in height, running parallel to the coast, 
and cutting off the moisture from the interior. In descending 
to the westward, therefore, from the Rocky Mountains, into 
the depression that intervenes between them and the Cascade 
Range, a belt of moist climate is met with where the winds that 
have passed over the coast-range first strike on the higher and 
interior range. Then follows a belt of dry climate, increasing 
in aridity as we proceed westward, and get more completely 
sheltered by the coast range, but on crossing which we at 
once get into the humid climate of the Pacific coast, with its 
wonderful development of forest growth. 

Having thus briefly sketched the leading physical pecu- 
liarities which influence the character of the vegetation in 
the region treated of, I shall next give a short outline of the 
manner in which authors have divided British North America 
into botanical areas, and endeavour to show the position which 
the country explored by the Expedition occupies among them, 
as indicated by the collections of M. Bourgeau and by the 
physiognomy of its vegetation. 

The collections made by M. Bourgeau were forwarded to 
England from time to time, and were duly received by Sir 
William Hooker at the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. They 
consisted — 1st, Of plant specimens prepared for preservation 
in the herbarium ; 2d, Seeds and roots of plants for culture, 
many of which have been successfully raised at Kew ; 3d, 
Specimens of the vegetable products used in the country by 
the Indians, and which are preserved in the Kew Museum of 
Economic Botany. M. Bourgeau also made collections of 
insects and shelled mollusca, all of which were forwarded to 
the British Museum. 

Of the dried plants, there were in general twelve specimens 
of each species sent home, and the duplicate sets have been 
distributed to the various public herbaria in Europe and 
America, including that of our own university, each specimen 
having been named before its issue from Kew by Mr Black, 
curator of the Herbarium there, who prepared the list under 
the superintendence of Dr Hooker. 

224 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

The collection of flowering plants and ferns consists of 819 
species, belonging to 349 genera and 92 orders, which is more 
than two-fifths of the total flora of British North America. 
In the list, there are 62 species returned as undetermined, 
some of which will most likely prove to be new. In the rela- 
tive order of their importance, from a number of species, the 
principal families stand thus : — 

Compositae form }th of the whole. 





T Vth 


Scrophulariaceae 5 Vth 

The following analysis of the collection will give a further 
idea of the general nature of the flora of the country from 
which it was made. 


No. of 

No. of 


Of which 

In British North 










Cruciferae, . 


Cistineae, . 

Violaceae, . 



















* These columns are given for comparison from Sir John Richardson's 
" Arctic Searching Expedition, 1851," vol. ii. p. 322. It is hardly necessary 
to remark that in this and the other works of this veteran explorer and philo- 
sopher, will be found generalizations respecting the climate and vegetation 
of British North America which the results of this expedition have only served 
to establi-h and apply for a very small area of the region which he treated of. 

Central Part of British North America. 


Of which 

In British North 


No. of 

No. of 










Tiliaceae, . 



































Anacardiaceae, . 











Rosacea^ . 






















Cactaceae, . 











Gross ulariace ae, 



































































Vaccinese, . 





Ericaceae, . 















Oleaceae, . 



































Solanea3, . 












Labiataa, . 





















22G Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 


No. of 

No. of 

Of which 

In British North 























































Coniferae, . 







Aroideag, . 

















Orchidea?, . 















Liliacea?, . 



. . , 









Juncaceae, . 






Commelynacea 1 , 







Gramineu 1 , 



a . • 













Summary of above. 

1. In M. Bourgeau's collection, 

819 species. 

349 genera. 

92 orders. 

2. Of the same orders there have been enumerated by Richardson, as 
occurring in British and Russian North America — 

471 genera ; 
2155 species — 
the total flora which he enumerates ; comprising 

118 orders ; 
509 genera ; 
2270 species ; 
viz., 1725 dicotyledons and 554 monocotyledons. 

Central Part of British North America. 227 

In treating of the distribution of plants in British North 
America, Sir John Richardson * has divided the region into 
three zones, in the following manner : — 

1. The Polar Zone, which embraces the land lying detached 
from the continent, and north of Lat. 73°. The flora of this 
zone consists of plants belonging to 21 natural orders, among 
which the Cruciferat, Graminece, and Saxifragaceaz, are the 

2. The Arctic Zone, which extends from the above-mentioned 
limit south to the Arctic Circle, excepting towards the eastern 
side of the continent, when, owing to the configuration of the 
land and the abnormal depression of the temperature, the 
characteristic Arctic flora passes for 10° south of that limit. 
An outlier from this flora also passes the south along the 
ridge of the Rocky Mountains. The number of natural fami- 
lies is in the Arctic Zone increased to 67, and the most marked 
feature is the predominance of Cyperaceai. 

3. The Woodland Zone, which stretches across the conti- 
nent obliquely, conforming to the divergence of the Arctic Zone 
from its proper latitudes, and thus lying between 45° and 55° 
of latitude on the Atlantic coast, but between 50° and 60° of 
latitude on the Pacific coast. 

This zone he divides into three districts — 

1. The Eastern Woodland district of Canadian Forest, 
which extends westward as far as Lake Winipeg. 

2. The Western Woodland district, from the Pacific coast 
to the Rocky Mountains. 

3. The Central or Plain district, lying east of the Rocky 

The number of natural orders represented in this zone is 
about 117, being an increase of 50 over the number in the 
Arctic Zone. 

As M. Bourgeau returned to England at the commence- 
ment of the third season's explorations without crossing the 
Rocky Mountains, his collection only consisted of the plants 
gathered from between Lake Superior and the eastern slope 
of that range. It thus represents a portion of Richardson's 
Eastern district, nearly the whole of the Prairie district that 

* Arctic Searching Expedition 1851, vol. ii. App. No. 3. 

228 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

lies within the British territory, and the alpine and subal- 
pine district of the Rocky Mountains. 

Until a thorough and critical analysis of the whole flora is 
accomplished, we cannot however expect much light to be 
thrown by the method of tabulation on the natural affinities 
which the floras of the different areas bear to one another ; 
and till then it is therefore safer, in adapting provisional 
geographical groups, to rely more on the nature of the forest 
growth and such evident characters that catch the eye of the 
traveller. Such an analysis has however been recently effected 
for the flora of the northern part of the continent in a highly 
philosophical memoir by Dr Hooker (" Outlines of the Distri- 
bution of Arctic Plants," read before the Lin. Soc. of Lon- 
don, June 21, 1861). His work has yielded most important 
results, modifying the generally received opinion of the uni- 
formity of the Arctic flora throughout every longitude ; and by 
tracing its distribution, he has found strong grounds for sup- 
porting the theory first promulgated by the late Edward 
Forbes, of a southern migration of northern types having taken 
place during the cold of the glacial epoch, and also of Dar- 
win's view of the high antiquity of the Scandinavian Flora. 

With regard to the northern flora of the American conti- 
nent, Hooker has modified the areas described by Richardson, 
in so far as not distinguishing between an Arctic and a Polar 
flora, but merely dividing the whole region into an " Arctic 
West American Flora," which extends from Behring's Straits 
to M'Kenzie's River, and an " Arctic East American Flora," 
which extends from that river to Baffin's Bay, but excludes 
Greenland, the flora of which he shows to belong to a Euro- 
pean and not to an American type.* 

Bearing in view the leading physical features of the coun- 
try which have already been alluded to, and to the general 
botanical divisions that have been quoted, I shall now follow 
the course of the expedition, and briefly sketch the features of 
the vegetation observed along the route. 

The canoe route from Lake Superior to Lake Winipeg, 
by which the spur of the eastern axis was crossed, passes 

* I am indebted to the kindness of Dr Hooker in letting me have an oppor- 
t unity (tf studying this valuable memoir while passing through the press. 

Central Part of British North America. 229 

through a country that is on the whole heavily timbered, but 
the quality of the forest varies a good deal with the soil and 
elevation. Thus, round Thunder Bay, on Lake Superior, the 
ash, elm, maple, and cedar, with a rich undergrowth of rosa- 
ceous shrubs, are met with in addition to the white spruce, 
larch, pines of several species birch and poplars ; but on the 
high lands round Dog Lake, elevated 1500 feet above the sea, 
the forest consists almost entirely of the latter trees. In 
descending to Rainy Lake, the more valuable timber reap- 
pears, wherever the soil is favourable to its growth, and such 
trees as Pinus resinosa, P. Strobus, and Cupressus tliyoides^ 
sometimes reach a large size. From Rainy Lake to the Red 
River Settlement, the forest becomes more varied and richer 
in its character, comprising elms, oaks, ash, basswood, (Tilia 
americana), beech, and iron wood (Ostrya virginica), but still 
with a large admixture of Coniferse. In this district the under- 
growth is very luxuriant, many of the shrubs of the Northern 
States occurring plentifully. On the borders of the lakes and 
rivers, the Indian rice (Zizania aquatica) is abundant, the 
grain of which, along with fish, forms the principal food of the 
Salteau Indians. 

In proceeding due west from the Red River Settlement, the 
Prairie country is at once entered upon, being bounded to the 
north by the wooded country, the limit of which nearly fol- 
lows the isothermal mean of 41° in a northwest direction, 
until it reaches the 109th meridian in Lat. 53° N.,* when it 
sweeps again to the south-west to intersect the Rocky Moun- 
tain chain in Lat. 51°. The country to the north of the 49th 
parallel, and up to the 55th, which was the region examined, is 
thus boldly marked into two districts by the presence or absence 
of timber. A third district must however be also considered, 
forming a belt dividing the forests from the true plains, and 
which at one time was itself forest-land, but having been cleared 
by the successive devastations of prairie fires, it now combines 
the advantages of both, having extensive ranges of open land 
like the prairies, which possess the rich vegetable mould, and 

* It is probable that this isothermal, as generally represented, does not 
sweep enough to the south after crossing the Rocky Mountains from the west 
when passing through Long. 114° to 96°. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XIV. NO. II. — OCT. 1861. 2 G 

230 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

are covered with the nutritious grasses and leguminous plants 
of the forest country. 

The woodland country which bounds the plains clearly pos- 
sesses the physiognomy of the sub-arctic province. The most 
prevalent tree is the Abies alba, which only reaches any great 
size in river valleys. On the dry rising grounds grows the 
Cypres of the Canadian voyageurs ; but under that name they 
include two different species of pines — P. Banksiana, and a 
pine allied to the P. inops of the United States, or to the 
P. eontorta of the Pacific coast. A few of this latter species 
were seen near Fort Carlton, after which they were not again 
met with on a due west line until near the Rocky Mountains, 
south-west from Edmonton. The most important though not 
the most plentiful tree of the wooded country is the birch 
(Betula papy raced), as it is the only hard wood which the 
natives possess, and is used for making dog-sleighs, snow-shoes, 
and other necessary articles. These trees, with a few larches, 
balsam firs (A. balsamea), red pines, poplars (P. balsamifera, 
and P. tremuloides), comprise the bulk of the forest that 
covers the country to the north of the Saskatchewan ; but by 
the sides of the rivers, which have generally deeply depressed 
valleys, there is of course a much greater variety in the vege- 
tation, owing to the sheltered situation and the rich soil. 

The belt of partially cleared country which lies to the south 
of the forest-land, and stretches continuously from the Red 
River Settlement to the Rocky Mountains, averages 80 to 100 
miles in width, but it expands very much towards the west, 
owing to the bend which the southern border makes to the 
south-west. In this district the woods are very scanty, and 
consist almost exclusively of the aspen poplar, which forms 
small groves and artificial-looking clumps that dot rich pas- 
ture lands. Sometimes a small clump of spruce fir has been 
left by the fires, but this is only in a few rare localities, at 
least when at any distance from the limit of the true forest. Be- 
tween Carlton and Edmonton, along the Hudson Bay Company's 
trail, for a distance of nearly 400 miles, there are not more 
than five or six spots where any of the Coniferse have been left. 
The clearing of this country is due to a very simple cause. 
The prairie tribes of Indians, 15,000 to 16,000 in number, 

Central Part of British North America. 231 

live wholly by the chase of the buffalo, and prefer, in con- 
sequence, to pitch their tents along the edge of the woods, for 
the sake of shelter, and at the same time to be near their game. 
Either by accident, or for the purpose of making signals, the 
prairies round their camps are generally burnt every few 
years, and, as a rule, where coniferous trees are destroyed, 
they are never replaced by the same stock; but the rich 
alkaline soil is at once seized upon by the wafted seeds of the 
aspen poplar, to the exclusion of other trees. 

It is true that similar fires take place in the thick wood 
country and in the forests of the Rocky Mountains ; but al- 
though they do much damage, the chance of their recurring 
on the same spot within a short enough time completely to 
remove the timber is small. Where the poplar seeds cannot 
reach such burnt spots, they are usually crowded with the 
gaudy plants of Epilobium angustifolium, among which the 
young pine seedlings can gain a footing, so that the forest 
often reverts in such a case to the coniferous type ; but the 
thickets which spring up, strangely enough, very seldom con- 
tain plants of Abies alba, but almost invariably consist of 
the Pine which I have alluded to as allied to P. inops. 

The Saskatchewan and other rivers of the prairies flow 
through valleys rarely a mile in width, and excavated to the 
depth of 200 to 300 feet below the general level. The river 
winds from side to side of this valley, successively rounding 
rich alluvial flats, which sustain a rich and very different kind 
of vegetation from that of the plains above. In such low 
situations, stragglers from the eastern flora are found to ex- 
tend far beyond the western limit of where they continue to 
grow on the general surface of the country. Thus the false 
sugar maple (Negundo fraccinifolium) may be found as far 
west as Long. 108° in the valley of the North Saskatche- 
wan ; and on an island in the same river, a short distance 
above Fort Carlton, the red elm (Ulmus fulvd) was observed. 
The oak follows up the valley of the Assineboine River as far 
west as Long, 100°. The true sugar-maple does not pass 
beyond the Red River, in which longitude is also found the west- 
ern limit of the wild plum (Prunus americana), beech, iron- 
wood, ash, cedar, arbor-vitse, Weymouth pine, and other more 

232 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

valuable trees of the eastern forest. Some of these were 
however seen by Richardson in the wooded country as far 
north as Lat. 54°. A few trees of Populus grandidentata were 
seen in the valley of the South Saskatchewan at its elbow, 
although that tree does not extend into the lower part of the 
valley of Red River from the Mississippi, where it grows in 

Within the " fertile belt" of cleared land we have the vege- 
tation on the alluvial flats of the river valleys, consisting of 
Populus balsamifera, which is the largest tree in that part 
of the country, sometimes reaching three feet in diameter, 
with a dense thicket of Salix longifolia, S. rostrata, Vibur- 
num edule, Crataegus coccinea, Amelanchier canadensis, the 
wood of which is used for making bows, and the luscious fruit 
for mixing with pemican ; Cornus stolonifera, or " red wil- 
low," the bark of which the Indians smoke along with tobacco. 
Shepherdia argentea sometimes forms the greater mass of the 
thicket, and its red juicy berries are the favourite food of 
grisly bears. 

On the prairies of this district, besides the groves of the 
Populus tremuloides, or aspen, there are dense willow thickets 
surrounding the swampy ground. In such spots there is an 
immense variety of carices ; and when, as is often the case, 
the water is saline, saliferous plants abound, and, as usual, 
generally of species having a wide range. On the sides of 
rising grounds the Elozagnus argentea forms a low silvery 
copse, affording food to large coveys of prairie grouse. If the 
ground is high, or has a light sandy soil, it is then covered with 
a close matting of the Kin-i-kin-ic, or smoking weed, which 
is the Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi of the Scotch hills; or by 
the long flabelliform branches of Juniperus virginiana var. 
prostrata. Towards the mountains, large expanses of plain 
are covered with a low birch or alder (Betula glandulosa /), 
six to eight inches high, which in winter give the appearance 
of a heather-covered moorland to these prairies. 

In June and July, in some localities, the prairies are covered 
with brightly-coloured flowers of the genera Astragalus, 
lledysarum, Geranium, Lilium, and others, or are completely 
clothed with a dense low copse of rose bushes. As the country 

Central Part of British North America. 233 

towards the south merges into open prairie, the clumps of 
copse and young poplars are found only nestling on northern 
exposures. The last outliers of the woods to the south form 
" islands," as they are called in the country, which make 
a great show from a distance, but when approached, are 
found by the disappointed traveller to consist merely of a 
small species of willow, that will yield neither firewood nor 

The true arid district, which occupies most of the country 
along the South Saskatchewan, and reaches as far north as 
Lat. 52°, acquires even very early in the season a dry parched 
look. In the northern district, the accumulation of humus 
and the distribution of the pleistocene deposits have given rise 
to a great variety in the nature of the soil; but to the south, 
the cretaceous and tertiary strata almost everywhere form 
the surface, so that the stiff clay soil, which is often highly 
impregnated with sulphates of soda and lime, bakes under the 
heat of the sun into a hard and cracked surface. This must 
be the principal reason for the arid plains ranging to such a 
high latitude, as there is quite a sufficient quantity of mois- 
ture in the atmosphere during the summer months to support 
a more vigorous vegetation. This is seen to be the case even 
as far south as Lat. 49° 30' N., where, at the Cypres Hills, and 
also on the south sides of the deep valleys and other exposures 
sheltered from the sun's rays in early spring, pines, spruce- 
firs, poplars, and many varieties of the northern type of 
vegetation, appear under congenial but strictly local con- 
ditions. In the arid country the characteristic plants are the 
prickly prairie apples (Opuntia), and the shrub-sage or 
absinthe (Artemisia) ; and in the trough-like valleys that lie 
east and west far out in the bare plains, these plants may 
sometimes be seen in full possession of the sunny slopes on 
the north side, while the opposite side of the valley is clothed 
with green and arborescent vegetation ; while at the same time, 
showing that it is not local springs that cause the difference, 
the stream itself is often dried up into a chain of muddy 
pools. The arid district, although there are many fertile spots 
throughout its extent, can never be of much advantage to us 

234 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

as a possession. Even in June and July, the Expedition expe- 
rienced great inconvenience in traversing it, from the want of 
wood, water, and pasture. 

Along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains there is 
much fine land with very rich pasture ; but the sharp night 
frosts which occur throughout the summer would render the 
raising of cereals very precarious. When close to the moun- 
tains, several trees appear which are found in greatest number 
on the west slope of the continent. Of these the principal is 
the " Prushe" of the voyageurs, which is so named by them 
from its general resemblance to the hemlock spruce {Abies 
canadensis). It is however a very distinct tree. Two pines 
were also observed that were not remarked further to the 
eastward, one of which is only slightly different from the 
Pinus monticola of Douglas. The collections obtained at the 
base of the mountains are not satisfactory, as, at the time of 
M. Bourgeau's visit, the season was too late for any plants but 

The valleys of the Rocky Mountains are occupied by forests, 
excepting in a few localities, where there occur level gravelly 
plains clothed with tufts of " bunch grass" (Festuca). The 
forest consists principally of the Prushe, Douglas, white and 
black spruce. This mixed forest, with a very varied under- 
growth, extends to 5000 feet in altitude, when it is succeeded 
by a forest of Abies balsamea. The tree that is found highest, 
however, is the Abies alba ; and at an altitude of 7000 feet 
in exposed situations it is quite dwarfed in size, with recum- 
bent branches that spread like thatch over the mountain sides. 
The altitude of the alpine region in the Rocky Mountains is 
very variable, and ranges from 7000 to 9000 feet. It is char- 
acterised by the occurrence of many plants of identical species 
with those found in similar situations in Europe. 

The following is a list of some of the plants collected by 
the writer in the eastern part of the chain, in Lat. 52° north, 
at an altitude of from 7000 to 9000 feet. They are all from 
one locality, near the height of land of a pass from the South 
to the North branches of the Saskatchewan River, and were 
gathered in the end of August 1859 : — 

Central Part of British North America. 235 

Silene acaulis, L. Castelleja minuta, Doug. 

Cerastium alpinum, L. Polygonum viviparum, L. 

arvense, L. Oxyria reniformis, Hook. 

Stellaria longipes, Gold. Salix reticulata, L. var. nana, Andr. 

Fragaria virginiana, Ehr. arctica, R. Br. 

Potentilla fruticosa, L. Allium Schoenoprasum, G. 

diversifolia, Lehm. Ligadenus chloranthus, Rich. 

Epilobium alpinum, L. Juncus ensifolius, Wick. 

Saxifraga bronchialis, L. arcticus, Wick. 

controversa, Sternb. castaneus, gm. 

Dahurica, Pall. Luzula parviflora, Duv. 

Parnassia fimbriata, Hook. spicata, L. 

Sedum stenopetalum, Pursh. Poa alpina, L. 

Youngia pygmsea, Ged. — — pratensis, L. 

Senecio triangularis, Hook. Phleum pratense, L. 

Erigeron compositum, Pursh. Bromus ciliatus, L. 

Valeriana capitata, (?) Willd. Trisetum subspicatum, P. de B. 

Menziesia grandiflora, Hook. Festuca ovina, L. 

Cassiope tetragona, G. Don. Calamagrostis (Desyeuxia) coare- 

Gentiana propinqua, Rich. tata, Torr. 

On commencing the descent of the slope to the west, the 
change in the nature of the vegetation is very marked, showing 
a great increase in the amount of moisture which is deposited. 
Thus, high up on the sides of the valleys, there are dense 
thickets of A Inus viridis, which grows to the height of six and 
eight feet, with sturdy stems and branches. In the valleys, 
the forest is quite choked by an undergrowth of Thuja occi- 
dentalism Mahonia Aquifolium, Panax horridum, Pyrus ame- 
ricana> Viburnum Opulus, along with species of Vaccinium, 
Ribes, Eubus, Symphoricarpos, and many other plants not 
observed on the eastern slope of the mountains. Wherever 
the valleys are rocky, the rocks are covered by a close growth 
of mosses and ferns, both of which groups are almost wholly 
wanting on the east side, excepting those mosses that grow in 
swamps. The forest is often impenetrable, from the interlock- 
ing of the trunks of fallen trees, many of which are three and 
four feet in diameter. When travelling with horses, it is 
difficult, where there is no trail, to get on faster than a mile 
or two a-day ; and to make matters worse, amidst all this 
luxuriance of vegetation there is nothing that the poor animals 
can eat excepting a scanty growth of Equisetum, of which they 
are very fond, and which grows on the shingle flats of the 

236 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

mountain torrents along with a matting of Dryas and Epi- 
lobhun, and other alpine plants, the seeds of which are washed 
down every spring. 

On descending the mountains as far as the Kootani River, 
which flows south-east for eighty miles through a wide valley 
lying parallel with the direction of the chain, a marked 
change is again observed in the nature of the vegetation. 
The forest is free from undergrowth, and consists principally 
of the Pinus ponderosa, which in its habit much resembles 
the Scotch fir, and frequently reaches the size of four feet in 
diameter. Along with it is the Larix occidentalism which is 
equal in girth, but exceeds the pine in height and symmetry. 
Amongst the noble forest which these trees form, a rider can 
gallop with ease in every direction, the only underbrush consist- 
ing of a few scattered bushes of the red root (Ceanothus) or of 
the Shepherdia argentea. On the alluvial flats by the river, 
the Juniperus virginiana was found as far north as 51° 30' to 
occur as a large tree 25 feet in height and 1 foot in diameter. 

The surface of the ground, where dry and gravelly, is 
covered with wiry tufts of " bunch grass," and the slopes are 
clothed with a shrubbery of cherry and service-berry bushes 
(Amelanchier) , the fruit of which is the principal food of the 
Kootani Indians. Westward from the Kootani River to Fort 
Colville, upon the Columbia, the country is very rugged, and 
when not confined in narrow valleys the forest generally 
forms open pine glades. By the sides of the streams and the low 
borders of lakes the yew and arbutus are found to occur, and 
in favourable spots the Thuja gigantea acquires an enormous 
size — often ten or twelve feet in diameter. Nevertheless, the 
prevailing physiognomy of the vegetation in this district is of 
the arid type; and further to the south, in the Columbian 
desert, this character is found to reach an extreme phase, 
there being a total absence of timber ; and the country, even 
where the surface is irregular and rocky, supports nothing 
but a growth of dry tufty grass, or the worthless sage bush. 
(Artemisia tridentifolia). This sterility increases as we ap- 
proach the Cascade Range ; but on passing these mountains by 
the narrow chasm through which the Columbian River escapes 
to the Pacific, the change in the character of the vegetation 

Central Part of British North America. 237 

is very abrupt. When sailing down that river from the 
Dalles to Fort Vancouver, in a distance of forty miles, the 
traveller passes from a desert flora to a country clothed by an 
evergreen forest of unrivalled variety and vigour. The scenery 
is magnificent, precipices of basaltic rocks rising from the 
water's edge tier above tier, to the height of several thousand 
feet, while in the distance occasional peeps are obtained of 
snow-capped peaks 10,000 to 12,000 feet above the sea-level. 

On the western declivity of this mountain range, and on 
the narrow strip of country that lies between it and the coast, 
are found the beautiful and stately species of Abies, Picea, and 
Pinus, which have been introduced into this country from 
Oregon and Washington territories since the time of Douglas. 
The collections of that traveller, and those of Jeffrey, have made 
us familiar with the flora of the forest land along the Pacific 
coast ; and our knowledge will be rendered still more complete 
by the ample collections of Dr Lyall, who is at present 
labouring in that country, attached to the N. W. Boundary- 
line Commission. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Sir William Hooker for a 
memorandum which was left in his hands by M. Bourgeau, 
stating his opinion regarding the fitness of the Saskatchewan 
country for agricultural settlement, and a free translation of 
which I beg to append. 

Memorandum by M. Bourgeau. 

" I submit the following remarks on the advantages for 
agricultural settlement in Rupert's Land and the Saska- 
tchewan prairies of British North America, having been ap- 
pointed by Sir William Hooker to accompany Captain Palli- 
ser's Expedition as botanist. 

" I had especially to collect the plants which grew naturally 
in the country traversed by the Expedition, and also their 
seeds. Besides my botanical collection, Dr Hooker advised 
me to make thermometrical observations at the various sta- 
tions, and, above all things, to take the temperature of the 
earth at certain depths, as well as that of the interior of forest 
trees ; also to notice the richness and poverty of the vegeta- 
tion of the country, and the maladies to which plants are ex- 


238 Dr James Hector on the Physical Features of the 

posed. In the second letter and notes addressed to Sir Wil- 
liam Hooker, which have already been published,* I [have 
treated these questions with all the care that was permitted to 
me by observations taken in the midst of the harrassment 
and fatigue of a long journey, but it remains for me t to'call 
attention to the advantages there would be in establishing agri- 
cultural settlements in the vast plains of Rupert's Land, and 
particularly on the Saskatchewan in the neighbourhood of Fort 
Carlton. This district is much more adapted to the culture of 
staple crops of temperate climates — such as wheat, rye/bar- 
ley, oats, &c. — than one would have been inclined to believe 
from its high latitude. In effect, the few attempts at the culture 
of cereals already made in the vicinity of the Hudson's Bay 
Company's trading ports, demonstrate by their success how 
easy it would be to obtain products sufficiently abundant 
largely to remunerate the efforts of the agriculturists. There, 
in order to put the land under cultivation, it would be neces- 
sary only to till the better portions of the soil. The prairies 
offer natural pasturage as favourable for the maintenance of 
numerous herds as if they had been artificially created. The 
construction of houses for habitations by the pioneers in the 
development of the country would be easy, because in many 
parts of the country, independent of wood, one would find fitting 
stones for building purposes ; and in others it would be easy to 
find clay for bricks, more particularly near Battle River. The 
other parts most favourable for culture would be in the neigh- 
bourhood of Fort Edmonton, and also along the south side 
of the North Saskatchewan. In the latter district extend 
rich and vast prairies, interspersed with woods and forests, 
and where thick wood plants furnish excellent pasturage for 
domestic animals. The vetches found here, of which the princi- 
pal are Vicia, Iledysarum, Lathyrus, and Astragalus, are as 
fitting for the nourishment of cattle as the clover of European 
pasturage. The abundance of buffalo, and the facility with 
which the herds of horses and oxen increase, demonstrate 
that it would be enough to shelter animals in winter, and to 
feed them in the shelters with hay collected in advance, in 
order to avoid the mortality that would result from cold and 

* Lin. Soc. Proceedings. 1859. 

Central Part of British North America. 239 

from the attacks of wild beasts, and further to permit the 
acclimatisation of other domestic farmyard animals, such as 
the sheep and pig. The harvest could in general be com- 
menced by the end of August, or the first week in September, 
which is a season when the temperature continues sufficiently 
high and rain is rare. In the gardens of the Hudson's Bay 
Company's Posts, and still more in those of the different Mis- 
sions, vegetables of the leguminous family, such as beans, 
peas, and French beans, have been successfully cultivated ; 
also potatoes, cabbages, turnips, carrots, rhubarb, and currants. 
No fruit tree has as yet been introduced ; but one might 
perhaps, under favourable circumstances, try nut-trees, also 
apple-trees belonging to varieties that ripen early. Different 
species of gooseberries, with edible fruits, grow wild here ; also 
different kinds of VacciniacesB are equally indigenous, and 
have pleasant fruits that will serve for the preparation of pre- 
serves and confectionary. The Aronia ovalis (Amelanchier 
canadensis must be meant) is very common in this country ; 
and its fruit, commonly known as the Poire, or service-berry, 
is dried and eaten by the Indians, who collect it with great 
care ; and it also serves for the purpose of making excellent 
pudding, recalling the taste of dried currants. The only 
difficulty that would oppose agricultural settlements, is the 
immense distance to traverse over countries devoid of roads, 
and almost uninhabited. The assistance of Government or of 
a well-organised company, would be indispensable to the colo- 
nization of this country. It would be important that settle- 
ments should be established in groups of at least fifty house- 
holders, for protection against the incursions of the Indians, 
who are, however, far from being hostile to Europeans. It 
stands to reason, that the colonists ought to be taken from the 
north of Europe or from mountain districts, being those 
accustomed to the climatological conditions and culture of 
the soil most resembling this interesting country, to the 
resources of which I call attention. The produce of agricul- 
tural settlements thus established would yield subsistence 
to the Indians, whose resources for food, supplied only by 
hunting, tend to diminish every day. The presence of Euro- 
pean settlers would form a useful model for this primitive 

240 Dr Beke on the Mountains forming 

people, who, notwithstanding their native apathy, still appre- 
ciate the benefits of civilization.'' 

(Signed) " E. Bourgeau." 

I may state, in conclusion, that the views here expressed by 
M. Bourgeau accord on the whole with the opinion I myself 
have formed of the fertile portion of the Saskatchewan country, 
and which I believe is also that of the other members of the 

On the Mountains forming the Eastern Side of the Basin of 
the Nile, and the origin of the designation " Mountains of 
the Moon" as applied to them. By Charles T. Beke, 
Ph.D., F.S.A, F.R.G.S., &c * 

At the meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science at Southampton in September 1846, I read 
before the section of Geology and Physical Geography a paper 
" On the Physical Character of the Table-land of Abessinia;"t 
the object of which was to show the physical configuration of 
that portion of the African continent which forms the eastern 
side of the basin of the Nile. 

On the 28th December and 11th January following, 1 read 
before the Royal Geographical Society of London a paper "On 
the Nile and its Tributaries,"! in which I traced the course 
of the Nile upwards as far as our existing knowledge per- 
mitted, and considered all the tributaries of that river on its 
right bank as they were then known; and in it I incorporated, 
with certain modifications, my previous communication to the 
British Association. 

In both papers I particularly directed attention to Professor 
Bitter's ingenious but erroneous generalisation, which led him 
to regard the Abessinian plateau as consisting of a succession 
of terraces rising one above the other, the lowest being towards 

* Read before the Section of Geography and Ethnology of the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, at the meeting at Manchester, 7th 
September 1861. 

t See "Report of the British Association for 1846;" Transactions of the 
Sections, pp. 70-72. 

X Sec "Journal of the Royal Geographical Society," vol. xvii. pp. 1-84. 

the Eastern Side of the Basin of the Nile. 241 

the Red Sea and the highest in Enarea, where the line of 
separation between the waters flowing to the Nile and those 
of the rivers having their course to the Indian Ocean, was 
supposed by him to exist ; and I expressed the opinion, in 
accordance with that of Dr Riippell, that so far from the high 
country rising in terraces as it recedes from the coast, its sum- 
mit line is towards the coast itself, and from thence the land 
falls gradually towards the interior. 

In the latter paper, when treating of the rivers which have 
their course over the table-land, I remarked that " the fall of 
the tributaries of the Nile diminishes gradually as they flow 
north-westwards to join the main stream ; which latter, skirt- 
ing as it does the western flank of the high land, is the sink 
into which the Takkazie, the Bahr-el-Azrek, the Godjeb, Telfi 
or Sobat, the Shoaberri,* and whatever other rivers there may 
be are received, its current being sluggish, and (as would 
appear) almost stagnant in the upper part of its course, except 
during the floods. In the dry season, its bed would indeed 
almost seem to consist of a succession of lakes and swamps, 
rather than to be the channel of a running stream. At 
Khartum, at the confluence of the Bahr-el-Azrek, the height 
of the bed of the Nile above the ocean is only 1525 feet ;f 
and it is far from improbable that even as high up as the fifth 
parallel of north latitude its absolute elevation does not much 
exceed 2000 feet/'J 

In the same paper I first enunciated my hypothesis as to 
the derivation of the name of the Mountains of the Moon, 
in which the geographer Ptolemy places the sources of the 
Nile. This hypothesis may be thus briefly stated. The direct 
stream of the Nile was approximative^ traced by me into that 
part of Eastern Africa where the country of Monomoezi 
(as I was then content to call it) had been placed by geo- 
graphers and is now found to be situate ; and as in the 
languages extending over the greater portion of Southern 

* It is now found that there is no separate river of this name. The Shot of 
Berri is the upper course, or a principal tributary, of the Sobat. See " The 
Sources of the Nile," pp. 14 and 125; and see "Athenaeum" of 31st August 
1861, No. 1766, p. 283. 

t Now estimated at only 1188 feet. See " The Sources of the Nile," p. 35. 

X Journal Royal Geographical Society, vol. xvii. p. 80. 

242 Dr Beke on the Mountains forming 

xVfrica the word " Moezi," in various forms, means " the 
moon,"* the name of the Mountains of the Moon appeared to 
me to be merely a translation of the native African expres- 
sion, " the Mountains of Moezi." 

Guided by this clew, I further developed my views at the 
meeting of the British Association at Swansea in 1848, when 
1 claimed for the mountain range of Eastern Africa the generic 
designation of the Mountains of the Moon."]" 

Finally, at the meeting of the British Association at Ipswich 
in 1851, I read " A Summary of Recent Nilotic Discovery,"! 
in which I traced the progress of our knowledge in this direc- 
tion as far as it then extended. 

On my return to England, after an absence of several years, 
I have much gratification in renewing my communications to 
the British Association, especially as it is in my power to 
show that the great additions which have been made to our 
geographical knowledge since the opinions here referred to 
were expressed, have all tended to establish the substantial 
truth of those opinions. 

The elevation of the bed of the direct stream of the White 
River at Gondokoro, in 4° 44' north latitude, resulting from 
relative measurements made there and at Khartum, appears 
to be even less than my estimate in 1846, being only 1911 
feet ;§ while the explorations of Mr Petherick further to the 
west, would seem to show the fall of the river to be even less in 
that direction than it is towards the south-east. 

On the other hand, the mountain range of Eastern Africa, 
forming the anticlinal axis between the ocean and the basin 
of the Nile, which in 1846 I was only able to trace as far 
south as 9° 30' north latitude, where I crossed it on my way 
to ShoaJ may now be regarded as extending beyond the sixth 

* In " The Sources of the Nile," p. 82, is a list of upwards of twenty lan- 
guages in which it has that signification. 

t See "Report of the British Association for 1848 ;" Transactions of the 
Sections, pp. 63. 6-1. This paper is printed in extenso in the "Edinburgh 
New Philosophical Journal," vol. xlv. pp .221-251. 

\ See " Report of the British Association! for 1851;" Transactions of the 
Sections, p. 8-4. This pnper is printed in extenso in the " Philosophical Maga- 
zine," 4th Series, vol. ii. pp. 260-268. 

§ See " The Sources of the Nile," p. 36. 

|| See " Journal Rojal Geographical Society,'' vul. xiv., and the map there. 

the Eastern Side of the Basin of the Nile. 243 

parallel of south latitude, on a line running generally from 
N.N.E. to S.S.W. between the 40th and 35th meridians. In 
about 2° north latitude and 39° east longitude, is what appears 
to be a lofty meridional chain, of which the white summits 
were seen in 1849 by Captain Short, the commander of one 
of the Imam of Muskat's vessels:* between the equator and 4° 
south latitude the missionaries Krapf and Rebmann have dis- 
covered the snow-capped mountains Kenia, Kilimandjaro, and 
Doengo Engai ; and lastly, Captains Burton and Speke have 
crossed in 6° 40' south latitude a meridional mountain range, 
at a distance of about 120 miles from the coast, which I cannot 
but regard as the continuation of that crossed by myself in 
the 16th and 9th parallels of north latitude ; the mountains 
seen by Captain Short and the missionaries forming interven- 
ing portions of the same chain. 

In thus connecting Kilimandjaro with the mountain range 
of Eastern Africa, I may seem opposed to Mr Rebmann, who 
states that Kilimandjaro forms no portion of a connected 
mountain system, but is " one whole and completely isolated 
mass of mountains"! rising from the midst of level ground, 
or rather that " the land sinks to where Kilimandjaro, in 
majestic simplicity, rears his white head to heaven ; while to 
the west of it (says Mr Rebmann) I saw, to my astonishment, 
again this same plain not more elevated than on the eastern 
side, stretching away like the smooth surface of the sea."J 

But in the first place, without questioning the evidence of 
a credible eye-witness, I would nevertheless suggest that there 
is not so great a discrepancy between my opinion and Mr 
Rebmann's statement as may at first sight appear. "When in 
the year 1839 Mr Rebmann's colleagues, Isenberg and Krapf, 
traversed the deserts between Tadjurrah and Shoa, on their 
way to the latter country, they saw before them to the north- 
west what they called " the Baadu and Aialu Mountains," 
the latter of considerable height ; and to the south, " the 
Gebel Achmar, or the Galla Mountains ; " and they described 
the land between themselves and those mountains as " an 

* See "Athenaeum" of 27th August 1853 (No. 1348), p. 1015. 
t Church Missionary Intelligencer, vol. vii. p. 44. 
% Ibid. p. 45. 

244 Dr Beke on the Mountains forming 

undulating plain, said to extend from the banks of the 
Ha wash as far as Berbera."* From my section of the 
country, published in the fourteenth volume of the Journal of 
the Koyal Geographical Society, it will be seen, however, that 
the level of the Hawash at Melka Kuya, where those mis- 
sionaries as well as myself crossed that river, is as much as 
2200 feet above the level of the Indian Ocean, on the shore 
of which Berbera is situated. There is consequently nothing 
unreasonable in supposing the "level ground," out of which 
Kilimandjaro rises, to have an absolute elevation at least 
equal to that of the " undulating plain," extending to the foot 
of the Aialu Mountains.f 

The notion that a plain must necessarily be of low eleva- 
tion is so prevalent, that it generally requires an effort of 
reason to imagine it otherwise ; and yet, as Humboldt re- 
marks, " the level portions of our continents, to which we 
give the name of plains, are the broad summits of mountains, 
of which the feet are at the bottom of the ocean : considered 
in respect to submarine depths, these plains are elevated 
plateaus, of which the original inequalities have been par- 
tially filled up by horizontal layers of later sedimentary de- 
posits, and covered over with alluvium. "J 

Kilimandjaro was, on its discovery, described by Mr Reb- 
mann as consisting of " two summits rising to the limit of 
snow out of the common mountain mass. The eastern is the 
lower, and terminates in several peaks, which in the rainy 
season are covered far down with snow ; but in the dry season 
it sometimes melts entirely away, while at other times a few 
spots will remain. The western summit is the proper per- 
petual-snow mountain, which, rising considerably above its 
neighbour, affords also much more room for snow, it being 
formed like an immense dome. It is ten or twelve miles 
distant from the eastern summit, the intervening space pre- 

* Journals of the Rev. Messrs Isenberg and Krapf, p. 45. 

t " It is needless to remark how fallacious an instrument for levelling the 
eye is. The ' Shimba Range,' behind Mombasah, is estimated by Dr Krapf to 
attain a height of 4000 feet to 6000 feet. By B. P. thermometer, it appears 
to rise from 750 feet to 1200 feet above sea-level." — Burton in " Journ. Roy. 
Geogr. »Soc.," vol. xxix. p. 23, note. 

| Cosmos (Sabine's translation), vol. i. p. 278. 

the Eastern Side of the Basin of the Nile. 245 

senting a saddle, which (so far as he could ascertain) was 
never covered with snow."* 

This description of Kilimandjaro is entirely applicable to 
the "Aialu Mountains" of Messrs Isenberg and Krapf, by 
which expression are meant the twin mountains Aiyalu and 
Abida of my map in the fourteenth volume of the " Journal 
of the Royal Geographical Society." \ Abida, the nearer and 
lower of the two, is evidently a gigantic volcano now extinct, 
of which the crater is two miles or more in diameter, while 
the numerous smaller volcanic cones by which it is sur- 
rounded are evidence of former tremendous activity. Aiyalu, 
by the Abessinians named Azalu, and famous among them as 
forming the eastern limit of their ancient empire, is distant 
about ten miles to the west of Abida, which it greatly exceeds 
in height, and, like Kilimandjaro, appears to be a massive 
cone or dome. 

When Mr Rebmann's description of Kilimandjaro was first 
made public, I was led to observe and comment on the close 
resemblance in several particulars between that mountain and 
Chimborazo, as described and depicted by Humboldt in his 
" Vues des Cordilleres," page 102 and plate xvi. % In one 
respect, however, Kilimandjaro, as also Aiyalu, seem to differ 
from Chimborazo. The latter forms an integral portion of 
the chain of the Andes ; whereas the two mountains of eastern 
Africa appear to be mountain-masses comparatively isolated, 
which may in common parlance be said to be unconnected 
with any other mountains, though in fact they are but spurs 
or offsets from an extensive mountain system ; and these re- 
lated facts involve, in the second place, the harmony of my 
opinion with Mr Rebmann's. The distance of Aiyalu from the 
eastern edge of the Abessinian table-land is nearly a hundred 
miles, an interval more than sufficient to disconnect the two 
in the eyes of a cursory observer ; and the case is probably 
the same with respect to Kilimandjaro and the elevated pla- 

* Church Missionary Intelligencer, vol. i. p. 151. 

t The author here exhibited to the meeting a representation of Aiyalu and 
Abida, from a sketch made by him at Baddikoma on the 28th January 1841, 
on his way to Shoa. 

% See " Athenaeum" of 1st December, 1849 (No. 1153), p. 1209. 
NEW SERIES. VOL. XIV. NO. II.— OCT. 1861. 2 I 

246 Dr Beke on the Mountains forming 

teau beyond it,* of which the other snowy mountain Kenia, 
with its accompanying volcano, as also Doengo-Engai, in like 
manner covered with snow, form integral portions, as Chim- 
borazo does of the Andes. 

The following description of Kilimandjaro and the neigh- 
bouring range of mountains, given by a Portuguese writer in 
the sixteenth century, is entirely in conformity with my view 
of the subject: — " West of this port [Mombas] stands the 
Mount Olympus of Ethiopia, which is exceedingly high ; and 
beyond it are the Mountains of the Moon, in which are the 
sources of the Nile." t 

Before proceeding to show further how my hypothesis has 
been confirmed by subsequent discoveries, it will be proper to 
cite the passage in Ptolemy's Geography which forms the 
basis of the entire argument. 

After describing the east coast of Africa as stretching to- 
wards the east from Cape Rhaptum, on the Barbarian Gulf, 
as far as Cape Prasum, and stating that near the latter Cape 
is an island named Menuthias, the Greek geographer pro- 
ceeds in these terms : — " Round the Gulf dwell the Cannibal 
negroes, on the west of whose country are the Mountains of the 
Moon, from which the lakes of the Nile receive the snows." J 

When I first attempted the interpretation of this important 
text, neither the two lakes Nyanza and Tanganyika nor the 
snowy mountains Kilimandjaro and Kenia were known ; so 
that I could only assume the general correctness of Ptolemy's 
statement. But with our existing knowledge it is now possi- 
ble to prove that geographer's information to have been as 
ample, and nearly as accurate, as our own. The Barbarian 

* Djebel Dubbeh, a volcano about a day's journey inland from Edd on the 
Abessinian coast, from which a violent eruption took place on the 8th May 
1861, lasting several days, is situate about 230 miles almost due north from 
Aiyalu, and would seem from its position to stand in the same relation to the 
mountain range of Eastern Africa as Aiyalu and Kilimandjaro. An account 
of this eruption is contained in The Times of 20th and 21st June 1861. 

t Fernandez de Enciso, " Suma de Geographia" (1530), fol. 54; quoted by 
Mr Cooley in his " Inner Africa Laid Open," p. 127. 

X Tovrou (&iv ouv rov xokvrou Trtgiotxovtriv A<V/Wtj a,v6(>uvotpu.yoi, Zv uto o^vfffAuv 
lir,Kii to rrii 1i\mrii ooo;, a.f oil v7rob*i%ovrat rag %iov&s ot.1 reu Ns/Xot/ ktfivon. — Qeogr. 
lib. iv. cap. ix. § 5 (Edit. Bertii, p. 135.) 

the Eastern Side of the Basin of the Nile, 247 

Gulf is the bight in which Zanzibar, the ancient Menuthias, 
is situate : the Cannibal negroes are the Wadoe, who inhabit 
the coast between Zanzibar and the snowy mountains, in the 
very spot attributed to them by Ptolemy, and whose " name 
is terrible even in African ears :"* Kenia, Kilimandjaro, and 
Doengo Engai, are some of the snowy Mountains of the 
Moon : the lakes are Nyanza and Tanganyika ; and the country 
whose name gives the key to the whole is U-Nyamwezi, the pre- 
sent representative of the earlier " Monomoezi," which name 
Dr Krapf translates " Possession of the Moon," and Captain 
Burton " Land of the Moon ;" both versions being probably 
erroneous, as I shall endeavour to prove in the sequel, though 
the principal portion of that name, " Mwezi," does literally 
signify " the Moon," as has already been explained. 

It might be objected that the positions and relative bear- 
ings of these several points are not correctly given by Ptolemy. 
Such an objection would be more specious than real. That 
geographer does not profess to do more than record the results 
of information collected from various independent sources, 
not always agreeing with one another, and none of them pre- 
tending to perfect accuracy. He does nothing more, in fact, 
than is done by modern geographers and chartographers, who 
describe countries and construct maps of them "from the 
latest and best authorities." 

It might further be argued that Kilimandjaro and Kenia are 
not proved to be snow-capped mountains. We have, how- 
ever, the reiterated assertions of Dr Krapf and Mr Rebmann, 
two educated natives of Germany, that they saw snow on 
those mountains with their own eyes ; and if the persons from 
whom Ptolemy derived his information were only half as com- 
petent to give evidence on the subject as those two mission- 
aries, that geographer could not be blamed for having believed 
in the existence of snow on the Mountains of the Moon, and 
having accordingly recorded it as a fact for the information of 
his own and future ages, even should it eventually turn out, 
as Dr Livingstone suggests, that " the whiteness of those 
mountains" is " nothing more than white quartz rocks and 
crystalline dolomitic limestones glittering under a tropical 

* See " Journ. Royal Geogr. Soc," vol. xxix. p. 99. 

248 Dr Beke on the Mountains forming 

sun."* Yet this would be incompatible with the statements 
made by the natives to Mr Rebmann, that " the silver-like 
stuff, when brought down in bottles, proved to be nothing but 
water ;" and that " many who ascended the mountain [Kili- 
mandjaro] perished from extreme cold, or returned with 
frozen extremities, "f 

Or it might be contended that the two lakes, whether or 
not they receive the melted snows of the mountains, do not 
communicate with the Nile. This, however, like the other, is 
only a question of evidence. If Ptolemy was positively in- 
formed (as Captains Burton and Speke were in the first in- 
stance with respect to Tanganyika J) that the two lakes are 
connected with the Nile, he was justified in believing and 
stating them to be so, even should the fact turn out otherwise. 

The most material and interesting point on which an ob- 
jection might be raised, is with respect to my derivation of 
the name of the Mountains of the Moon. It cannot, however, 
be denied, that there is a country named U-Nyamwezi, — or, 
if it be preferred, Monomoezi, as it was generally called till 
within the last few years. § ' If this be conceded, and the fact 
also be, as Captain Burton informs us,|| that " the Arabs and 
people of Zanzibar, for facility and rapidity of pronunciation, 
dispense with the initial dissyllable, and call the country and 
its race ' Mwezi ;"' there is nothing unreasonable in the idea 
that the mountains on the way to that country should have 
been called by strangers travelling thither from the coast 
the mountains of Mwezi, just as the northern portion of the 
same range of mountains has of late years been styled the 
" Abessinian Alps'* and the " Highlands of Ethiopia." And 
lastly, as " Mwezi" means " Moon," and the Greeks were in the 
habit of translating into their own language significant proper 
names, these " mountains of Mwezi" would naturally have been 
called by them leXyvyg ogog, the Mountains of the Moon. 

* See " Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc," vol. xxvii. p. clxx. 

t See " Krapf's Travels," &c, pp. 543, 544. 

J See %i Blackwood's Magazine" for September 1859, vol. lxxxvi. p. 352. 

§ " Two centuries and a half have elapsed since Europe first learned the ex- 
istence of the empire of Monomoezi." — Cooley " On the Geography of Nyassi," 
in Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc, vol. xv. p. 212. 

|j Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 168. 

the Eastern Side of the Basin of the Nile. 249 

In saying this, I do not intend to affirm that names so trans- 
lated were necessarily significant in the language of the 
country to which they belonged, in the sense in which they 
were translated, but simply that they were significant in some 
(most probably other) language, through which they reached 
the Greek. In my work already cited* I have instanced the 
island of Java, whose Indian names, Java-dvipa, Ptolemy 
not only translated, but at the same time fortunately furnished 
direct evidence of his translation. His words are, 'laftadiov 
o fffifiaivsi xpdrig vrjttog,^ " Jabadiou, which signifies Barley 
Island ;" the fact being, that in the Kavi language Java really 
does mean barley, as dvipa means island. Yet it is not to 
be imagined that " Barley Island" was the signification of 
the primitive native name ; and this for the simple but con- 
clusive reason, that the climate of Java not being suited to 
the growth of barley, the indigenous name of that island could 
never have been derived from an exotic plant, though, from 
its resemblance to the word Java, or " barley," in the lan- 
guage of the Indian invaders, the latter may have so under- 
stood and translated it. 

On my journey home through Italy last autumn, I visited the 
site of the ancient Etruscan city of Luna, on the shores of the 
Gulf of Spezia, — the celebrated Portus Lunw of antiquity, — 
Lunai portum est operas cognoscere. cives J— which appeared 
to me likely to offer a parallel to the African " Mwezi." § Pre- 
viously to my visit I had not the means of referring to the prin- 
cipal authorities on the subject. But since arriving in England 
I have had the gratification of finding, as in the case of Java, 
the recorded translation into Greek of the name of this Etruscan 
city, not directly from the original native language, but through 
the medium of a third tongue, which in this case is the Latin. 

The same geographer, Ptolemy, when describing the country 
of the Tuscans or Tyrrhenians, mentions Aovva, that is to say, 
Luna, and immediately following it, SeX^g axgov, || the pro- 

* The Sources of the Nile, p. 83. 

t Lib. vii. cap. ii. § 29. 

J Ennius. 

§ See " Athenaeum" of 6th October 1860 (No. 1719), p. 451. 

|| Lib. iii. cap. i. ; sec. 4 (Edit. Bertii, p. 68). 

250 Dr Beke on the Mountains forming 

montory of Selene. As the identity of the two terms Luna 
and Selene was better known in Ptolemy's time that it is even 
in our own, we may conclude that he deemed it needless to 
offer an explanation of what was self-evident. The deficiency, 
if considered material, is however made good by Strabo, who 
states explicitly that " the city and harbour of Luna are 
named by the Greeks the harbour and city of Selene/' * 

Nevertheless, there is no sufficient reason for believing the 
Etruscan name of Luna to have involved a supposed connec- 
tion with the earth's satellite any more than that of the African 
U-Nyamwezi. It is true that the Romans regarded the former 
name as signifying the moon, and as having, indeed, been 
derived from that planet : nominis est auctor Sole corusca 
soror are the express words of the poet Rutilius.f But the 
better opinion is, that " Luna was an Etruscan word, misinter- 
preted by the Romans. For the three chief ports on this coast, 
as we learn from coins, had this termination to their names, 
Luna, Pupluna (Populonia), and Vetluna (Vetulonia) ; and as 
no inland town of Etruria had the same ending, it is not im- 
probable that Luna had a maritime signification, and meant 
8 a port;' — this, which has no prefix to its name, being, from 
its superior size, pre-eminently 'the port' of Etruria." J 

In a precisely similar manner the Greek expression, " the 
Mountains of the Moon," was derived from the name U-Nyam- 
wezi, through the Sawahili term Mwezi, which signifies 
moon. Still it does not at all follow that the word U-Nyam- 
wezi, or any portion of it, is significant, in the same sense, in 
the native language of that country itself, any more than that 
Luna in the Etruscan language means moon, or that Java 
means barley in the aboriginal tongue of that island. 

In proceeding to explain my views of the subject at the 
present stage of the inquiry, I would premise, in the words of 
Captain Burton, that, "in the Kisawahili [i.e., the language 
of the Sawahilis], and its cognates, the vowel u prefixed to a 
a root, which, however, is never used without some prefix, de- 

* Aovvv. vokis iffr) hki X/^jjv, xaXouri ol ' EAA»mj IiXvivyis XifAiva. xc.i iroXiv. — Lib. V. 
cap. ii. § 6. 

"f Itinor., lib. ii. v. P>4. 

I Dennis, " The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria," vol. i. p. 83, note. 

the Eastern Side of the Basin of the Nile. 251 

notes ... a country or region, as Uzaramo, the region of 
Zaramo . . . The liquid m, or, before a vowel and an aspi- 
rated h, ?nu, . . . denotes the individual, Mzaramo, a man or 
woman of Zaramo. . . . The plural form of m and mu is wd 
... It is used to signify the population, as Wazaramo, the 
people or tribe of Zaramo . . . Finally, the syllable hi — 
prefixed to the theoretical root — denotes anything appertain- 
ing to a country, as the terminating ish in the word English. 
It especially refers in popular usage to languages, as Kiza- 
ramo, the language of Uzaramo."* 

Proceeding to Captain Burton's derivation of the name 
U-Nyamwezi, we find that, seemingly forgetful of his own defi- 
nitions, he thus analyses the word : " The initial U, the 
causal and locative prefix, denotes the land ; nya, of ; and 
mwezi (articulated m'ezi with semi-elision of the w) means 
the moon." \ Had he been guided by his own rule, he would 
have adopted " Nyamwezi," and not " Mwezi," as the theo- 
retical root ; and then applying to it the several prefixes, as 
in the case of " the people or tribe of Zaramo/' he would 
have said not merely that " the correct designation of the in- 

* Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 48, note. The same traveller states 
further, that " it has heen deemed advisable to retain these terse and concise 
distinctions, which, if abandoned, would necessitate a weary redundance of 
words." An entirely different course is adopted by Mr Edwin Norris, who, in 
his edition of Dr Prichard's " Natural History of Man," when speaking of Dr 
Krapf 's " Vocabulary of East African Languages," says (p. 400, note), " The 
editor has taken the liberty to remove the Kafir prefix, which he thinks not only 
awkward but positively incorrect. Dr Krapf calls these languages Kisuaheli, 
Kipokomo, Kigalla, &c. The fact is, that all the Kafir tongues have certain 
particles distinguishing singulars from plurals (and sometimes duals), adjec- 
tives from substantives, and one kind of substantive from another. Dr Krapf, 
in the narrative of his journeys into Sambara in 1852, speaks of the Kisambara 
language, spoken by the Wasambara, who live in Usambara; and now and 
then mentions a Masambara, one of a Kisambara family. Different dialects 
have different particles : in the language which the editor would wish to call 
Chuana, a native of the country is a Mochuana, two are Buchuana, the people 
generally are the Bichuana, and the language is Sichuana ; and the latter 
words have become current in England, to the puzzlement of readers of Afri- 
can intelligence. Wherever the Kafir prefix has not become part and parcel 
of the English appellation, the editor omits it." 

There are few persons, I think, who will not regard Mr Norris's rule as the 
preferable one. 

t Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 167. 

252 Dr Beke on the Mountains forming 

habitants of U-nyamwezi is M'-nyamwezi in the singular, and 
Wa-nyamwezi in the plural,"* and " Ki-nyamwezi is the ad- 
jectival form;"! but he would have continued, " and U-nyam- 
wezi is the region of the people or tribe of Nyamwezi." 

Several years ago I arrived at the root Nyamwezi by a 
different process. In the month of April 1856, Mohammed 
bin Khamis, a man well known to Captain Burton, had occa- 
sion to visit Mauritius, where I made his acquaintance. He 
is the son of Mr Cooley's informant, Khamis bin Othman,J 
and is himself appealed to by that gentleman in his " Inner 
Africa Laid Open," being there described§ as " a very intelli- 
gent Sawahili, educated in England, formerly commanding 
one of Sultan Seid S'aid's ships, but now [1852] secretary 
and interpreter to his highness." Mohammed became known 
to Captain Burton, fifteen months after his visit to Mauri- 
tius, as the sailing-master of the corvette Artemise, in 
which the traveller and his " companion" crossed from Zan- 
zibar to the mainland. || On the occasion of Mohammed's 
visit to Mauritius, I laid before him Mr Cooley's recent 
works, the several articles in the "Athenaeum" on the vexata 
qucesiio of one lake or two lakes (the third and northernmost 
lake, Nyanza, being at that time unknown), and discussed 
with him the merits of the question generally; when he, 
asserted the existence of two lakes ; the one, " Nyassa," being 
much smaller, more southerly, and nearer to the coast; the 
other, " the Monomwezi Lake," considerably larger, more to- 
wards the north, and much further in the interior. In the 
Sawahili language they are respectively called, Ziwa la 
Wa-nydssa, or the Lake of the Tribe of Nyassa, and Ziwa 
la Wa-nyamwezi, or the Lake of the Tribe of Nyamwezi.^f 

Captain Guillain, of the French navy, in his " Documents sur 
l'Histoire, la Geographie et le Commerce de TAfrique Orien- 

* Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 168. t Ibid. 

% Ibid. vol. xv. p. 198. § P. 78. 

|| See " The Lake Regions of Central Africa," vol. i. p. 8. According to 
Captain Burton, he also helped Captain Speke in taking observations : — " A 
novice lunarian, he was assisted by Mohammed bin Khamis, who had read his 
* Norie' in England." — Ibid. p. 12. 

% See "Athenaeum" of 12th July 1856, (No. 1498), p. 67. 

the Eastern Side of the Basin of the Nile. 253 

tale,"* likewise makes use of the " theoretical root,'* when he 
says that " Mounyainouezy, or by contraction M'nyamouezy, 
signifies a man of the country of Nyamouezy."f 

The determination of this theoretical root " Nyamwezi" 
throws much light on the various forms which the name of 
the country and that of its inhabitants have assumed in 
works on African history and geography.^ It is evidently the 
" Nimeamaye'* of Dapper, further corrupted to " Nimeaye" 
in our atlases ; whilst the addition of the singular prefix m 
makes M'nyamwezi, which is evidently the original of " Mo- 
nomoezi," respecting the orthography and the derivation of 
which word so much has been written. What this theo- 
retical root may mean in the Nyamwezi language — or, as 
Captain Burton would say, in Ki-Nyamwezi — has yet to be 
ascertained. Meanwhile the proposed translations of "U- Ny- 
amwezi " into '? Possession of the Moon" and " Land of the 
Moon" may well be questioned. 

Should it eventually be proved that the name of this country 
of Nyamwezi — U-Nyamwezi — has really no connection with 
the separate Kafir or Zingiar word mwezi in its literal signi- 
fication of " the moon," the designation of " Mountains of 
the Moon," as applied to the great mountain range of Eastern 
Africa in which are the sources of the Nile, will have originated 
in a mistranslation. Still this well-known name has been in use 
during so many ages, that it would hardly be practicable, and 
certainly would not be judicious, to supersede it now. The 
Mountains of the Moon, then, with their snowy summits and 
their sources of the Nile, will assuredly retain the designation 
which Claudius Ptolemy, rightly or wrongly, gave to them 
seventeen centuries ago. 

Now that Eastern Africa is in so many respects becoming the 
object of public attention, it is probable that the Mountains of 

* P. 390, note. 

t This is asserted by Captain Burton (Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 
167), to " show little knowledge of the Zangian dialects." But the truth 
is, that Captain Guillain, like Mr Norris and myself, adopts the " theoretical 
root" as best suited to the genius of European languages, without at all in- 
tending to dispute the fact asserted by Captain Burton, that this root is never 
employed by the natives themselves without some prefix. 

X See examples cited by Captain Burton in the " Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc," 
vol. xxix. p. 166. 


254 On the Mountains on the Eastern Side of the Nile. 

the Moon will ere long acquire a more prominent place in the 
world's history than they have hitherto occupied. The entire 
eastern side of the basin of the Nile appears to be auriferous, 
the gold collected in various parts of it since the earliest ages 
being brought down by the tributaries of that river ; so that 
there is reason to consider the Mountains of the Moon as 
a meridional metalliferous Cordillera, similar in its general 
characters to the Ural and the corresponding great mountain 
ranges of America and Australia. It is from this portion of 
Africa, as I have explained in my work " The Sources of the 
Nile/'* that the " gold of Ophir" of the Hebrew Scriptures 
was obtained. Whenever the discovery shall be made in 
Eastern Africa of some of the chief deposits of that precious 
metal, the influx from all parts of the civilised world to the 
" diggings " in the Mountains of the Moon will be such as to 
occasion a more rapid and complete revolution in the social 
condition of those hitherto neglected regions than could be 
caused by commerce, by missionary labours, by colonisation, 
or by conquest ; as we have witnessed in other quarters of the 
globe, where the auri sacra fames has collected together 
masses of the most daring and energetic of human beings. 
We shall then, too, doubtless see in Eastern Africa, as in 
California and in Australia, the formation of another new race 
of mankind. 

On Lightning Figures. By Charles Tomlinson, Lecturer 
on Science, King's College School, London. "f 

In the newspaper reports of accidents from lightning, we 
occasionally meet with statements that have given rise to much 
speculation, such as that certain tree-like or ramified figures 
have sometimes been found on the bodies of men and animals 
struck by the electric fluid. In the Athenaeum, No. 1535 
(28th March 1857), is given an abstract of a paper by M. 
Andres Poey, Director of the Physico-meteorological Obser- 
vatory of Havannah, entitled " The Photographic Effects of 

* Page 62 ; and see "Origines Biblicae," p. 115. 

t Head before the Physical Section of the British Association at Manchester, 
5th Sept. 1861. 

Mr Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figures. 255 

Lightning." Among these effects are the impressions above 
referred to, of objects left on the bodies of persons struck by 
lightning, or standing near to objects that have been struck. 
Thus, it is stated that Franklin was often heard to speak of 
the case of a man who, standing opposite a tree that was so 
struck, had on his breast " an exact representation of that 
tree." I have not been able to find any reference to this case in 
Franklin's works, which I think somewhat singular ; but I do 
not wish to push that negative fact beyond the limits of a 
remark. Other cases quoted by M. Poey are as follows : — 

In -August 1853, a little girl was standing at a window, 
before which was a young maple tree, " a complete image of 
which" was found impressed on her body after a flash of 

A boy climbed a tree to steal a bird's nest ; the tree was 
struck by lightning, and the boy thrown to the ground : " on 
his breast the image of the tree/with the bird and nest on 
one of its branches, appeared very plainly." Here, again, it 
may be remarked, that when boys ascend trees to steal birds' 
nests, the poor little fluttering parent does not, in this country 
at least, stop to have its photographic portrait taken. 

Another case is that of an Italian lady of Lugano, who, 
sitting at the window during a thunder-storm, had the por- 
trait of a flower permanently impressed upon her leg. 

In preparing a new edition of my little book, " The Thunder 
Storm," I included these and similar cases in a note in the 
appendix " On Electric Images." Among these are the 
Breath-figures (the Electrische Hauch-figuren of the Ger- 
mans, and the Figures rorigues of the French), or those 
figures resembling Moser's, but produced by Riess, Karsten, 
and others by means of electricity. For example, a coin is 
placed on glass, and a stream of sparks from an ordinary 
electrical machine is poured upon it. About 80 or 100 turns 
of a two-foot plate machine may be required. On throwing 
off the coin, and breathing on the glass, the image and super- 
scription of the coin are, under favourable circumstances, 
perfectly reproduced, by the mode in which the breath con- 
denses on the glass. I say under favourable circumstances, 
because it is necessary that a film of matter such as covers 
most objects exposed to the air or to contact with the hands 

256 Mr Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figures. 

be on the glass, and the action of the electricity seems to be 
to burn off greater or less portions of this film, coinciding with 
the greater or less projections of the coin, so that when the 
breath is projected on the glass, the moisture becomes con- 
densed in a regulated manner according to the regulated 
action of the electricity on the film ; that is, where the elec- 
tricity has touched the glass and burnt off the organic film, 
the breath becomes condensed in continuous streams of water, 
but where the film still remains, the moisture is condensed in 
minute globules. Now, if we discharge a Leyden jar upon a 
pane of glass, by interposing it between the knob of the jar 
and that of the discharging rod, we get a breath figure which 
may be taken as the portrait of the discharge of a miniature 
flash of lightning, representing, doubtless on a small scale, the 
mode of discharge on the large, where the earth and the clouds 
take the place of the two coatings, and the air that of the insu- 
lating glass. In this experiment, a small Leyden jar and a pane 
of window glass three or four inches square suffice. The glass 
should be held by one corner ; and one knob of the discharging 
rod being placed on the coating of the jar, the glass in contact 
with the other knob should be brought quickly up to the knob 
of the jar, when the discharge will take place not through the 
glass but along its surface, turning over its edge, and passing 
up the glass to the knob of the discharging rod on the other 
•side. Thus we get two figures, the principal one on the side 
next the jar, and a second subsidiary figure on the discharging- 
rod side. These figures come out beautifully by breathing on 
the glass and holding it up to the light. Wherever the elec- 
tricity has burnt off the film, the moisture is deposited in un- 
broken lines ; but in the other parts where the film is intact, 
it is in very minute globules. The following engraving 
represents roughly a specimen of the principal figure, 
which is that of a leafless tree, or something so provokingly 
like a tree, that any one who has seen it, and has read 
the wonderful stories from M. Poey's Memoir, exclaims 
at once — " Here is the origin of the photo-electric figures 
of lightning."" I showed this experiment to one of the 
Professors of King's College, and he exclaimed — " There 
is the branch and there is the bird's nest as plainly as pos- 
sible !" We have, in fact, in all these figures a broad and 

Mr Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figun 


somewhat rippled line, representing the line of least resistance 
or path of the principal discharge. Branching off from this 
line are numerous ramifications, exactly like the branches of 

a tree ; and from each branch proceed large twigs, and from 
these smaller ones of extreme beauty and delicacy of texture. 
The secondary figure is much less complicated, consisting only 
of the main trunk and one or two branches, but the principal 
figure is highly instructive and suggestive. Five of these 
figures are given in my " Thunder Storm ;" they were drawn 
on wood from nature by my friend Mr Garbett. At the time 
they were drawn, we were not quite agreed as to some of the 
details of the trunk ; and as the figure only lasts while the 
breath is visible on the glass, it is somewhat difficult to sketch 
all the details. Besides this, the hygrometric state of the air 
greatly influences the condensation and duration of the mois- 
ture. In warm wet weather, it is scarcely possible to produce 
these figures satisfactorily. In the article " Breath Figures," 
contributed by me to the " English Cyclopaedia," are two 
figures drawn on wood by my friend Mr Thorne, from the 

258 Mr Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figures. 

originals which I produced in his presence, which I have no 
hesitation in pronouncing to be accurate. Since the date of 
these publications, M. Poej has brought out a new edition of 
his Memoir in a separate form, and has had the politeness to 
send me a copy, together with other meteorological papers of 
great interest and value. The Memoir now makes a small 
volume of 110 pages, and its title is as follows: — "Relation 
historique et Theorie des Images Photo-electriques de la 
Foudre; observees depuis Pan 360 de notre ere jusqu' en 1860. 
Par M. Andres Poey," &c, Paris, 1861. 

Let us now return to these tree-like impressions produced 
by the discharge of a Leyden jar on the surface of glass. 
However rapid and instantaneous the discharge, time is occu- 
pied in making it. In the first place, the jar sends out 
ramifying feelers in all directions, to prepare the line of least 
resistance ; and this being accurately chalked out, the prin- 
cipal discharge takes place. In some cases the discharge 
bifurcates, and we then have two trunks, each with its own 
system of branches. I have also had instances of trifurca- 
tion, forming admirable illustrations of the modes in which 
lightning often attacks several points at once. That these 
feelers precede the main discharge, is evident from the fact, 
that should the glass be too thick, or present too large an 
area, these ramifications only are formed; we get, in fact, 
those lines which produce the sensation of cobwebs being 
drawn over the face, which seamen describe as the forerunners 
of the ship being struck. Another most important fact is, that 
the main trunk is hollow. The breath-figure shows this very 
decidedly ; it consists of two outer boundary lines, and two 
inner lines bounding a hollow core. I have made the dis- 
charge on a pane of smoked glass, and have thus obtained a 
permanent figure of the trunk, consisting of a couple of 
channels on each side of a black dotted line. Now, if we 
examine the stereotyped effects of a lightning stroke, as seen 
in the siliceous tubes or fulgurites, specimens of which are to 
be found in most museums, they too will be found to be 
hollow. The tubes found in a sandhill at Drig, in Cumber- 
land, are described in the " Transactions of the Geological 
Society" for 1812 as being hollow, with a rough and uneven 
outer surface, containing deep furrows like the bark of a 

. Mr Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figures. 259 

tree, in striking contrast with the limpid vitrified inner sur- 
face. Mr Darwin, in describing similar tubes, fragments of 
which he found in South America, speaks of the measure or 
bore of the lightning being about an inch and a quarter. A 
magnificent fulgurite from Dresden may be examined in the 
British Museum. 

Now, as the identity between frictional electricity and 
lightning is admitted, it must also, I think, be admitted that 
the discharge of a Ley den jar resembles that of a thunder- 
cloud ; and if the former produces these tree-like figures, 
the latter does so also. Indeed, the ramifications of fulgurites 
prove such to be the case. We are apt to be misled in our 
ideas as to the form of a flash of lightning, by the stereo- 
typed zigzags by which artists agree to represent that ter- 
rible element. Jupiter's thunderbolts may have as conven- 
tional a form as the French carpenter's scarf joint, which he 
names traits de Jupiter ; but Nature does her work with a far 
more fatal precision than these zigzags would imply. It is 
not often during a thunder-storm that we have an opportu- 
nity of seeing a terrestrial object struck by the thunder-bolt, 
but this I did see on one occasion in Saxony. During a 
terrible storm I was watching the distant mountains of Bo- 
hemia, when a very black cloud was seen to descend, and to 
discharge itself upon a hill in a nearly straight line of rippled 
dazzling light. This is what the sailors call ribbon or chain 
lightning, and is altogether different from sheet lightning, 
where reflected light makes up a large part of the phenomena. 
The ramifications which accompany or rather precede this dis- 
charge are not always visible, although they may sometimes 
be seen ; but, as already noticed, they can be felt by a person 
in the vicinity of the stroke. And if felt, may they not im- 
press themselves on the person 1 May not a small twig of a 
small branch of one of these ramifications of a stroke of light- 
ning print itself on the skin, as the discharge of a Leyden 
jar does with so much facility on glass ? 

M. Poey relates a case which is said to have occurred in 1812 
at the village of Combe Hay, four miles from Bath, of six sheep 
reposing in a meadow surrounded by woods being killed by 
lightning, and that, " when the skins were taken from the ani- 
mals, a facsimile of a portion of the surrounding scenery was 

260 Mr Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figures. 

visible on the inner surface of each skin." This looks so very 
much like a joke that I hesitate to quote it; but the authority 
for the statement given by M. Poey is Mr James H. Shaw, 
whose communication was made, it should be remarked, 
forty-five years after the event, and is included in the " Re- 
port of the Council of the British Meteorological Society, read 
at the Seventh Annual General Meeting, May 27, 1857," 
p. 17- Mr Shaw makes an addition to the above statement, 
which is hardly required if a fac-simile of the surrounding 
scenery were printed on the skins. However, he says that 
" the small field and its surrounding wood were so familiar 
to me and my schoolfellows, that when the skins were shown 
to us, we at once identified the local scenery so wonderfully 
represented." The authority for this may well indeed be 
Shaw, although I should prefer a slight variation in the 
spelling. But curiously enough, while I am writing, a friend 
has procured for me a number of the " Bath Express" for 
Saturday, June 8, 1861, in which is a paragraph headed, 
" Curious Effects of Lightning," correcting a statement which 
had appeared in the " Bath Express" a fortnight before, re- 
specting the occurrence of 1812. The accident is now said, 
on the authority of Mr Wiltshire, " on whose farm the occur- 
rence took place," to have happened at Twinney, not at 
Combe Hay, and it is thus related : — " About turnip-sowing 
time, in 1812, Mr Wiltshire and his men were engaged in the 
fields, when a violent storm of thunder and lightning came 
on, and three out of four valuable rams, which had taken 
shelter under a tree, were killed. When the skins reached 
the fellmonger, on the inside of each was found depicted a 
very accurate representation of the tree under which the 
animals had sought refuge." Now, in this short extract, we 
have some very important variations from Mr Shaw's state- 
ment, as adopted by M. Poey. In the first place, the acci- 
dent occurred not at Combe Hay, but at Twinney. Secondly, 
three rams now take the place of six sheep. Thirdly, the 
rams had taken refuge under a tree — Mr Shaw's sheep were 
in a small field surrounded by trees. Fourthly, M. Poey 
states, that the skins were exposed to public view in Bath — 
Mr Wiltshire says, "when the skins reached the fellmonger's," — 
that is, the man who skinned the sheep saw nothing particu- 

Mr Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figures. 261 

lar in the skins, it was the fellmonger who discovered — what 1 
Not a landscape, not & facsimile of the surrounding scenery, 
but " simply a very accurate representation of the tree," 
&c. This brings us back to our ramified impressions of the 
Leyden jar, and redeems this wonderful story from the dreamy 
regions of the marvellous, into which science should never 
venture, except to rescue some poor misguided fact. 

These tree-like impressions on men and animals did not 
escape the notice of some of the earlier electricians. In 1786, 
MM. Bossut and Leroy made a report to the Academie on the 
subject of some singular marks found on the body of a man 
who had been killed by a stroke of lightning. These marks 
were accounted for on the supposition that the electricity, in 
its passage through the body, had forced the blood into the 
vessels of the skin, and thus made all the ramifications of 
these vessels visible on the surface. The commissioners, in 
fact, adopted the theory of M. Besile, who reported the case, 
viz., that the effect was due " a l'eruption du sang dans les 
vaisseaux de la peau, et qui, dans cet instant forme un effet 
tout semblable a celui d'une injection." M. Arago adopts a 
similar explanation in a case which occurred in France in 
July 1841, where two persons standing near a poplar were 
struck by lightning, and on the breast of each were found 
marks " parfaitement semblable a des feuilles de peuplier." 
This case is noted in the Comptes Rendus, tome xvi., in the 
following terms. " Note relative a l'apparence singuliere des 
ecchymoses formees par la foudre sur la peau de deux individus 
frappes du meme coup." Cases of this kind are seldom or 
never seen by scientific observers, but are left to the observa- 
tion of bystanders, who mix up with actual facts a good deal 
of imagination. That a person struck by lightning, while 
standing under a tree, should have tree-like impressions on 
his person, would naturally lead an ordinary observer to see 
"an exact portrait of the tree" in those marks ; the blotches 
are taken for leaves, for a bird and bird's nest, &c, as the 
case may be. But should the victim be conveyed to a medical 
man, he would be likely to interpret those ramifications into 
a case of ecchymosis, and to report accordingly. My belief 
is, that the lightning itself, or one of its ramifications, prints 
its own fiery mark on the skin of the victim, and thus pro- 


262 Mr Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figures. 

duces these tree-like impressions which have excited so much 
astonishment, and led to so much false description and theory 
during the last eighty or ninety years. 

M. Poey relates twenty-four cases of lightning impressions 
on the bodies of men and animals. Of these, eight are said 
to be impressions of trees or parts of trees ; two of animals, 
viz., a bird and a cow ; four of crosses ; three of circles or 
impressions of coins carried about the person ; two of a horse- 
shoe ; one of a nail ; one of a metal comb ; one of a number ; 
one of the words of a sentence ; and one of the back of an 

M. Poey would refer the production of these figures to pho- 
tography, in which lightning is the efficient agent instead of 
the sun. 

M. Eaudin (Traile de Geographie Medicale) proposes a 
new term for the branch of science which is to include these 
figures, viz., Keraunography (from xeguwog, thunder). I do 
not think it necessary to seek for new laws to explain these 
effects, but I should not place the impressions of metal and 
other objects in the same class with the tree-like figures. 
The experiments of M. Fusinieri on the transference of 
metallic particles from one conductor to another are calculated 
to explain many of these cases ; but details of this kind have 
already been included in the ordinary treatises on electricity. 

P.S. — Since this paper was read before the British Associa- 
tion, a case has come to my knowledge which confirms my 
theory — namely, that the tree-like impressions sometimes found 
on the bodies of men and animals struck by lightning are pro- 
duced by the figures which the lightning itself assumes in 
striking the earth. Conversing on this subject with Mr Charles 
Pooley of Weston-super-Mare, he informed me that some time 
ago, on examining a tree which had been stripped of its bark 
by a stroke of lightning, he found the inner surface of the bark 
to contain ramified impressions of the lightning, corresponding 
with those described in the above paper. Specimens of this 
bark were forwarded to Professor Faraday, and are now in the 
Museum of the Royal Institution of London. I hope to be 
able to describe the particulars of this case in the next number 
of this Journal.. 

( 263 ) 

On the Capabilities for Settlement of the Central Part of 
British North America. By James Hector, M.D., 
F.G.S., &c* 

The following remarks refer to a portion of the British terri- 
tories to which much public attention was directed a few years 
ago — namely, the region which extends from Lake Superior 
to the Pacific Ocean, lying immediately north of the boundary 
line of the United States, and drained principally by the River 

As it was, and indeed — excepting that portion which falls 
within British Columbia — is still, under the direct control of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, for the purposes of a fur-trading 
monopoly, a considerable amount of agitation was employed in 
Canada, and also at home, in order to have the country I treat 
of thrown open for settlement, and many statements have gone 
forth giving an exaggerated view of its worthlessness on the 
one hand, or of its wonderful qualities on the other. 

It is now, however, placed beyond doubt, principally through 
the labours of several Government expeditions, to one of which 
I had the honour to be attached, that there do exist within the 
British territories that I have mentioned extensive areas, with 
good and varied soil, adapted for agricultural colonisation, but 
which, from their geographical position, are necessarily subject 
to all the advantages and defects of a temperate continental 
climate. Thus the winter is long and severe, the spring short 
and uncertain, and the summer tends to scorch the vegetation. 

But yet in this region the winter is not more severe than 
that experienced in Canada; and in the western districts, which 
are removed from the influence of the great lakes, the spring 
commences almost a month earlier than on the shores of Lake 
Superior, which is five degrees of latitude further to the south. 

On the other hand, the higher latitude, combined with its 
increased altitude above the sea-level, reduces the effect of the 
sun's heat in summer so much, that many crops which are 
readily raised in Canada will not meet with equal success in 
the Saskatchewan. All common cereals and green crops have 
been grown successfully, however, even though night frosts 
are experienced throughout the entire summer. 

* Read before the British Association, Manchester, September 10, 1861. 

264 Dr James Hector on the Capabilities for Settlement 

The depth of the snow is never excessive, while in the 
richest tracts the natural pasture is so abundant, that horses 
and cattle may be left to obtain their own food during the 
greater part of the winter ; and with proper care and manage- 
ment there is no doubt that, as far as climate is concerned, 
sheep also might be reared, were it not for the immense packs 
of wolves which infest the country. 

It is only during the month of March, when the snow ac- 
quires a tough glassy crust from the heat of the mid-day sun 
being each night followed by hard frost, that stock would 
require to be housed and fed. 

These remarks apply, however, more especially to what has 
been termed the " Fertile Belt," and the nature of which I 
will endeavour to explain. 

The wonderfully fertile savannahs and valuable woodlands 
of the eastern United States are succeeded to the west by a 
more or less arid desert, which occupies a region on both sides 
of the Rocky Mountains, and presents a barrier to the con- 
tinuous growth of settlements between the valley of the Mis- 
sissippi and the rich states of the Pacific coast, and at present 
only occupied by one spot of civilisation, the Mormon city at 
the Great Salt Lake. 

Under such disadvantageous physical conditions, it is not 
likely that any line of route for rapid or heavy transport across 
this desert will be remunerative, while its construction, in the 
present disturbed state of American politics, may be indefinitely 
delayed. Nevertheless, during the last seven years, our sharp- 
witted and prompt-acting cousins have been spending much 
money in having every possible route thoroughly explored and 
surveyed ; and were their domestic troubles over, there is no 
doubt that they would revert to their attempts to bind together 
their eastern and western provinces. 

It is therefore highly satisfactory for us, as British subjects, 
to know that the arid region extends but a short way to the 
north of the 49th parallel of latitude, which is the position of 
the boundary line, and that even the small area of desert 
within our territories derives its character more from the 
nature of the soil than from the general climatic conditions. 

The British portion of the arid country is a triangular 
region, its apex reaching to the 52d parallel, while its base, 

of the Central Part of British North America. 265 

applied along the 49th, extends between Long. 100° and 114° 
W. It contains, however, many varieties of land, and some 
limited areas that are really even good ; but, on the whole, it 
must be described as deficient in wood, water, and grass. 

Round the northern border of this arid district sweeps the 
" Fertile Belt" of country which I before mentioned. It is 
nothing more than the ill-defined boundary of the bald plains 
from the gloomy woodlands of the circum-arctic forests. As 
it forms the favourite camping grounds of the Indian tribes, 
the habit which these savages have of burning the vegetation 
has gradually improved this country for the purposes of settle- 
ment, by clearing off 1 the heavy timber, to remove which is 
always the first and most arduous labour of the colonist. The 
" Fertile Belt," which thus possesses all the good qualities of 
rich soil and an abundant growth of the nutritious leguminous 
plants of a woodland country, but associated with open ex- 
panses ready for the plough, or for depasturage, stretches from 
the wooded country at the south end of Lake Winipeg in a 
north-west direction continuously to the Rocky Mountains, so 
that the westward progress of settlement will not meet with 
the same obstacle that checks it within the United States. 

We thus perceive that in some respects the Saskatchewan 
country compares favourably with Canada; but we must not 
forget that the valuable timber trees, which are such a great 
source of wealth to that province, totally disappear as we pro- 
ceed to the west, only very few of them ever reaching the 
longitude of Lake Winipeg. Beyond that, in the northern 
thick woods, the coarse and worthless white spruce, with a few 
small birches, poplars, and willows, compose the forest growth, 
while in the " Fertile Belt" almost the only tree is the aspen 
poplar, which forms very artificial-looking groves and clumps, 
that add greatly to the beauty of the scenery, but are useless 
beyond giving shelter and yielding a very inferior quality of 

With all its disadvantages, the Saskatchewan country offers 
a most desirable field to the settler who is deficient in capital, 
and who has no desires beyond the easy life and moderate 
gains of simple agricultural occupations ; and it is only the 
difficulty of access to it that, for the present at all events, pre- 
vents its immediate occupation. 

266 Dr James Hector on the Capabilities for Settlement 

Three routes are at present in use by which the country is 
entered. One is from Hudson Bay, by a broken land and 
water carriage, rough and cumbrous in its nature, but which 
has hitherto been the one principally used by the Fur Com- 
pany. Even they, however, have almost abandoned it now in 
favour of the third route I shall mention. 

The second route is from Lake Superior to Lake Winipeg, 
and also involves many changes from water carriage to land 
transport, and never could be used for the introduction of live 
stock or the conveyance of heavy goods. The only advantage 
which either of these routes could possess for us is from their 
both being within British territory. 

The third route, which is undoubtedly the natural line of in- 
gress to the country, but, unfortunately for us, passes through 
American territory, is up the valley of the Mississippi River 
to the Red River settlement by way of Sfc Paul's, Crow Wing, 
and across the low-water shed which there divides the waters 
of the Mississippi from those flowing to Hudson Bay. 

A large portion of the rich fertile plains of Red River lie to 
the south of the boundary line, and are already being rapidly 
occupied by American settlers. An American steamer now 
plies on that river for a few trips each season, and a railway 
is projected, and the line partly surveyed, to connect St Paul's 
with Paulina, where there is a new town situated on the 
frontier. This route, even at present, is extremely convenient 
and easy for the emigrant, as it passes through prairie country, 
so that he incurs no expense for the food of his animals when 
travelling. There can be little doubt, that if a railway is 
once constructed by this route, it will become a permanent, 
and doubtless the favourite, line of communication, and against 
it no other will be able to compete successfully. 

If there were a prospect of the western prairies being soon 
occupied by a producing population, it might in that case be 
remunerative to have a line of railway constructed entirely 
within the British territory that would have for its object the 
connection of Canada with our new colonies on the Pacific 
coast; but this would justly rank as a great national enter- 
prise, in value much beyond the more western extension of 
our Canadian provinces. 

From the large and flourishing agricultural settlement of 

of the Central Part of British North America. 267 

whites and half-breeds at Red River, the population of which 
is now about 8000 souls, such a line of railway might pass 
westward through the "Fertile Belt" without encountering any 
serious engineering difficulties. It has been frequently stated 
that in the Prairie country nothing would be required but 
he mere laying of the rails ; but this is a total misconception 
)f the physical features of the region. The prairies are very 
rarely level, except over small areas. They have undulations 
that often swell to the height of several hundred feet, or for 
miles the traveller winds among abrupt conical eminences ; 
and it is only the general absence of timber, and the sameness 
of the scenery, that deceive the eye, and give the appear- 
ance of flatness. Moreover, throughout the greater part of 
the Prairie country, not only all the large rivers, but even 
small and insignificant streams, flow in valleys, with steep 
sides, deeply depressed below the general level ; and these 
valleys would require the construction of bridges, and often 
in districts far distant from a supply of any proper building 
materials. Nevertheless, I believe I can safely state, that in 
proportion to the extent of mileage, small engineering expenses 
would be incurred until the Rocky Mountains are reached. 

We now know that this chain does not present any bar to 
the construction of a railway, as there are several passes which 
will admit of easy gradients through valleys so wide as to afford 
great variety in the choice of ground for locating the line. 

The mountains proper are not more than 50 to 60 miles 
broad in the latitude that would be most probably chosen for 
the line of route, namely between 50° and 52°, when, on cross- 
ing them to the west, the gold-bearing valleys of British 
Columbia are reached. Indeed, within the last few weeks I 
have received letters from the Saskatchewan stating that gold 
has been discovered in the bed of that river at the Rocky 
Mountain House, which is 40 miles to the east of the moun- 
tains, and quite in the plain country. Two hundred miles 
further down that river I have seen a few specimens of gold 
washed out, but I doubt much if it will ever be worked with 
profit on the east side of the Rocky Mountains within the 
British territories, as there is no trace on that side of the axis 
of the ancient rocks from which it must have been derived. 

268 Settlement in British North America. 

In the rugged country that lies between the Rocky Moun- 
tains and the Pacific coast, I have no doubt that all the val- 
leys are filled with rich auriferous deposits, and every few 
months accounts arrive of " diggings " discovered in fresh 
localities. The most recent of them was in a letter from Lieut. 
Wilson, who is attached to the Commission at present en- 
gaged in surveying the boundary line from the Pacific coast 
to the mountains, and who mentions that a rush has taken 
place to a point on the Kootani River. 

In carrying a line of railway through this region of British 
Columbia, the difficulties to be overcome by the engineer are 
very great. The surface of the country is broken by low 
mountain chains that run parallel with the coast, and the nar- 
row valleys by which the rivers break through these are rugged 
in the extreme, but to develope the mineral wealth of this 
country will in any case require the construction of roads, and 
would afford more inducement to the laying out of money on 
this than on any other part of the route. 

The rush of diggers into the new country will ensure for it 
an active though temporary settlement; but those mineral 
products which it possesses, and which can only be reached by 
steady energy and the employment of capital, will retain a 
considerable permanent population, and give that solidity of 
wealth which alone would warrant the construction of a line of 
railway through a difficult and otherwise unproductive country. 
Throughout the Saskatchewan country there are deposits of 
coal, which, although not to be compared in quality with that 
we are familiar with in this country, yet are of considerable 
value. Coal of a similar geological formation, but of some- 
what better quality, also occurs on Vancouver's Island and 
the opposite mainland, near the mouth of Fraser River ; and 
at the former locality it is worked, and finds a market as 
ordinary fuel, for the manufacture of gas, and, above all in im- 
portance to us, for the supply of our steam navy. It answers 
well for the generation of steam ; and the occurrence of this coal 
on Vancouver's Island, which possesses magnificent harbour- 
age, renders that colony a valuable link in a chain of com- 
munication with China and the East Indies, by way of a 
route across the North American continent. 


On Some Modifying Elements affecting the Ethnic Signifi- 
cance of Peculiar Forms of the Human Skull. By Daniel 
Wilson, LL.D., Professor of History and English Litera- 
ture, University College, Toronto. 

The antiquity and wide geographical diffusion of the prac- 
tice of cranial deformation on the American continent have 
tended in some degree to divert the attention of craniologists 
from causes, some at least of the operations of which have 
been long recognised in other departments of natural history. 
The palaeontologist is familiar with the occurrence of skulls 
distorted or completely flattened, and even with solid bones 
and shells greatly changed in form by compression. It was 
due to such compression transforming the skull of a fossil 
batrachian into some rude resemblance of the human cranium, 
that the famous Cryptohranchus Scheuchzeri, found in a 
quarry at CEningen in 1725, was announced to the world in 
M. Scheuchzer's " Homo Diluvii Testis et Theoscopos," as 
the remains of one of the sinful antediluvians who perished in 
the Noahic deluge ! In some of such examples, the palaeon- 
tologist looks in reality only on the cast of the ancient bone 
or shell, compressed, along with its matrix, probably at a date 
long subsequent to its original deposition. But in the fol- 
lowing examples of similar changes affecting the human skull, 
it will be seen that the distortion by which the crania now 
referred to have acquired their abnormal shapes must have 
taken place at no long period subsequent to inhumation, 
while the animal matter still remained in such abundance as 
to preserve the flexibility of the bones ; and even in some 
cases, when the soft tissues still existed, to resist the fracture 
consequent on the pressure of the superimposed weight of 
earth or stone. 

In the Museum of the University of Toronto, a female 
skull is now preserved, recovered in 1859 from an ancient 
Indian cemetery on the Georgian Bay. It is marked by con- 
siderable prolongation of the occiput, and is essentially a 
dolichocephalic cranium ; but the natural excess in the longi- 
tudinal diameter has been exaggerated by great lateral com- 
pression, under which the left parietal and temporal bones, 


270 Professor Daniel Wilson on the 

after being depressed and flattened, have at length partially 
yielded at the squamous suture. The head appears to have 
lain on the left side, and to have been subjected to slow con- 
tinuous pressure, which modified the contour of the lower side 
before the bones gave way at the suture. The measurements 
of this skull are : — 

Longitudinal diameter, 


Parietal diameter, 


Frontal diameter, 


Vortical diameter, 


Tntermastoid arch, 

. 13.30 

Occipito-frontal arch, . 

. 14.00 

Horizontal circumference, 

. 20.00 

In an interesting paper on " Aboriginal Antiquities recently 
discovered in the Island of Montreal," published by Dr 
Dawson in the " Canadian Naturalist," he has given a de- 
scription of one female and two male skulls, found along with 
many human bones, at the base of the Montreal Mountain, 
on a site which he identifies, with much probability, as that of 
the ancient Hochelaga, an Indian village visited by Cartier 
in 1535, and which he assigns on less satisfactory evidence 
to an Algonquin tribe. Since the publication of that paper, 
my attention has been directed by Dr Dawson to two other 
skulls, a male and female, discovered on the same spot, both 
of which are now in the Museum of M'Gill College, Montreal. 
One of these furnishes a still more striking example of a 
cranium, greatly altered from its original shape subsequent 
to interment. It is the skull of a man about forty years of 
age, approximating to the common proportions of the Iroquois 
and Algonquin cranium, but with very marked lateral dis- 
tortion, accompanied with flattening on the left and bulging 
out on the right side. There is also an abnormal configura- 
tion of the occiput, suggestive at first sight of the effects pro- 
duced by the familiar native process of artificial malformation. 
This tends to add, in no slight degree, to the interest which 
attaches to the investigation of such illustrations of abnormal 
craniology, as the occurrence of well-established examples of 
posthumous deformation among crania, purposely modified by 
artificial means, exhibits in a striking manner the peculiar 

Ethnic Significance of the Human Skull. 271 

difficulties which complicate the investigations of the na- 
turalist when dealing with man. The evidence which places 
beyond doubt the posthumous origin of the distortion in this 
Hochelaga skull is of the same nature as that which has 
already been accepted in relation to an example recovered 
from an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Stone, in Buckingham- 
shire. The forehead is flattened and greatly depressed on 
the right side, and this recedes so far, owing to the distortion 
of the whole cranium, that the right external angular process 
of the frontal bone is nearly an inch behind that of the left 
side. The skull recedes proportionally on the same side 
throughout, with considerable lateral development at the 
parietal protuberance, and irregular posterior projection on 
the right side of the occiput. The right superior maxillary 
and malar bones are detached from the calvarium, but the 
nasal bones and the left maxillary remain in situ, exhibiting 
in the former evidence of the well-developed and prominent 
nose characteristic of Indian physiognomy. The bones of the 
calvarium, with one slight exception, have retained their co- 
herence, notwithstanding the great distortion to which it has 
been subjected, though in this example ossification has not 
begun at any of the sutures. The exception referred to is in 
the left temporal bone, which is so far partially displaced as 
to have detached the upper edge of the squamous suture. 
Part also of the base of the skull is wanting. 

The posthumous origin of the distortion of this skull is 
proved beyond dispute on replacing the condyles of the lower 
jaw in apposition with the glenoid cavities, when it is found 
that, instead of the front teeth meeting the corresponding 
ones of the upper maxillary, the lower right and left incis- 
sors both impinge on the first right canine tooth, and the re- 
maining teeth are thereby so displaced from their normal 
relation to those of the upper jaw, as to preclude the possi- 
bility of their answering the purpose of mastication — which 
their worn condition proves them to have done, — had they 
occupied the same relative position during life. 

The extreme distortion which this skull has undergone is 
still more apparent when looking on it at its base. The bone 
has been fractured, and portions of it have become detached 

272 Professor Daniel Wilson on the 

under the pressure, while the mastoid processes are twisted 
obliquely, so that the left one is upward of an inch in advance 
of the right. 

The circumstances under which this Indian skull was found 
tend to throw some light on the probable process by which its 
posthumous malformation was affected. It was covered by 
little more than two feet of soil, the pressure of which was 
in itself insufficient to have occasioned the change of form. 
The skull, moreover, was entirely filled with the fine sand 
in which it was embedded. If, therefore, we conceive of the 
body lying interred under this slight covering of soil until 
all the tissues and brain had disappeared, and the infiltra- 
tion of fine sand had filled up the hollow brain-case ; and 
then, while the bones were still replete with animal matter, 
and softened by being filled with moist sand and embedded 
in the same, if some considerable additional pressure, such 
as the erection of a heavy structure, or the sudden accumu- 
lation of any weighty mass, took place over the grave, the 
internal sand would present sufficient resistance to the su- 
perincumbent weight applied by nearly equal pressure on all 
sides, to prevent the crushing of the skull or the disruption 
of the bones, while these would readily yield to compres- 
sion of the mass as a whole. The skull would thereby be 
subjected to a process in some degree analogous to that by 
which the abnormal developments of the Flathead crania are 
effected during infancy, involving, as it does, great relative 
displacement of the cerebral mass, but little or no diminution 
of the internal capacity. The discovery of numerous traces of 
domestic pottery, pipes, stone implements, and weapons, in the 
same locality, furnishes abundant proof that it was the site of 
the Indian village as well as the cemetery, and thereby de- 
monstrates the probability of the erection of such a structure, 
or the accumulation of some ponderous mass over the grave, 
at a period so near to that of the original interment as would 
abundantly suffice to produce the change of form described. 
To some such causes similar examples of posthumous cranial 
malformation must be ascribed ; as they are so entirely excep- 
tional as to preclude the idea of their resulting from the mere 
pressure of the ordinary superincumbent mass of earth. 

Ethnic Significance of the Human Skull. 273 

Another skull found in the same ancient Indian cemetery, 
apparently that of a female, and now in the collection of M. 
Guilbault, of Montreal, has also the appearance of having 
been modified in form by artificial means, whether posthu- 
mous or otherwise. The superciliary ridges are prominent, 
the frontal bone is receding, but convex, and the occipital 
bone has considerable posterior projection, which is rendered 
the more prominent by a general flattening of the coronal 
region, and a very marked depression immediately over the 
lambdoidal suture, probably the result of unequal posthumous 
compression. The abnormal conformation of this skull is 
shown in the proportions of the intermastoid arch, which mea- 
sures only 11*75, while the normal mean, so far as ascertained 
by me from measurements of thirty-three examples of Algon- 
quin crania, is 14*34, and of thirty-six examples of Huron 
crania is 1470. 

The great importance now justly attached to the form and 
relative proportions of the human skull, as elements of classi- 
fication in physical ethnology, confers a new significance on 
all external forces affecting its normal ethnic condition. In- 
fluences artificially superinduced upon those conditions which, 
in relation to all other animals, would be regarded as their 
natural state, tend greatly to complicate that novel depart- 
ment of Natural History which deals with man as its pecu- 
liar subject ; and in no respect is this more apparent than in 
the form of the human head. It is man's normal condition to 
be subjected to many artificial influences ; and this fact must 
never be lost sight of by the ethnologist. In the rudest stage 
of savage life, which is sometimes, on very questionable 
grounds, characterised as a state of nature, man clothes and 
houses himself, makes and uses weapons and tools, and sub- 
jects his infant offspring to many influences dependent upon 
hereditary custom, taste, or superstitious obligations. All 
those tend to leave permanent results stamped on the indivi- 
dual, and, when universally practised, confer on the tribe cr 
nation some artificial ethnological characteristics which are 
nevertheless as essentially foreign to any distinctive innate 
peculiarity as tatooing, circumcision, or other similar operation 
admitting of universal application. The naturalist has to deal 

274 Professor Daniel Wilson on the 

with nothing analogous to this among the most ingenious and 
constructive of the lower animals. 

Diverse physical characteristics have been noted among the 
various tribes of mankind, but concurrent opinion points to 
the head and face as embodying the most discriminating tests 
of ethnic variety. Yet these are the very features most 
affected by artificial appliances. Tatooing, nose, lip, and ear 
piercing ; filing, staining, and extracting the teeth ; staining 
the eyelids, shaving and plucking the head and beard, all 
effect important changes on the physiognomy. Nor is the 
head more constant in its proportions. Undesignedly and 
with deliberate purpose alike, artificial means tend to modify 
the shape of the human skull, and so to introduce elements of 
confusion and error into any system of classification based on 
cranial conformation, in which such sources of change are 
overlooked. In one respect, however, the American ethnolo- 
gist might seem to incur little risk of such oversight. The 
barbarous custom of giving artificial forms to the skull is 
practised as sedulously at the present day among the Flat- 
"head tribes of the Pacific, as by the Peruvians before the con- 
quest of Pizarro, or on the shores of the Euxine among the 
Scythian Macrocephali in the days of Hippocrates. The 
effects resulting from this practice have accordingly assumed 
a prominent place among the phenomena specially distinctive 
of American ethnology. But, on this very account, such arti- 
ficial cranial distortion, especially among ancient and modern 
American tribes, now receives so much attention from the 
craniologist, that we are apt not only to forget how entirely 
this barbarous practice had been lost sight of until the recent 
revival of the subject, as one necessarily involved in deter- 
mining the true significance of generic forms of the human 
head in the deductions of physical ethnology ; but also to 
ignore all other causes tending to produce corresponding 

The possibility of artificial modifications of the form of the 
human skull, after having been denied by Sabatier, Camper, 
and Artaucl, was reasserted in strong terms by Blumenbach, 
when describing a flattened Charib skull brought from the 
island of St Vincents. Nevertheless opinions oscillated with 

Ethnic Significance of the Human Skull. 275 

varying uncertainty on this disputed question ; and even after 
the publication of Dr Morton's " Crania Americana" had fur- 
nished a complete history of the practice, and abundant illus- 
trations of its results, the artificial origin of such cranial 
malformation was still denied by eminent anatomists and 
physiologists. The celebrated anatomist, Tiedemann, after 
careful inspection of the distorted skulls brought by Mr Pent- 
land from the ancient sepulchres of Titicaca in Peru, still 
maintained that their singular forms were entirely due to 
natural causes ; and this idea appeared to receive remark- 
able confirmation from opinions published by Dr Tschudi, 
after personal examination of numerous skulls and mummies 
exhumed during his travels in Peru. Without denying that 
some of the peculiarities of cranial conformation frequently 
observed in skulls found in ancient Peruvian graves are the 
result of artificial deformation, purposely superinduced by 
bandaging and mechanical pressure during infancy, Dr 
Tschudi maintains that diverse natural forms of skull per- 
tain to different ancient races of Peru, and especially that 
one peculiar and extremely elongated form of head is a natu- 
ral Peruvian characteristic ; in confirmation of this he not only 
refers to mummies of children of less than a year old, belong- 
ing to the tribe of Aymaraes, exhibiting the dolicocephalic 
proportions observed in adult skulls, but the very same spe- 
cialities which he had noted in adult crania of the Huancas 
came under his observation in more than one mummied foetus, 
which could not have been subjected to any artificial appa- 
ratus for the purpose of modifying the cranial configuration. 
In proof of this, he makes special reference to a foetus in his 
possession found enclosed in the womb of a mummy discovered 
in 1841, in a cave at Huichay, two leagues from Tarma, in 
Peru. Professor D'Outrepont, an experienced obstetrician, 
determined the age of the foetus at about seven months ; and 
Dr Tschudi refers to his illustrative drawing of it as afford- 
ing interesting and conclusive proof, in opposition to opinions 
advanced by the advocates of mechanical pressure as the sole 
cause of the remarkable cranial forms recovered from Peru- 
vian sepulchres. Similar proofs are also stated by him to be 
furnished by another mummy, preserved under the direction 

27G Professor Daniel Wilson on the 

of Don Mariano Edward de Rivero, in the National Museum 
at Lima. The heads exhibit a flattened, receding forehead, 
and a remarkable posterior elongation ; and these character- 
istics are no less markedly noticeable in another example, 
from the same Lima collection, figured by Dr Tschudi in his 
M Antiguedades Peruanas," of a mummied child of the Opas 
Indians. Its form, as shown both in profile and vertical view, 
is only comparable to the most depressed skulls of the Chinouk 
Indians ; while in the vertical or front view, it is seen to be 
exceedingly unsymmetrical. The right side is considerably 
in excess of the left, as is frequently the case in the elongated 
skulls of the Flatheads of Oregon and British Columbia ; and 
to those familiar with the irregular development of artificially 
compressed heads, the idea of mechanical pressure is at once 
suggested as the cause of some of the peculiar cranial charac- 
teristics of this Lima mummy. 

There is conclusive evidence, I conceive, to prove that there 
were essentially distinct dolichocephalic and brachycephalic 
tribes among the ancient Peruvians ; and that a markedly elon- 
gated head was common, apart from any artificial anterior de- 
pression and abnormal elongation to which it was frequently 
subjected. This question has been discussed, with varying re- 
sults, in more than one of Dr Morton's papers, though latterly 
he appears to have rejected the idea of two or more distinct 
cranial types, in favour of his theoretical unity of the Ameri- 
can race. I have been confirmed in the belief in the exist- 
ence of such essentially diverse South American cranial types 
after examining numerous Peruvian crania, including those 
of the Morton Collection, along with later additions, in the 
cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia ; 
and especially from recent careful study of a collection of 
Peruvian mummies and skulls, including both normal and 
compressed dolichocephalic crania, brought from ancient ceme- 
teries of South America, by Mr John H. Blake, and now pre- 
served in his collection at Boston, along with other interesting 
illustrations of the ancient arts and customs of the Peruvians. 
This primary distinction in the forms of Peruvian crania, 
apart from the changes wrought on them by artificial means, 
must be borne in remembrance while estimating the bearings 

Ethnic Significance of the Human Skull. 277 

of such evidence as that adduced by Dr Tschudi from the Opas 
Indian mummy ; for assuredly no conceivable amount of change 
in the progress from infancy to maturity could convert the 
elongated head figured in Rivero and Tschudi's Atlas into 
the brachycephalic cranium frequently pertaining to the 
ancient Peruvian adult. But while evidence derived from 
various sources tends to confirm the opinion that at least two, 
if not three, essentially distinct forms of head prevailed among 
the ancient Peruvians, the evidence produced by Dr Tschudi 
fails to prove that the examples referred to by him ought to 
be accepted as illustrations of a normal cranial type. 

In this as in so many other departments of Ethnology, the 
naturalist cannot be too frequently reminded that the most 
primitive condition of man's savage life is an artificial one 
when compared with that of any of the lower animals. With 
man alone the osteologist finds his investigations complicated 
by altered forms produced by artificial means ; and under this 
head must be included the accidental and undesigned, as well 
as the purposely superinduced changes effected on the human 
frame, and especially on the skull ; while to causes thus oper- 
ating to modify or counteract the normal vital functions, have 
to be added others, illustrated by the examples produced above, 
and clearly traceable to a posthumous origin. 

The intra-uterine position of the Huiehay Cave foetus fur- 
nishes indisputable proof that its peculiar cranial development 
is not due to art — if by this is understood the application of 
mechanical pressure with an express view to the production 
of such configuration ; but this by no means exhausts the pos- 
sible sources of abnormal modification. It may be the unde- 
signed result of mechanical pressure inevitable in the process 
of desiccation, accompanied as it invariably was, in the case of 
Peruvian mummies, with the forcing of the body into a crouch- 
ing position, in which the legs were compressed upon the ab- 
domen, and the arms folded across the chest. The naturalist 
who aims at applying the deductions of physical ethnology 
to the determination of ethnic classification, cannot content 
himself with accepting such osteological evidence as presents 
itself to him, in the unquestioning spirit which may be per- 
missible in other branches of natural history. The most an- 


278 Professor Daniel Wilson on the 

thropoid of the inferior animals has not as yet been affirmed 
to cradle, bandage, or clothe its young ; or to mummify or 
inter its dead. With rare exceptions, therefore, the compara- 
tive anatomist finds their skeletons in a uniform normal con- 
dition, and is justified in assigning a specific classification to 
distinctive cranial forms. But it is otherwise with the natu- 
ralist when he has man as the object of his study. Every 
scheme by which the ethnologist aims at systematising ethnic 
variations of cranial configuration, implies the recognition of 
national diversities in the form and proportions of the human 
head ; but before attempting to determine their classification 
and significance, it is important to eliminate the various ele- 
ments of extrinsic change. These, then, may be stated as 
follows : — 

I. Undesigned changes of form superinduced in infancy by 
bandaging or other custom of head-dress ; by the form of 
pillow or cradle-board ; and by persistent adherence to any 
unvarying position in suckling and nursing. 

II. Artificial deformation undesignedly resulting from the 
habitual carrying of burdens on the head, or by means of 
straps or bandages pressing on any part of the skull, when 
such is continued from early youth. 

III. Artificial configuration designedly resulting from the 
application of mechanical pressure in infancy. 

IV. Deformation resulting from posthumous compression, 
or any mechanical force brought into operation after death. 

The first of those four classes has hitherto been overlooked, 
I believe ; yet several remarkable instances have come under 
my own observation ; and especially two examples of strikingly 
unsymmetrical heads, which appear to be clearly traceable to 
the fact that in both cases the mother was only able to suckle 
at one breast, and hence the infant skull, while still in a soft 
and pliant condition, was constantly subjected to lateral com- 
pression only on one side. Even the persistent habit of carry- 
ing and laying to sleep on the same side may permanently 
affect the form of the infant head. 

In relation to the second class, my observations have been 
directed to the heads of Scottish fishwives and porters, and to 

Ethnic Significance of the Human Skull. 279 

Indian squaws, all of whom carry heavy burdens by means of 
a strap over the head or across the forehead, and to Edinburgh 
bakers, who carry their bread-boards on the crown of the 
head. But it seems doubtful if the form of the skull is ever 
in any material degree affected, unless pressure is applied in 
very early life. 

The third cause of artificial configuration is now universally 
recognised, though it is possible that, in referring to the 
mummy of the Opas child preserved in the national collection 
at Lima, Dr Tschudi ignores results produced even by this 
familiar source of cranial deformation ; for the unsymmetrical 
form of the head figured by him is strongly suggestive of 
mechanical pressure, whether designedly or undesignedly 
applied during life, or arising solely from the rude processes 
of mummification. But, where the more general custom of in- 
humation prevails, another source of undesigned and posthu- 
mous compression comes into play, some results of which find 
striking illustration in the Indian skulls described above. To 
this neglected element of error in the ethnic value of cranial 
forms, attention was first directed by Dr Thurnham, in describ- 
ing the skull of a man about sixty years of age, found, in 1850, 
at the village of Stone, near Aylesbury. Buckinghamshire, 
along with an iron spearhead and knife, the umbo of a shield, 
and other relics, clearly recognisable as of the common forms 
and characters pertaining to Anglo-Saxon pagan sepulture. 
This skull attracted attention from features of an unusual and 
striking character. It is marked by distortion, not only involv- 
ing the most unsymmetrical deformity, — the whole right side of 
the skull having been thrust forward, and the left side propor- 
tionally thrown back, with great lateral protrusion of the 
right temporal and parietal bones,— but the articulating sur- 
face of the right temporal bone has been forced so much in 
advance of the left side as to render it no longer possible to 
replace the lower jaw, which retains its normal form. The 
remarkable distortion which this skull has undergone without 
the displacement or fracture of the bones of the calvarium, led 
at first to considerable difference of opinion as to the causes 
to which such singular malformation ought to be ascribed. 
But the impossibility of the essential vital functions of the 

280 Professor Daniel Wilson on the 

jaws having been performed if the temporal bones had existed 
during life in the same unconformable relation to the lower 
jaw, left no room to doubt that the distortion had been pro- 
duced subsequent to inhumation. Mr J. B. Davis has accord- 
ingly devoted special consideration to the general subject of 
" posthumous distortion," when treating, in the " Crania Bri- 
tannica," of various sources of abnormal cranial conformation; 
and refers to it as " another and distinct mode which will in 
future be required to be taken into consideration in all inves- 
tigations having reference to deformed crania." At the same 
time Mr Davis accumulates additional evidence in confirma- 
tion of the opinion that the artificial distortion of the human 
head is by no means limited to the savage tribes of the New 
World ; and discusses not only its practice among the ancient 
Macrocephali, including the received theory of Hippocrates 
that such artificial forms may be at length perpetuated by 
natural generation, but also " the extraordinary fact, that the 
practice of distorting the skull in infancy is not yet extinct 
even in Europe." To this curious inquiry the attention of 
some of the distinguished physiologists and anatomists of 
France has been directed ; and the result of the combined 
observations of MM. Foville and Gosse, along with those of 
M. Lunier, is to satisfy them that in different departments of 
France the practice of applying constricting coverings and 
bandages to the heads of infants still prevails ; and that cer- 
tain diversities of cranial configuration in some of the pro- 
vinces, and especially in Normandy, Gascony, Limousin, and 
Brittany, are traceable to prevalent modes of infantile head- 
dress. It detracts considerably from the force of such con- 
clusions, that the most remarkable examples produced by Dr 
Foville are derived from inmates of lunatic asylums ; whereas 
the result of numerous independent observations on the Flat- 
head tribes of the Pacific tends to prove, that whatever may 
be the increase of mortality in infancy produced by the bar- 
barous practice of cranial deformation, the adults exhibit no 
mental inferiority to other Indians. On the contrary, they 
arc objects of dread to the neighbouring tribes, among whom 
no such practice prevails, enslaving them, and retaining them 
in degrading servitude, while they rigorously exclude their 

Ethnic Significance of the Human Skull. 281 

slaves from the privilege of distorting the heads of their off- 
spring, so that the normal head is with them the badge of 
servile inferiority. Mr Davis has figured a distorted skull of 
an aged French woman in his collection, believed to have been 
the inmate of a lunatic asylum in one of the Southern Depart- 
ments of France. It is produced in illustration of the most 
usual variety of deformation, denominated by MM. Foville 
and Gosse the tete annulaire ; but though of somewhat 
brachycephalic proportions, there is nothing in the profile view, 
which is the only one given, calculated to suggest the idea of 
abnormal configuration. 

From the various aspects which this craniological depart- 
ment of physical ethnology thus discloses to the inquirer, it 
becomes obvious that it is a greatly less simple element of 
classification than was assumed to be the case by Retzius, 
Morton, or any of the earlier investigators of national forms of 
the human skull. To the brachycephalic and dolichocephalic 
types of Retzius have now been added the kumbecephalic, the 
platycephalic, and the acrocephalic ; and to the disturbing 
element of designed artificial compression, it is apparent we 
have also to add that of posthumous distortion as another 
source of change, affecting alike the mature adult, even when 
old age has solidified the calvarium into an osseous chamber, 
from which nearly every suture has disappeared, and the im- 
mature foetus, in which adhesion of the plates of the skull has 
scarcely begun. When more general attention has been di- 
rected to this element of abnormal cranial development, addi- 
tional illustrative examples will no doubt be observed by crani- 
ologists ; and the circumstances under which they are found 
will help to throw further light on the peculiar combination 
of causes tending to produce such results. 

On some Phenomena connected with the Drifts of the Severn, 
Avon, Wye, and Usk. By the Rev. W. S. Symonds, F.G.S., 
Rector of Pendock, Worcestershire.* 

Last February I delivered an address, at the request of Sir 
Charles Hastings and the Council, before the Natural History 

* Read at the meeting of the British Association at Manchester, Sept. 1861. 

282 Rev. W. S. Symonds on Phenomena connected with 

Society of Worcester, " On the Geology of the Railway from 
Worcester to Hereford," and this address was afterwards 
published in the Edin. New Phil. Journal for April. Since 
the publication of my paper, I have enjoyed the opportunity 
of accompanying Mr Prestwich, a well known and distin- 
guished authority on the tertiary and post-pliocene deposits, 
to several of the most important localities for studying the 
drift phenomena in the Vale of Worcester ; and I am now 
convinced that, in common with several other geologists, 
I have committed a serious error in my correlation of 
one of the most important of our drift deposits. I have 
also examined carefully, within the last few weeks,* the 
drifts of the Wye and Usk, which appear to me to furnish 
some important problems for the investigation of the geo- 

Alluvial Deposits. — The first point we remark is the great 
difference which at present obtains in the deposition of silt and 
alluvium by such rivers as the Severn and Avon, compared 
with swift-flowing streams like the Wye and Usk, which have 
a fall of as much as 2J feet in a mile along their general 
course. In some localities, the Wye has shifted its course, 
filled up its former channel, and cut out a new bed, within 
the memory of man. Mr Charles Richardson, C.E., in his 
contribution to the Edinburgh New Phil. Journal, entitled 
" Chronological Remarks on the River Wye,"* mentions an 
instance of the shifting of the course of the Wye, as proved 
by an old map, which gives the position of the celebrated 
Ross Oak, now known as the Burnt Oak, and the river as it 
flowed a century and a-half ago. A broad surface of meadow 
land now sweeps where the Wye then flowed, and the river 
now runs some 70 or 80 yards from the former bank on 
which that old oak stood. Indeed, many of the old inhabitants 
of Ross lately assured me that the channel of the River Wye, 
near the town, has been very much changed since their own 
remembrance. This, however, is not the case with respect to 
the smoothly-flowing Severn and sluggish Avon to anything 
like the same extent ; for a Roman funeral urn, containing the 
ashes of the dead, has been found buried on the river banks, 

* Edin. New Phil. Journal, July 1857. 

the Drifts of the Severn^ Avon, Wye, and Usk. 283 

near the Haw Bridge, between Tewkesbury and Gloucester. 
The urn was open at the top, and the ashes must have been 
washed out had the urn been drifted ; besides, I am assured 
by Mr Strickland of Apperley Court, who possesses this relic, 
that the urn was found perfectly upright, and had evidently 
been buried where it stood. Deerhurst Church, a little higher 
up, is known also to have been of Anglo-Saxon date, and 
stood in Saxon times much in the same position with respect 
to the Severn as at present. I therefore believe that the 
River Severn flows in much the same channel, between Wor- 
cester and Gloucester, as in the days of the Romans. 
- The point, however, to which I would direct attention is 
this, that all these rivers may alter their course and destroy 
and re-form their alluvia over and over again, for age after 
age, without in the slightest degree changing their courses, 
save as regards the level alluvial land. The results arrived 
at by Mr Richardson, from mathematical and arithmetical 
calculations, are, that the Wye has flowed between its 
boundary of the Old Red rocks of the Ross district for more 
than eleven millions of years. I do not pretend here to enter 
into the elaborate calculations on which Mr Richardson has 
come to this determination, but I must say that I have been 
lately very much impressed with the evidence of antiquity 
furnished by the alluvial deposits of our rivers of Worcester- 
shire, Herefordshire, and Monmouthshire, and I do not see 
how we can deal with them in any way without allowing 
enormous periods of time. 

The Lake Period. — It is well known that there was a time, 
antecedent to the present configuration of land and river sur- 
face, when the Severn, Avon, and Wye flowed, as the River 
Shannon does now, through a chain of lakes of various sizes, 
and which lakes are now silted up and form the celebrated 
" holms" or river meadows. I inferred that the relics of the 
great quadrupeds found so abundantly on the banks of the 
Avon, at Bricklehampton, and Cropthorne, and at Kempsey, 
and other localities on the Severn, were disinterred from banks 
of mud, silt, and gravel, which were formed on the shores of 
the ancient lakes. It is here that I would correct the in- 
ferences that might be drawn from my correlation of these 

284 Rev. W. S. Symonds on Phenomena connected with 

drifts, which contain the remains of the hippopotamus, rhi- 
noceros, elephant, cave hyena, and extinct oxen and deer, 
with the deposits of the Lake epoch. They belong to a 
distinct epoch, and offer a distinct history. Since I had the 
pleasure of seeing Mr Prestwich, I have examined all the 
evidence I could collect respecting the relics found in these 
old lake silts, but I cannot obtain one well-authenticated 
specimen of the bones of the extinct mammalia from the la- 
custrine silts, excepting the horns of Bos longifrons. We 
have many bones of existing animals, such as deer, sheep, and 
ox, from the lacustrine drifts, in Worcester Museum. During 
the cutting of the Tewkesbury Docks, the engineer, Mr Alfred 
Leader Williams, found a fine antler of red deer covered by 
upwards of 37 feet of lacustrine silt and alluvium. A jar of 
ancient pottery, which I believed to be Koman, but which I 
now think must be more ancient still, was also found by Mr 
Williams at the depth of thirty feet.* It was lying in a black 
silt, which also contained nuts and pieces of wood, and below 
which, at a depth of ten feet, was a bed of gravel. I also 
believe that the human skeleton which was disinterred at the 
depth of sixteen feet when the foundations of the Defford 
Bridge on the Avon, between Tewkesbury and Worcester, 
were laid, belongs to the Lake period. I do not see how we 
are to avoid the conclusion that man lived in the Lake period 
in Worcestershire. 

Mr Prestwich has convinced me that certain drifts and 
gravel beds above the Avon, Severn, and other rivers, which 
he designates as " low level drifts," are altogether antecedent 
to, and independent of, the detritus which fills up the beds of 
the former lakes. They belong to a distinct epoch, and re- 
present an entirely different water surface. Instead of dip- 
ping under or into the lacustrine deposits, in many localities 
they dip away from the old lake silts and are slightly up- 
heaved. They are, in fact, the relics of broad, and probably 
rapid rivers, of which the former channel must have been 
30 or 40 feet above the le?el of the silted-up lakes. 

The period of the " low-level drift" was then anterior to that 
of the Lake epoch in this part of England ; and it is in these 

* This jar is in the possession of Sir Charles Lyell. 

the Drifts of the Severn, Avon, Wye, and Usk. 285 

beds that the explorer finds such numerous relies of the extinct 
mammalia. It is in these beds, or in their equivalents, that 
M. Boucher de Perthes, Sir C. Lyell, Mr Prestwich, and many 
other geologists, have detected flint implements of human 
manufacture associated with the relics of the great mammals, 
now extinct on the continent of Europe ; and it is from the 
study of the physical geology of these drifts that the best 
authorities in the world have been led to infer the very ancient 
creation of the human race. These beds are well developed 
near the Avon at Bricklehampton, and Cropthorne, at Upton 
on Severn, and near the Oxeye gate, about a mile from Tewkes- 
bury, on the Ledbury high road. Near Worcester, they may 
be seen in various localities ranging above the margins of the 
former lakes. I find these drifts also well developed on the 
banks of the Wye near Hereford, and on the road to Hay. 
At Brecon, I found a most interesting old river margin of well 
stratified sand with rolled pebbles, on the slope of a hill, and 
at a height of 50 or 60 feet above the river Usk. The locality 
is Heolhir, or the long Lane, a little way south of Llanfaes. 
The sand is now being quarried for the building of the new 
college ; and my friend, the Rev. Reece Price, who conducted 
me to the spot, has promised to give every attention to mam- 
malian remains or flint implements, if haply they should be 

High-Level Drift. — I would finally call attention to certain 
gravels and drifts which are found at a much higher level 
above the river courses than the drifts just alluded to. These 
gravel beds cap the summits of very considerable hills in the 
vale of Worcester. They occur on Tunnel Hill at Upton on 
Severn, on the summit of Corsewood Hill, on Ryal Hill, and 
at Elmore near Gloucester. They are found along the flanks 
of the Malverns, where they have yielded the remains of 
Elephas antiquus, and Rhinoceros tichorinus, animals that 
lived during the glacial period, and are therefore properly 
associated with the northern drift. This drift was deposited, 
no doubt when the contour of Worcestershire and Gloucester- 
shire was very different from that now presented to our view, 
and when the salt waves rolled over a sea strait, which reached 
from Malvern to the Cotteswoldes, the old Malvern Straits of 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XIV. NO. II. — OCT. 1861. 2 

2S6 The Drifts of the Severn, Avon, Wye, and Usk. 

of our distinguished President, Sir It. Murchison. I may here 
observe, also, that a fine molar tooth of Elephas antiquus has 
lately been found, by Henry Brooks, among the gravel which 
overlies the great masses of angular blocks heaped against the 
side of a hill, known as Clincher's Mill Wood near Ledbury. 
This angular debris I pointed out to Mr Prestwich, who agrees 
with me in attributing its deposition to the effect of coast ice 
drifting, during the glacial period, down one of the ancient 
Malvern bays. 

I have also observed the high-level drift at several points in 
Herefordshire, the principal of which is an excellent section, 
near the Kite's Nest, on the Hay road, about four miles west 
of Hereford. There are many other subjects and localities, 
to which I would allude, but I have already trespassed upon 
your time, and sufficient has, I trust, been said, to correct the 
error I committed. 


The Forests and Gardens of South India. By Hugh Cleg- 
horn, M.D., F.L.S., Conservator of Forests, Madras Pre- 
sidency. London: W.H.Allen & Co., 1861. Pp.412,12mo. 

The conservancy and management of forests is a subject of great 
importance, not merely in reference to the supply of useful and 
valuable timber, but also as regards the climate of a country. 
The cultivation of good timber trees, which may be used in the 
construction of houses and ships, and for railway sleepers, demands 
the serious attention of all nations ; and in countries where coal 
is wanting or deficient, the acquisition of wood for fuel is one of 
the necessaries of life. In many countries there has been too 
little attention paid to the preservation of trees, and valuable 
timber has been indiscriminately felled, while no steps were 
taken to replace what had been removed. Where new colonies 
have been planted in densely wooded countries, the first work of 
the settlers was necessary to clear land for the cultivation of 
crops ; and as the population increased, the trees became less and 
less abundant. In some instances the felling has taken place in 
such a way as materially to injure the climate of the country, by 
diminishing the amount of moisture in the air, and by drying up 
the springs where water was obtained. In India, serious injury 
was done to the native forests from the want of proper regulations. 
Valuable forests of teak, sal, and sandal- wood were nearly exter- 

Reviews and Notices of Books. 287 

minated from the want of judicious conservancy. The Indian 
government ultimately saw the importance of taking some steps 
in the matter, and they have most wisely appointed conservators 
in the different presidencies, whose duty it is to see that the trees 
are properly felled, and that the supply of timber is kept up by 
regular planting. Dr Cleghorn, who is the conservator in the 
Madras Presidency, and who is well known as an able botanist, 
has given in the volume now before us a full report of the forest 
operations under his control, and he has produced a work of great 
value, which ought to be in the hands of every one who takes an 
interest in forest cultivation, and in developing the resources of 
our Indian possessions. The following remarks, taken from the 
preface of the work, show what was required in the forest depart- 
ment in India : — 

" It is only of late years that attention has been drawn to the 
importance of conserving tropical forests. The necessity of or- 
ganising a system, whereby it would be possible to control the 
clearing of indigenous forests, did not at first present itself, espe- 
cially as advancing civilisation and an increasing population appa- 
rently indicated an opposite course of procedure. The question, 
when viewed simply in its physical relations, and the propriety of 
clearing forest lands in order to enlarge the area of food-producing 
soil, pointed perhaps as much to extensive clearance as to vigilant 
conservancy. It is a fact, however, that moderate and prudent 
clearing is quite compatible with the maintenance of a profitable 
system of superintendence. The matter of complaint was, that 
throughout the Indian empire large and valuable forest tracts were 
exposed to the careless rapacity of the native population, and 
especially unscrupulous contractors and traders, who cut and 
cleared them without reference to ultimate results, and who did 
so, moreover, without being in any way under the control or regu- 
lation of authority. The results of this wholesale and indiscri- 
minate denudation gradually became apparent, and rendered it 
imperative that measures should be taken to organise a system of 
forest administration, which would enable the authorities to eco- 
nomise public property for the public good. 

" The subject was brought before the attention of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, which met at Edin- 
burgh in 1850 ; and a committee of their number was appointed 
to consider the question, and report upon it. The matter was 
duly investigated, and the results of the committee's deliberations 
were laid before the Association at the ensuing meeting held at 
Ipswich in 1851. In the course of this inquiry, it was ascer- 
tained that neither the Government nor the community at large 
were deriving from the Indian forests those advantages which 
they were calculated to afford. Not only was there a most 
wasteful and uncalled-for destruction of useful material, but nu- 

288 Reviews and Notices of Books. 

mcrous products — valuable to science, and which might be profit- 
ably applied to the interests of social life — lay neglected within 
the depths of the forests. This report recorded evidence bearing 
on the state of the forests in Malabar, Canara, Mysore, Travan- 
core, the Tenasserim provinces, the Indian Archipelago, and the 
wooded tracts which skirt the base of the Himalaya; and it was 
distinctly ascertained, that in Malabar, Burmah, and Sind, where 
some supervision had been exercised, considerable improvement 
was manifest." 

In India, the forests in the Tenasserim province were early 
brought under a system of conservancy. Dr Wallich, in 1827, 
made a report on the Salween forest, north of Moulmein, and 
since that time rules have been framed to regulate and control 
the prospective condition of the forests. In 1846, the Bombay 
forest department was organised under the superintendence of Dr 
Gibson, and since his retirement it has been placed under the 
charge of Mr N. A. Dalzell. 

In Madras, the forest department has been organised for up- 
wards of four years, under the superintendence of the author of 
the present work. " The present volume was prepared at the 
instance of Government, principally for the purpose of furnishing 
a continuous view of forest conservancy in the Madras Presidency 
during the four years that the department has been in operation. 
One of the objects contemplated was to supply a manual to enable 
the forest assistants to act intelligently, and with good results to 
the State, in positions of responsibility. The want of such a 
hand-book has been frequently felt, not only in this department, 
but more or less by all who are practically interested in the 
natural products of India, and in their employment by different 
departments of public works. 

" To the railway engineer, it is hoped that, even in its present 
form, it will prove of service, enabling him to acquaint himself 
with the various indigenous timbers, and their adaptation to the 
requirements of engineering in Southern India. The authorities 
of the several railway companies have repeatedly adverted to the 
want of a work such as the present, which could be placed in the 
hands of their employes arriving in the country ignorant of Indian 
woods, of their appearance, capabilities, and place of growth. 
Similar statements have been made by the authorities in England; 
and perhaps to some extent the present volume may supply the 
information required. The increasing opportunities and encour- 
agement afforded for the development of European capital in 
India are calculated also to give a practical value to any work 
which will describe to the merchant or settler his exact relations 
to the Government, in regard to the forest products of the 

The greater part of the contents of the volume are on record in 

Reviews and Notices of Boohs. 289 

the Archives of the Madras Government; but they are not easily 
accessible. Three annual reports are given, indicating the pro- 
gress of the department, and these are followed by a memorandum 
on Kumari — an injurious practice, which destroys vast quantities 
of the most valuable timber, and which is thus described : — 
" Kumari is the name given to cultivation which takes place on 
forest clearings. A hill side is always selected, on the slopes of 
which a space is cleared at the end of the year. The wood is left 
to dry till the following March or April, and then burned. In 
most localities the seed is sown in the ashes on the fall of the first 
rains, without the soil being touched by implement of any kind ; 
but in the taluk of Bekul the land is ploughed. The only further 
operations are weeding and fencing. The crop is gathered towards 
the end of the year, and the produce is s f ated to be at least 
double that which could be obtained under the ordinary modes of 
cultivation. A small crop is taken off the ground in the second 
year, and sometimes in the third, after which the spot is deserted 
until the jungle is sufficiently high to tempt the kumari cutter to 
renew the process. In the south, where land is more scarce com- 
pared with the population, the same land is cultivated with kumari 
once in 12, 10, or 7 years; but in N. Canara, the virgin forest, 
or old kumari not cultivated within the memory of man, are gene- 
rally selected." 

The work contains important information regarding firewood 
and charcoal, trees for avenues, hedges, and wood for ship-building 3 
furniture, and engraving. A report is given of the Bangalore 
and Utakamand gardens, with a catalogue of plants cultivated in 
the former. Suggestions are added relative to the establishment 
of soldiers' gardens in India. A useful bibliography is appended 
wi Ji reference to Indian plants, and a glossary of Indian terms. 
The book is illustrated by woodcuts, and by several lithographs 
executed by Mr M'Farlane, showing the character of the Anamalai 
Mountains, valley, and forests, the timber- slip, the Punachi Pass, 
an ancient cromlech, the Tangachi and Akka Mountains, the 
gathering of honey by the Kaders, and a Rattan chain for collect- 
ing honey, the mode of transporting timber, and the injury effected 
on wood by the agency of insects. A Sketch Map is given of South 
India, showing the distribution of teak, sal, and sandal- wood. 

The work is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of Indian 
forests. It contains a large mass of information on this impor- 
tant subject, and promises to be of great service to the Madras 
Government. As a manual for those concerned in the forest de- 
partment it is invaluable. The improvements carried out by Dr 
Cleghorn will confer a lasting benefit on India, and his judicious 
recommendations, if they receive due attention from Government, 
will tend to increase the economical resources of our possessions 
in the East. 



British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at 
Manchester, Sept. 1861. 

The thirty-first meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science was held this year at Manchester, under the presidency of Wil- 
liam Fairbairn, Esq., C.E., LL.D., F.R.S., and in all its social bearings 
at least it has proved a great success. Upwards of 3000 members were 
enrolled, and the receipts amounted to L.3920. Last meeting at Man- 
chester the members were only 1316, the receipts L.2161. The conse- 
quence is that the money recommended this year to be bestowed in the 
interests of science amounts to L.2363, while last year it was only L.1395. 
More than a half of the larger sum, however, is absorbed by these three 
objects, the Kew Committee, L.650 ; the Balloon Committee, L.200; and 
Index to Reports, L.600. 

The first meeting was that of the General Committee, when Professor 
Phillips, the Assistant General Secretary, read the Report by the Council, 
and Mr Gassiot presented the Report of the Kew Committee. In the 
former, the point of chief interest is the retirement of Professor Walker, 
and the election of Mr Hopkins to be General Secretary, with the an- 
nouncement of Professor Phillips, that it was necessary for him to pre- 
pare to withdraw also. 

From the report of the Kew Committee, we make the following extract, 
which records the progress that was made in the deeply interesting field 
of heliography, during the grand solar eclipse of June 18, 1860 : — 

It will be remembered that, at the suggestion of the Astronomer Royal, 
the Admiralty had placed at the disposal of the expedition of astronomers 
H.M. ship Himalaya, and that the Government Grant Committee of 
the Royal Society had voted the sum of L.150 for the purpose of defray- 
ing the expenses of transporting the Kew heliograph, with a staff of as- 
sistants, to Spain. As the scheme became matured, it was deemed desir- 
able to extend considerably the preparations originally contemplated, and 
actual experience subsequently proved that no provision which had been 
made could have been safely omitted. Originally it was thought that a 
mere temporary tent for developing the photographs might have answered 
the purpose ; but on maturing the scheme of operations, it became evident 
that a complete photographic observatory, with its dark developing room, 
cistern of water, sink, and shelves to hold the photographs, would be 
absolutely necessary to ensure success. An observatory was therefore 
constructed in such a manner that it could be taken to pieces and made 
into packages of small weight for easy transport, and at the same time be 
readily put together again on the locality selected. The house, when com- 
pleted, weighed 1248 lb., and was made up in eightcases. Altogether the 
packages, including house and apparatus, amounted in number to thirty, 
and in weight to 34 cwt. Besides the heliograph, the apparatus comprised 
a small transit theodolite for determining the position of the meridian, 
and ascertaining local time, and the latitude and longitude of the station ; 
and also a very fine three-inch achromatic telescope, by Dallmeyer, for 
the optical observation of the phenomena of the eclipse. Complete set^ 
of chemicals wete packed in duplicate in separate boxes, to guard against 
failure through a possible accident to one set of the chemicals. Collodion 

Proceedings of Societies. 291 

of different qualities was made sensitive in London, and some was taken 
not rendered sensitive, so as to secure as far as possible good results. 
Distilled water, weighing 139 lb., had to be included; and engineers' and 
carpenters' tools, weighing 113 lb., were taken. Mr Cassella lent some 
thermometers and a barometer, and Messrs Elliott an aneroid barometer, 
to the expedition. 

The preparations were commenced by Mr Beckley (of the Kew Obser- 
vatory) early in the year 1860 ; and in June Mr De La Rue engaged Mr 
Reynolds to assist Mr Beckley in completing them. Mr Beckley and Mr 
Reynolds were charged with the erection of the observatory at Rivabel- 
losa ; and so well were the plans organised, that the observatory and helio- 
graph were in actual operation on the 12th of July, the expedition having 
sailed from Plymouth in the Himalaya on the morning of the 7th. 
This could not, however, have been so expeditiously accomplished without 
the energetic co-operation of Mr Vignoles, who met the Himalaya in 
a small steamer he had chartered to convey the expedition and their ap- 
paratus into the port of Bilboa, and who despatched the Kew apparatus 
as soon as it was landed to the locality he and Mr De La Rue had agreed 
upon. This was situated seventy miles distant from the port of landing, 
and accessible only through a difficult pass. Mr Vignoles had also taken 
the trouble to make arrangements for accommodating the Kew party, and 
for the due supply of provisions — a matter of some importance in such a 

Besides Mr De La Rue, Mr Beckley, and Mr Reynolds, the party con- 
sisted of Mr Downes and Mr E. Beck, two gentlemen who gave their gra- 
tuitous services, and of Mr Clark, who acted as interpreter, and who also 
kindly assisted during the eclipse. Each of the party had only one th ing to 
attend to, and thus rapidity of operation and certainty of result were 
secured. The total expenditure of this expedition amounted to L.512 ; 
the balance of L.362 over the amount granted by the Royal Society has 
been generously defrayed by Mr De La Rue. 

Upwards of forty photographs were taken during the eclipse, and a 
little before and after it, two being taken during the totality, on 
which are depicted the luminous prominences with a precision impos- 
sible of attainment by hand drawings. The measurements which have 
been made of these prominences by Mr De La Rue show incontrovertibly 
that they must belong to the sun, and that they are not produced by the 
deflection of the sun's light through the valleys of the moon. The same 
prominences, except those covered over during the moon's progress, cor- 
respond exactly when one negative is laid over the other ; and by copying 
these by means of a camera, when so placed, a representation is obtained 
of the whole of the prominences visible during the eclipse in their true 
relative position. The photographs of the several phases of the eclipse 
have served to trace out the path of the moon's centre in reference to the 
sun's centre during the progress of the phenomenon. Now, Rivabellosa 
being north of th3 central line of the moon's shadow, the moon's centre 
did not pass exactly across the sun's centre, but was depressed a little 
below it, so that a little more of the prominences situated on the north 
(the upper) limb of the sun became visible than would have been the case 
exactly under the central line, while, on the other hand, a little of those 
on the southern limb was shut off. It has been proved, by measuring the 
photographs, that the moon daring the totality covered and uncovered the 
prominences to the extent of about 94" of arc in the direction of her path, 
and that a prominence situated at a right angle to the path shifted its 
angular position with respect to the moon's centre by lagging behind 5° 
55'. On both the photographs is recorded a prominence, not visible opti- 
cally, showing that photography can render visible phenomena which 

292 Proceedings of Societies. 

without its aid would escape observation. Copies of the two totality pic- 
tures are being made to illustrate Mr De La Rue's paper in the report 
of the Himalaya Expedition by the Astronomer Royal. Positive 
enlarged copies of the phases of the eclipse, 9 inches in diameter, have 
also been made by means of the camera, and were exhibited at the 
Manchester meeting. 

The heliograph has since been replaced in the Observatory, but few 
opportunities have occurred for using- it, in consequence of the pressure 
of other work ; latterly, however, Mr Beckley has been requested to carry 
on some experiments with the view of ascertaining whether any more 
details are rendered visible when the full aperture of 3 inches of the 
telescope is used, than when it is reduced to about one inch and a- half. 
Up to the present time no definite conclusion can be drawn from the re- 
sults obtained ; so that, at all events, an increase of aperture does not ap- 
pear to give a strikingly better result when a picture of the same size is 
taken with various apertures of the object-glass. More experiments, 
however, are needed before this point — which is one of some importance 
in guiding us in the construction of future instruments — can be answered 
definitely. Mr Beckley has obtained sun pictures of great beauty during 
the course of these experiments. 

The work of the Kew Observatory is now so increased that it has be- 
come absolutely imperative to make some provision for working the helio- 
graph in a way that will not interfere with the current work of that 
establishment ; and Mr De La Rue has been requested by his colleagues 
of the Kew Committee to take charge of the instrument at his observatory, 
where celestial photography is continously carried on. This request Mr 
De La Rue has kindly acceded to ; and he will for a time undertake to 
record the sun spots at Cranford, as long as it is found not to interfere 
with his other observations. Mr De La Rue has contrived, and had 
made by Messrs Simms, at his own expense, an instrument for measur- 
ing the photographs, which will much facilitate the reduction of the re- 
sults. It consists of a fixed frame, in which work two slides, moving at 
right angles to each other. Each is furnished with a vernier reading to 
tuW ln of iin *neb. The top slide works on the lower slide, and carries a 
hollow axis 4£ inches diameter, on which rotates horizontally a divided 
circle reading to 10", and this carries a second circle on the face of which 
are fixed four centering screws. An image intended to be measured is 
placed on the upper circle, and is centered by means of the adjusting 
screws ; it is then adjusted by means of the upper circle in any required 
angular position with respect to the lower divided circle, so as to bring 
the cross lines of the photograph in position under a fixed microscope, 
supported on an arm from the fixed frame. By means of this instrument 
the sun pictures are measured so as to determine the diameter to ^^th 
of the radius ; the angular position of any part of a sun-spot, and its dis- 
tance from the centre, are thus readily ascertained ; or the differences of 
the right ascension and declination with respect to the centre are as easily 
read off to the same degree of accuracy. 

Mr De La Rue has recently produced by his large telescope an image 
of a solar spot, and portion of the sun's disc, far superior to anything be- 
fore effected, and which leads to the hope that a new era is opened in 
heliography , and that the resources of this observatory might be further 
developed in that direction. 

In the evening the President delivered his inaugural address in the 
Free Trade Hall, which, spacious as it is, proved too small to accommo- 
date the multitude who came to hear him. He confined his attention 
chiefly to the application of science to the arts, celebrating in a very 
courtly manner the members of the Association, as often as the introduc- 

British Association. 293 

tion of their names could be at all justified. The discourse, as a whole, 
was highly respectable ; but in those departments of engineering in which 
he is eminent he observed a remarkable reserve, and upon the whole, 
without injury to our readers, we may suffer it to pass without quotation. 
We may add, however, that a vote of thanks was very gracefully pro- 
posed and eloquently advocated by Lord Stanley. 

Section A. (Physical and Mathematical Science) was opened by the 
Astronomer- Royal, G. B. Airy, the president, by laying down the legi- 
timate field of the Section, and rules for the guidance of authors who had 
papers to produce or remarks to make. His idea was, that after papers 
were read, conversation upon each, so far as time permitted, was not only 
allowed, but courted. And here perfect liberty was allowed to each to 
dissent from the opinions of others, and each was to receive in perfect 
good humour the unsparing slaughter of any of his opinions, however 
dear they might be in his own estimation. However, he wished to give 
two or three cautions, which would be found most useful : first, that 
science, pure science, was alone their object, and that more serious sub- 
jects were entirely forbidden ; secondly, that each should, to avoid the 
slightest appearance of personality, address the meeting through the 
Chair ; thirdly, that he must in that chair be a perfect despot ; that his 
dictum must, for the time, be law ; and, for an instance, they must not 
feel displeased if he peremptorily rejected all discussions about perpetual 
motion, the trisection of an angle, or any subject which would lead to the 
subversion of any of the well-established foundations of any of the exact 
sciences. One suggestion he would venture to throw out to those who 
had communications to make on the more transcendental branches of 
science, viz. to hold over for a more suitable occasion any subject which 
could not be made quite intelligible by an oral exposition. He exempli- 
fied this by reading the title of one of the papers proposed to be read to 
the Section, adding, that he had no doubt that the meaning of this was 
clearly understood by the author himself, but, for his part, he (the Astro- 
nomer Royal) had not a conception of its meaning. He need scarcely 
add, that he hoped authors, in avoiding this error, would not fall into 
the opposite, of beginning at the very first principles of the science con- 
nected with their subject. 

The first paper in the Section was a report on the progress of celestial 
photography since the meeting at Aberdeen, by Warren de la Rue, the 
most interesting facts in which we have already given as an extract from 
the report of the Kew committee ; to which it may be here added, that this 
most indefatigable photographer has also obtained good photographs of 
the fixed stars, and such constellations as Orion, and even the Pleiades, 
though comets have altogether refused to give pictures. A large photo- 
graph of the sun, three feet in diameter, was also exhibited. In the con- 
versation which ensued, after an expression of admiration by Dr Robin- 
son, and a hope that Mr De la Rue would be assisted in the heavy expense 
which his experiments involved, the Astronomer- Royal, following in a 
similar strain, took occasion to remark that the photograph now exhibited 
settled a point of much interest which had formerly been matter of con- 
troversy between him and M. Arago, the latter maintaining that the in- 
tensity of the sun's light did not decrease towards the edge of the disk, 
while he (the Astronomer- Royal) maintained the contrary — an opinion 
which the photograph settled in his favour. 

There then followed a paper on the distribution of fog around the 
British islands, by Dr J. H. Gladstone, which was followed by an ani- 
mated discussion, of which the upshot was a proposal by the Astronomer 
Royal, that as they could not agree what amount of obscuration of vision 


294 Proceedings of Societies. 

amounted to a fog, they should register a fog any day on which it was 
necessary to ring the fog-bell ! 

This paper was followed by others, among which was one by Mr Tom- 
linson of King's College, London, "On Lightning Figures," which we 
have presented to our readers in full at page 254. Another on the 
microscopic structure of copper, by W. Vivian, from which it appears 
that that structure is rather cellular than crystalline. Another on an 
electric-resistance thermometer with balancing coil, by C. W. Siemens. 
Another on a panoramic lens for photographic purposes, by T. Sutton, 
exhibited and explained by Mr C. Brooke. It consisted of a glass capsule 
containing water, with a diaphragm in the centre, and was affirmed to be 
perfectly achromatic when properly adjusted, and preventive of all dis- 
tortion. Besides these, there was a paper by D. Vaughan, on cases of 
planetary instability indicated by the appearance of temporary stars, in 
which the author endeavoured to explain temporary stars, meteors, and 
other phenomena, by the approach of revolving planetary bodies to the 
central in a course of ages, and their breaking up into fragmentary por- 
tions. In reference to the speculation, the Astronomer Royal said that 
he would not attempt to decide on the possibility or impossibility of 
events occurring in a course of ages in accordance with those dwelt on 
by the essayist. Under ordinary circumstances, the preservation of the 
plane in which a planetary body moved, and the permanency of the 
eccentricity, were established facts ; but some of the phenomena of the 
satellites and rings of Saturn showed that it would be hazardous to decide 
off-hand a subject so very speculative as that discussed in this essay. 

On Friday, in this Section, the interest was chiefly about meteors, in- 
troduced by the reading by Mr Glaisher of the report of the committee 
on luminous meteors. He commenced by expressing his regret that so 
few observations had been made by members of the British Association, 
and then dilated on the labours of others, especially Mr Haidinger. The 
report was followed by a paper by this gentleman — viz., " An Attempt to 
explain the earlier Physical Conditions of Meteorites, as well as some of 
the Phenomena attending their Fall on our Planet." 

Mr Haidinger, in a paper read on the 19th of April, 1860, spoke of a 
typical form of a meteor, as exemplified in the stone which fell at Stannern, 
in Moravia, on the 22d of May 1808, which on the foremost part appeared 
rounded off, the crust showing streaks parallel to the probable line of 
direction through the air, and was much puckered up, like kneaded 
dough, behind ; and then observed that there must be a starting-point, 
from some fundamental considerations proved by the phenomona them- 
selves, in order to arrive at an understanding of their forms and con- 
ditions. There are, first, the stone leaving the extra-terrestrial space as 
a solid; secondly, its velocity being greater on entering the earth's at- 
mosphere; thirdly, it is retarded by the resistance of the air; fourthly, 
the fireball is formed by the compression of the air behind it, and the 
rotation of the stone resulting therefrom ; fifthl}*, the termination of the 
first part of the path is marked by a detention from the so-called " ex- 
plosion," caused by the collapse of the vacuum from the air rushing in 
with great violence. 

The discussion on Meteorites was followed by a paper by Mr Gassiot 
" On the Deposit of Metal which takes place from the Negative Terminal 
of an Inductive Coil during the Elective Discharge in vacuo," the title of 
which contains the substance of it. And that was followed by others of 
a purely mathematical or else very questionable character. 

Section B. — The Chemical Section was presided over by Professor W. 
A. Miller, who delivered an opening address on the progress of chemistry 

British Association. 295 

during the last year. This was followed by a report on the manufactures 
of the South Lancashire District, by Professor H. E. Roscoe, Dr Schunck, 
and Dr Angus Smith. Dr Andrews then read a paper ' ' On the Effects of 
Great Pressures combined with Cold, on the Six Non-condensible Gases." 

The gases, when compressed, were always obtained in the capillary end 
of thick glass tubes, so that any change they might undergo could be 
observed. In his earlier experiments the author employed the elastic 
force of the gases evolved in the electrolysis of water as the compressing 
agent, and in this way he actually succeeded in reducing oxygen gas to 
l-300th of its volume at the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere. He 
afterwards succeeded in effecting the same object by mechanical means, 
and exhibited to the Section an apparatus by means of which he had been 
able to apply pressures, which were only limited by the capability of the 
capillary glass tubes to resist them ; and while thus compressed the gases 
were exposed to the cold attained by the carbonic acid and ether bath. 
Atmospheric air was compressed by pressure alone to ^| T of its original 
volume and by the united action of pressure and a cold of 106° Fahr. to 
l-675th ; in which state its density was little inferior to that of water. 
Oxygen gas was reduced by pressure to 1 -324th of its volume, and by 
pressure and cold to 1 -554th ; hydrogen by the united action of cold and 
pressure, to l-500th ; carbonic oxide, by pressure, to l-278th — by pressure 
and cold to l-278th ; nitric oxide, by pressure to l-310th, by pressure 
and a cold of 160° Fahr. to l-680th. None of the gases exhibited any 
appearence of liquefaction even in these high states of condensation. The 
amount of contraction was nearly proportional to the force employed, till 
the gases were reduced to from about l-300th to l-350th of their volume ; 
but, beyond that point, they underwent little further diminution of 
volume from increase of pressure. Hydrogen and carbonic oxide appear 
to resist the action of pressure better than oxygen or nitric oxide. The 
paper of Dr Andrews was followed by one " on the Thermal Effects of 
Elastic Fluids," by Dr Joule and Professor W. Thomson. 

On Friday the President exhibited some photographs of different 
Spectra, and read a paper on the subject.' — 'The apparatus by which the 
spectra may be photographed consists of an ordinary camera obscura 
attached to the end of a long wooden tude, which opens into a cylindrical 
box, within which is a prism glass, or a hollow prism filled with bisul- 
phide of carbon. If the prism be so adjusted as to throw the solar rays, 
reflected from a heliostat, upon the screen of the camera and the wires 
which transmit the sparks from a Ruhmkoffer coil are placed in front of 
the uncovered portion of the slit, the two spectra are simultaneously im- 
pressed. The solar beam is easily intercepted at the proper time by 
means of a small screen, and the electric spectrum is allowed to continue 
its action for two or three, or six minutes, as may be necessary. He did 
not find that anything was gained in distinctness by interposing a lens of 
short focus between the slit and the wire which supplied the sparks, with 
the view of rendering the rays of the electric light parallel like those of 
the sun, owing to the absorbent action of the glass weakening the photo- 
graphic effect ; and the flickering motion of the sparks being magnified 
by the lens, rendered the lines less distinct than when the lens was not 
used. Although with each of the metals (including platinum, gold, silver, 
copper, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, iron), when the spark was taken in 
air, he obtained decided photographs, it appeared that in each case the 
impressed spectrum was very nearly the same, proving that few of the 
lines produced were those which were characteristic of the metal. The 
peculiar lines of the metal seemed chiefly to be confined to the visible 
portion of the spectrum, and these had little or no photographic power. 
This was singularly exemplified by repeating the experiment upon the 

296 Proceedings of Societies. 

same metal in air, and in a continuous current of pure hydrogen. Iron, 
for example, gave in hydrogen, a spectrum in which a bright orange and a 
strong green band were visible, besides a few faint lines in the blue part of 
the spectrum. Although the light produced by the action of the coil was 
allowed to fall for ten minutes upon a sensitive collodion surface, scarcely a 
trace of any action was procured ; whilst, in five minutes, in the air, a power- 
ful impression of numerous bands was obtained. It was remarked by Mr 
Talbot, that in the spectra of coloured flames, the nature of the acid did not 
influence the position of the bright lines of the spectrum, which he found 
was dependent upon the metal employed, and this remark had been con- 
firmed by all subsequent observers. But the case was very different in the 
absorptive bands produced by the vapours of coloured bodies, — there the 
nature of both constituents of the compound was essentially connected 
with the production of absorptive bands. Chlorine, combined with hydro- 
gen, gave no bands by absorption in any moderate thickness. Chlorous 
acid and peroxide of chlorine both produced the same set of bands, while 
hypochlorous acid, although a strongly coloured vapour, and containing 
the same elements, oxygen and chlorine, produced no absorptive bands. 
Again, the brownish red vapour of perchloride of iron produced no ab- 
sortive bands ; but when converted into vapour in a flame, this gave out 
bands independent of the form in which it occurred combined. These 
anomalies appeared to admit of an easy explanation on the supposition 
that, in any case, the compound is decomposed in flame, either simply by 
the high temperature, just as water is, as shown by Grove, or, in all 
other cases of the production of bright lines by the introduction of a 
metallic salt into a flame of burning bodies (as shown by Deville). In 
the voltaic pile, the decomposition must of necessity take place by electric 
action. The compound gases, protoxide and binoxide of nitrogen, gave, 
when electrified, the same series of bright bands (as Pliicker had shown) 
which their constituents when combined furnish. Aqueous vapour always 
gives the bright lines due to hydrogen, and hydrochloric acid the mixed 
system of lines which could be produced by hydrogen and chlorine. The re- 
ducing influence of the hydrogen and other combustible constituents of the 
burning body would decompose the salt, liberating the metal, which would 
immediately become oxidized, or carried off in the ascending current. There 
was obviously a marked difference between the effect of intense ignition 
upon most of the metallic and the non -metallic bodies. The observations 
of Pliicker upon the spectra of iodine, bromine, and chlorine, show that 
they give, when ignited, a very different series of bands to those which 
they furnished by absorption, as Dr Gladstone had already pointed out ; 
but it was interesting to remark that, in the case of hydrogen, which, 
chemically, was so similar to metal, we have a comparatively simple 
spectrum, in which the three principal bright lines correspond to Fraun- 
hofer's dark lines, C F and G. It was, however, to be specially noted, 
that the hydrogen occasioned no perceptible absorptive bands at ordinary 
temperatures in such thickness as we could command in our experiments ; 
and the vapour of boiling mercury was also destitute of any absorptive 
action, although when ignited by the electric spark it gave a characteristic 
and brilliant series of dark bands. The following experiment suggested 
itself as a direct test of KirchofT's theory. Two gas-burners, into which 
were introduced chloride of sodium on the wick of the spirit-lamp, were 
placed so as to illumine equally the opposite sides of a sheet of paper 
partially greased. The rays of the electric light screened from the pho- 
tometric surface, suitably protected, were made to traverse one of the 
flames. If the yellow rays of the light were absorbed by the sodium 
flame, the light emitted laterally by the flame should be sensibly in- 
creased. The experiment, however, failed to indicate any such increase 

British Association. 297 

in the brilliancy of the flame, possibly because the eye was not sufficiently 
sensitive to detect the slight difference which was to be expected. 

This paper was followed by others : — On the Emission and Absorption 
of Rays of Light by certain Gases, by Dr J. H. Gladstone. On an 
Aluminous Mineral from the Upper Chalk near Brighton, by Dr J. H. 
and Mr G. Gladstone. On the Chemical Composition of some Woods 
employed in the Navy, by Dr Grace Calvert. On the Chemical Composition 
of Steel, by Dr Grace Calvert. On the Solvent Powers of Weak and 
Strong Solutions of Alkaline Carbonates on Uric Acid Calculi, by Dr W. 
Roberts. On certain Difficulties in the way of separating Gold from 
Quartz, by Dr Smith (of Sydney). On Atmospheric Ozone, by Dr Moffat. 
On Sulphuretted Hydrogen as a Product of Putrefaction, by Dr Moffat. 
On the Composition and valuation of Superphosphates, by Professor Gallo- 
way. On Morin, and the Non-existence of Moro-tannic Acid, by Professor 
Delffs. On the Constitution of Paranaphchaline or Anthracine, and some 
of its Decomposition Products, by Professor Anderson. On Piperic and 
Hydro-piperic Acids, by G. C. Foster. 

Section C. {Geology) was presided over by Sir R. I. Murchison, who 
gave an opening address of much interest on those primaeval rocks 
with which his own researches had for many years been most connected, 
with some remarks on metamorphism. He now finds it impossible to 
refuse any longer to believe that a mechanical deposit may have become 
crystalline (while others of the same epoch continue mechanical still), 
and that without any exposure to such heat as could destroy organic 
remains. For such phenomena in metamorphism, indeed, he still finds 
himself unable to account ; bat if he will refer to an article in this jour- 
nal so far back as November- January 1833, p. 132, he will find himself 
invited to such discoveries as he and other geologists are now making, 
the change from the confused and mechanical structure to the crystal- 
line (or condition of molecular repose) being there shown to demand, in 
favourable circumstances, no more heat than that which specifically 
actuates all molecules. The other papers in the Geological Section were 
chiefly of a local character, recording observations on particular localities. 
These were — Sketch of the Geology of Manchester, by E. W. Binney. 
On the Recent Encroachments of the Sea on the shores of Torbay, 
by W. Pengelly. Hard Devonian limestones, fissile and round-jointed, 
formed, he said, the two projecting horns of Torbay. Sandstones and 
conglomerates form the hollow of the bay, and have been much worn 
away within the memory of man, especially at Livermead, which is only 
preserved by continual engineering labour. The process of erosion by 
the sea was explained by the author as something like a succession of 
honeycombing, sometimes by insulations of portions of the cliffs. On the 
slates and limestones the sea more slowly produced excavations and ledges, 
which storms enlarge. The effects of the severe storm of October 1859, 
on the cliffs, beach, roads, &c, of Torbay were described in detail, and 
the importance of such storms as modern agents of change was dealt upon. 
On the Excess of Water in the Region of the Earth about New Zealand : 
its Causes and Effects, by J. Yates. Notes on two Ichthyosauri to be ex- 
hibited to the Meeting, by C. Moore. On the Relation of the Eskdale 
Granite at Black Comb to the Schistose Rocks, by J. G. Marshall. On a 
Dinosaurian Reptile (Scelidosaurus Harrisonii) from the Lower Lias of 
Charmouth, by Professor Owen. On the Remains of a Plesiosaurian 
Reptile (Plesiosaurus Australis) from the Oolitic Formation in the Middle 
Island of New Zealand, by Professor Owen. On the Elsworth Rock and 
of the Clay above it, by H. Seely. On the Sandstones and their associated 
Deposits of the Valley of the Eden and the Cumberland Plain, by Pro- 

298 Proceedings of Societies. 

fessor Harkness. On some Phenomena connected with the Drifts of 
the Severn, Avon, Wye, and Usk, by Eev. W. S. Symonds, which we 
give in full at page 281. On the Pleistocene Deposits of the District 
about Liverpool, by G. W. Morton. Notice of some Facts in Relation 
to the Postglacial Gravels of Oxford, by Professor Phillips. On a 
New Bone-cave at Brixham, by W. Pengelly. Remarks on the Bone- 
caves of Craven, by T. W. Barrow. On the Red Crag Deposits of 
the County of Suffolk, by W. Whincopp. Palaeontological Remarks 
upon the Silurian Rocks of Ireland, by W. H. Baily. In this paper, 
the author noticed the occurrence of Llandello flags in the county of 
Meath containing the characteristic graptolite Didymograpsus Mur- 
chisonii, and then proceeded to give a general review of the localities 
in Ireland from which fossils were obtained, as affording satisfactory 
evidence of the various sub-divisions of the Silurian rocks at present 
ascertained in that country. On the Geology of Knockshigowna, county 
Tipperary, by A. B. Wynne. On the Granite Rocks of Donegal, and 
the Minerals associated therewith, by R. Scott, M.A. On the Gold of 
North Wales, by T. A. Readwin. Comparison of Fossil Insects of 
England and Bavaria, communicated by Mr Sainton, by Dr Hagen. 

Section D. (Zoology and Botany) had for its president C. C. Babington 
who did not give any formal opening address, but permitted the audience, 
soon after meeting, to listen to Professor Owen, who read two papers. Of 
these the first was on the " Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of the Mole," 
illustrated by diagrams of the structures described. The result of the 
paper was to show that the vertebral column of the mole combines two 
peculiarities which are separately given in the reptilian class, — viz. to the 
crocodilia and enaliosaura respectively, a curious fact not hitherto noticed 
in any systematic work or monograph in comparative anatomy. The 
Professor afterwards read a paper on some objects of natural history from 
the collection of M. Du Chaillu, of which the following is a summary. 
Professor Owen's first knowledge of the zoological collection was derived 
from a letter sent by M. Du Chaillu, dated Gaboon, June 13, 1859, and 
received in the British Museum in August 1859, in which M. Du Chaillu 
specified the skins and skeletons he had collected, offering them for sale, 
with other varieties, to the British Museum. Professor Owen replied, 
recommending the transmission of the collection to London for inspection, 
with which recommendation M. Du Chaillu complied, bringing with him 
all the varieties he had named, with other objects of natural history, from 
which he permitted selection to be made. The skins of the adult male and 
female of the young of the Troglodytes Gorilla afforded ample evidence 
of the true colouration of the species. In the male, the rufo-griseous hair 
extends over the scalp and nape, terminating in a point upon the back. 
The prevalent grey colour, produced by alternate fuscous and light grey 
annulations of each hair, extends over the back, the hair becoming longer 
upon the nates and upon the thighs. The dark fuscous colour gradually 
prevails as the hair extends down the leg to the ankle. The long hair of 
the arm and foream presents the dark fuscous colour ; the same tint extends 
from below the axilla downwards and forwards upon the abdomen, where 
the darker tint constrasts with the lighter grey upon the back. The scanty 
hair of the cheeks and chin is dark ; the pigment of the naked skin of the 
face is black. The breast is almost naked, and the hair is worn short or 
partially rubbed off across the back, over the upper border of the iliac bones, 
in consequence, as it appears, of the habit ascribed by M. Du Chaillu to the 
great male gorilla of keeping at the foot of a tree, resting its back against 
the trunk. The skin of the great male gorilla, as mounted in the British 
Museum, exhibits two opposite wounds, — the smaller in front on the left 

British Association. ' 299 

side of the chest, the larger close to the lower part of the right blade-bone. 
Two of the ribs in the skeleton of this animal are broken on the right side 
near where the charge had passed through the skin in its course outwards. 
These marks correspond with the account of the slaughter of the great 
gorilla given by M. Du Chaillu. Professor Owen proceeded to describe the 
colour of the female gorilla, which, it appears, was generally darker and 
of a more rufous tint than the male. In one female the rufous colour so 
prevailed as to induce M. Du Chaillu to note it as a red-rumped variety. 
In the young male gorilla, 2 feet 6 inches in height, 1 feet 7 inches in the 
length of the head and trunk, and 11 inches across the shoulder, the 
calvarium is covered with a well-dressed " skull-cap" of a reddish- 
coloured hair. The back part of the head behind the ears, the temples 
and chin are clothed with that mixture of fuscous brown and grey hair 
which cover with a varying depth of tint the trunk, arms, and thighs. 
The naked part of the skin of the face appears to have been black, or of 
a very dark leaden colour ; a few scattered straight hairs, mostly black, 
represent the eyebrows. A narrow moustache borders the upper lip, the 
whole of the lower lip and sides of the head are covered with hair of the 
prevailing grey fuscous colour. The rich series of skulls and skeletons 
brought home by M. Du Chaillu illustrate some most important phases 
of dentition. These phases were specified by Professor Owen at length. 
The deciduous or milk dentition, it was remarked, were in the youngest 
specimen of the gorilla something similar to those of the human child, 
but an interspace equal to half the breadth of the outer incisor divides 
that tooth from the canine, and the crown of the canine descends nearly 
two lines below that of the contiguous milk molar. The deciduous molars 
differed from those of the human child in the more pointed shape of the 
first, and much larger size of the second. The dentition of the young 
gorilla corresponds best with that exemplified in the human child between 
the eighth and tenth years ; the difference, however, is shown in the com- 
plete placing of the true molar, whilst the premolar series is incomplete. 
It was worthy of remark, also, that in both specimens examined the 
premolars of the upper jaw had preceded those of the lower jaw, and that 
the hind premolar has come into place before the front one. In the lat- 
ter development of the canines and the earlier development of the second 
molars of the second dentition the gorilla differs, like the chimpanzee 
and the orangs, from the human order of dental development and suc- 
cession. An opportunity of observing this order in the lower races of 
mankind is rare. Professor Owen availed himself of the opportunity in 
the case of the male and female dwarf Earthmen from South Africa, ex- 
hibited in London. He found dentition at the phase indicative of the 
age from seven to nine in the English child ; other indications agreed 
with this evidence of immaturity. The children were dressed and exhi- 
bited as adults. Both showed the same precedency in development 
of canines and premolars which obtains in the whole race. Referring 
next to the variety of the chimpanzee brought by M. Du Chaillu from the 
Camraa Country and from near Cape Lopez, Professor Owen remarked 
that this species accords specifically in its osteological and hirsute deve- 
lopment with the Troglodytes niger. It is stated by M. Du Chaillu to 
be distinguished by the natives of Camma as the nschiegombovie from 
the common chimpanzee (Troglodytes niger), called by them the nschiego. 
From the character of the skins of the male and female specimens of this 
species brought by M. Du Chaillu to London, Professor Owen would 
have deduced evidence of a distinct and well-defined variety of Troglo- 

The reading of this paper was followed by a discussion in which Pro- 
fessor Owen, Dr Lankester, and M. Du Chaillu took part. Professor 

300 Proceedings of Societies. 

Owen, on being requested to point out the principal distinctions between 
man and the gorilla, drew attention to the fact of its inability to stand on 
its hind legs, and the multitudinous points of adaptation in structure 
which such an incapability demanded. He also went into the details of 
the anatomical structure of the brain in the monkey tribes, and insisted on 
the great ditferences of structure which that organ presented in man and 
the quadrumana. Independent of the great size of the brain in man, it 
possessed certain parts, as the hippocampus minor, which existed only in 
an undeveloped or rudimentary condition in the monkeys. 

Dr Wright of Dublin then read a communication from Dr J. E. Gray, 
" On the Height of the Gorilla." 

These papers were followed by others on the interesting results of 
dredging on various coasts ; by one on the Anatomical Characters of Cy- 
prea, by Dr T. Alcock, another on the relations between Pinnate and Pal- 
mate Leaves, by T. M. Masters ; and a brief summary of a Report on the 
Flora of the North of Ireland, by Dr G. Dickie. During the Friday 
meeting, along with other points of interest, an animated discussion arose 
as to the principle of life suggested by papers by Dr Daubeny in vege- 
table physiology. The Doctor was favourable to the idea of life as some 
power distinct from the physical forces in which view he was opposed by 
Dr Lankester, and supported by Professor Williamson of Manchester, 
who begged to contradict Dr Lankester with all the force which might be 
considered parliamentary. This led on the part of the latter to an itera- 
tion of his former opinion stronger than before, and in which, in the 
language he used, he probably went farther than he intended. 

In the sub-section of Physiology, Dr Davy presided, and himself read an 
interesting paper " On the Question, whether the Hair is or is not subject 
to Sudden Changes of Colour." This he decides in the negative, explain- 
ing away the evidence on which the contrary belief has become popular, 
and also maintaining with regard to seemingly analogous phenomena, such 
as the becoming white of the ptarmigan, and many animals and birds in 
winter, that it is through moult and not change of colour in feather or 
hair. Besides this, there was on Saturday a paper by Professor L. Beale 
on the Structure and Growth of the elementary parts (cells) of living 

Section E. (Geography and Ethnology). Among other papers, Pro- 
fessor Owen read one of great interest on the " Osteology and Dentition 
of the Natives of the Andaman Islands." Having noticed the geography 
of the Andaman Islands, he quoted evidence to show that the diminutive 
black aborigines of these islands had no notions of a deity, of spiritual 
beings, or a future state ; that both sexes went naked, without any sense 
of shame. He then gave an extract from the writings of Dr Mouatt in 
corroboration of the destitution of civilisation prevalent amongst the 
Andamanners. Their chief weapons were bows and arrows, some of the 
males also carrying a kind of spear. They appeared to be devoid of fear, 
were powerful for their size, were swift runners and excellent swimmers 
and divers. Three or four of them had been known (according to an 
account given by a Sepoy) to dive into deep water and bring up a fish six 
or seven feet in length, which they had seized. They were also gifted 
with extraordinary powers of vision. By their acute sense of smell they 
often detected afar off' the existence of fruit in the neighbouring lofty 
trees. They span ropes, made wicker baskets, nets for catching turtle 
and fishes, and scooped out canoes with a small kind of adze. Thus for 
all their immediate wants invention had supplied the instruments called 
for by the nature of the surrounding objects and sources of food. But 
their life was still little beyond that of the brute animal ; and their low 

British Association. 301 

grade of humanity, with the dwarfish stature and black colour of the An- 
damanners, had always made a further knowledge of their physical cha- 
racters peculiarly desirable. He (Professor Owen) was enabled to con- 
tribute the present notice of their osteological and dental characters by 
the opportunity kindly afforded him by Dr Frederick J. Mouatt, inspector 
of Indian gaols, who had brought over the bones of an adult male native 
of the Andamans, and had now presented them to the British Museum. 
The bones presented a compact sound texture, with the processes, &c, 
well defined. The cranium was well formed. The teeth equalled in size 
those of Indo-Europeans. After minutely describing the whole of the 
bones, Professor Owen remarked that the dimensions of parts of the skele- 
ton indicated that they were from an individual four feet ten inches in 
height. The Andamans or Mincopie were called by most of the observers 
who had described them " negrillos" or dwarf negroes. They had no 
knowledge, and appeared to have no idea, of their own origin. It had 
been surmised that they might be the descendants of African negroes im- 
ported by the Portuguese for slave labour, in their settlements at Pegu, 
and who had been wrecked on the Andamans. But the recorders of this 
hypothesis alluded to it as a mere hearsay. Neither the skull nor the 
teeth of the male Andaman above described offered any of the characters 
held to be distinctive of the African negroes. The cranium had not the 
relative narrowness ascribed to that of the negro. It presented nothing 
suggestive of lateral compression. It conformed to the full oval type, 
with a slight degree of prognatheism ; and was altogether on a smaller 
scale than in the Indo-Europeans exhibiting that form of skull. It is to 
be presumed that the Portuguese would import from the Guinea Coast or 
other mart of negro slaves, individuals of the usual stature ; and it was 
incredible that their descendants, enjoying freedom in a tropical loca- 
lity affording such a sufficiency and even abundance of food as the Anda- 
mans were testified to supply, should have degenerated in stature in the 
course of two or three centuries to the characteristic dwarfishness of the 
otherwise well-made, well-nourished, strong, and active natives of the 
Andaman islands. He concluded, therefore, that they were aborigines, 
and merely resembled negroes in the blackness of the tegumentary pig- 
ment, which might be due to constant exposure in such a nude and pri 
mitive race. The observation of the hair of the scalp, though perhaps 
unsatisfactory with respect to a race which habitually shaved or eradi- 
cated the hair, were it exact in regard to the crisp, curly, or woolly cha- 
racter of the hair, would show a resemblance of the Andamanners to the 
Papuans and Australians, as well as to the African negroes. Bat the 
skull and dentition of the Andaman male was still more distinct from the 
Papuan- Australian type than from that of the west coast negro. From 
the present opportunity of studying the osteology and dentition of the 
Andamanner, the ethnologist derived as little indication or ground of 
surmise of the origin of the race in question from an Australasian as from 
an African continent ; and there was scarcely better evidence of his Ma- 
layan or Mongolian ancestors. He was not cognisant of any anatomical 
grounds for deriving the Andaman people from any existing continent, . 
He intended to give no encouragement, however, to a belief that they 
originated in the locality to which they were now limited. Dr Latham 
stated that their language showed them to belong to the same division 
with the Burmese of the opposite continent. These, however, showed the 
average stature of the Southern Asiatic men ; and it would be as pure an 
assumption to affirm that they had been derived from the Andamanners 
as that these were degenerate descendants of the Burmese. The cardinal 
delect of speculators on the origin of the human species was the assump- 


302 Proceedings of Societies. 

tion that the present geographical condition of the earth's surface was 
anterior to, or at least co-existent with, the origin of such species. The 
Andamanners were, perhaps, the most primitive and lowest in the scale 
of civilisation of the human race. The animal appetites were gratified 
in the simplest animal fashion. They were not cannibals. Implacably 
hostile to strangers, they had made no advance in the few centuries dur- 
ing which their seas had been traversed by ships of higher races. En- 
joying the merest animal life for centuries, why might they not have so 
existed for thousands of years ? Antecedent generations of the race might 
have co-existed with the slow and gradual geological changes which had 
obliterated the place or continent of their primitive origin, whatever were 
the hypothesis adopted regarding it. The Andamanners approached the 
orangs and chimpanzees only in their diminutive stature ; and this was 
associated with the well-balanced human proportions of trunk to limbs. 

On Saturday evening a Telegraphic Soiree was held in the Free Trade 
Hall, which, as might be expected, attracted a numerous and brilliant 
gathering. The president introduced Mr Grove to the meeting, who gave 
a lecture on the History of Electric Telegraphs and Telegraphic Apparatus. 
This was followed by specimens of the working of telegraphs stationed in 
the hall, which came off with great eclat. The first telegram was in these 
terms : — Question. 8.32 p.m. " The Prince Consort, Balmoral, to the Pre- 
sident of the British Association Meeting, Manchester. Is the meeting 
of the British Association successful ?" Reply. 8.45 r.M. " The President 
of the British Association, Free Trade Hall, Manchester, to H.R.H. 
the Prince Consort at Balmoral. Your Royal Highness will be pleased to 
hear that the meeting is a great success. Upwards of 3000 members 
and associates." Another was sent to St Petersburg, and answered in one 
minute. Question. 8.51 p.m. " What is the weather, and how is the 
time ?" Reply. 8.52 p.m. " Weather beautiful, sky clear, time 10.52 p.m., 
temperature 12^ Reaumur." After this the Moscow and Odessa lines 
were joined up, and answers obtained in one minute from the former city, 
in two minutes from the latter. It was intended to extend the line to 
Taganroc on the Sea of Azoff, which would have been a traverse of 
3100 miles, but some electric storm prevented for the time transmission 
beyond Nicolaief. The company did not separate till nearly 11 o'clock. 

On Monday evening there assembled in the Free Trade Hall perhaps 
the largest audience that ever science brought together, to hear a lecture 
by the Astronomer-Royal, on the Great Solar Eclipse of June 18, 1860. 
Happily Mr De la Rue was there to assist with his electric light and his 
magnificent photographs of the sun, which we have already mentioned, 
for Mr Airy's voice was quite inaudible save to a few around him. This 
is the more to be regretted, because the lecture was really popular and 
highly instructive. Having explained the causes of eclipses in general, 
and given historical notices of the more eminent eclipses of the sun, he 
proceeded to discuss the points of greatest scientific interest in connection 
with the eclipse of last year. 

Referring to large diagrams he had prepared, he commenced by de- 
scribing the appearances of the corona, and he said he must confess that 
the various accounts presented great discordances. He particularly 
pointed out two drawings — namely, that of Mr Bonomi and that of Lieut. 
Oom, an officer in the Portuguese navy, but at present attached to the 
Imperial Observatory of Pulkowa, in Russia. These two drawings were > 
he considered, corroborative one of the other, and extremely fair repre- 
sentations of the corona; and both were, moreover, confirmed by the 
drawings of Mr Weedon, a talented engineer on Mr Vignoles' staff. 
The corona was very bright near the edge of the dark moon, and gra- 
dually diminished until its outline vanished in the surrounding darkness; 

British Association. 303 

but it was not bounded by a regular outline, for there were several 
streamers and also curved rays, which were observed and depicted by 
several observers. Mr Bonomi observed the planets Venus and Jupiter, 
close to the obscured sun, -shining with great brilliancy. Under no other 
conditions could these planets be viewed so close to the sun ; for in what- 
ever manner the sun might be shut off from view, the atmospheric illu- 
mination would drown these planets in light. Mr Galton's careful draw- 
ing presented several strange horns of light, supported in part by Mr 
Murray's. Mr Weiler's presented strange appearances, which it was 
difficult to reconcile with the others. M. Plantamour of Geneva, who 
made his observations near the eastern coast of Spain, made three succes- 
sive drawings of the corona during the eclipse. The appearances de- 
picted led the speaker to think that they could only be accounted for on 
the supposition that an atmosphere capable of reflecting light extended 
nearly from the earth to the moon. It was clear they could not be pro- 
duced by our atmosphere. 

He would show experimentally that there were means of detecting the 
difference between reflected and non -reflected light; for this purpose he 
would, with Mr Ladd's assistance, throw a beam of light on to the screen 
by means of the voltaic lamp ; then, as he interposed a doubly-refracting 
prism, the beam would be divided into two beams, one of which would 
revolve round the other without alteration of intensity as he caused the 
prism to rotate. He then would interpose an unsilvered glass reflector 
in the path of the ray, and again place the doubly -refracting prism in 
the path of the ray. On rotating the prism, the two beams of light not 
only revolved the one round the other, but each became alternately ob- 
scured, thus proving that there is a difference between ordinary light and 
reflected light ; the reflected light being what is termed polarised. By 
ascertaining, therefore, if the light of the corona were polarised, it could 
be ascertained with great probability whether it came direct to the eye 
or whether it had been bent by some reflecting medium. An English 
observer had proved beyond doubt that the light of the corona was po- 
larised, and a foreign observer, M. Prazmowski, had even gone further, 
and had shown that the position of the plane of polarisation passed 
through the sun, the corona, and the eye of the observer. When this 
was ascertained, it went a long way towards proving that the light of the 
corona was reflected by something like an atmosphere, or at all events a 
medium capable of reflecting light intermediate between the earth and 
the moon. Was there an atmosphere extending from the earth to the 
moon ? The speaker stated that he knew not ; but he knew of no other 
hypothesis which would account for the appearances presented by the 

The Astronomer- Royal now returned to the red prominences, which he 
stated were seen in great beauty during the eclipse of 1860. As he had 
stated in the early part of his lecture, the question had been raised 
whether they belonged to the sun or to the moon. By means of the 
moving model, he showed that if they belonged to the moon they would 
follow her as she moved onward ; but if they belonged to the sun, those 
on the left would be shortened and those on the right lengthened as the 
moon moved from right to left ; as they were actually found so to do, it 
was a strong prima facie argument that they belonged to the sun. M. 
Faye had also pointed out the following fact. Suppose there was a pro- 
minence on the top of the sun at the commencement of the eclipse, it was 
evident that it must be at that moment to the left of the moon's centre ; 
at the middle of the eclipse it would be just over the centre, and on the 
right of the centre at the end of the eclipse. It was not at all probable, 
if the prominence were an illusion resulting from the sun's light shining 

304 Proceedings of Societies. 

through the valleys on the moon's limb, that all parts of the edge could 
produce the same identical figure. 

It would be therefore seen that, besides measuring the increase and 
decrease of luminous prominences in the path of the moon, it was im- 
portant also to ascertain if any prominence changed its angular position 
with respect to the moon's centre. The Astronomer-Royal stated, that 
in order to do so he had had certain lines ruled on one face of the reflect- 
ing prism, which was placed in the focus of his telescope, which was a 
refractor four inches aperture, mounted on a sort of altazimuth stand of 
a very portable kind ; this was exhibited to the audience. Mr De la 
Rue had used somewhat similar means, and being very skilful in making 
hand-drawings of heavenly bodies, in which he had great practice, he 
completed two drawings, which were exhibited on the diagrams in con- 
nection with the nicrometer lines he had employed ; one of these draw- 
ings was made towards the commencement, the other towards the end of 
the totality. Now it was perfectly obvious, on looking at these drawings, 
that the prominence and red cloud situated at the top of the sun, and 
nearly at right angles to the path of the moon, had shifted their angular 
position during the period of the eclipse. Dr Bruhn, of Leipsic, who 
went to the east of Spain, not being provided with any means of measur- 
ing the angular position of a protuberance, profited by the circumstance 
that one of the prominences became visible before the totality, and 
remained so for several minutes afterwards, to make measurements of 
the distance of the protuberance from the cusps. Now the position of 
the cusps could be calculated to the utmost degree of accuracy for any 
particular time, and Dr Bruhn found that, if the prominence belonged 
to the moon, the cusp must have shifted 26° from its first position on the 
moon's limb ; but that if it belonged to the sun, the cusp had not shifted 
1° during the time he was observing. This was most conclusive evidence 
that the prominence belonged to the sun. 

The Astronomer-Royal then pointed out other drawings of the promi- 
nences, particularly a very beautiful one by Mr Fearnley, of Sweden, 
which, as far as it went, confirmed Mr De la Rue's drawings of the pro- 
minences. He then went on to say, that, in 1851, M. Busch took a 
daguerreotype of the corona and prominences, but it was not a very 
successful attempt. Since that period photography had made great pro- 
gress, and it occurred to Mr De la Rue and others that it would be 
extremely desirable to get photographs of the eclipse. Mr De la Rue 
took with him the Kew photoheliograph, and obtained two large photo- 
graphs of the totality. Father Secchi, of the Collegio Romano, had 
obtained five small photographs, and through the kindness of Seiior 
Aguilar he had obtained photographic copies of them. The photographs 
of Mr De la Rue and Father Secchi, though made at widely different 
localities, agreed very closely. In both, the changes in the angular posi- 
tion of the prominences had been measured, and they agreed entirely 
with the supposition that they were connected with the sun. 

Father Secchi had explained, in striking language, his reason for pre- 
ferring photographs to eye-observations. And he had shown that certain 
observations, on which M. Plantamour had founded an idea that the 
changes of magnitude of the prominences were not explained by the 
moon's motion, were entirely disproved by the photographs. 

Some British officers stationed on the western coast of America observed 
the totality from Puget Sound, when the sun was only 2° above the hori- 
zon ; and he had received some excellent drawings from Captain Richards 
ami Captain Parsons. On comparing the drawings of the prominences 
made on the west coast of America with those made in Spain, he was 
unable to reconcile one with the other,' — but there was an interval of two 

British Association. 305 

hours between the two observations, and it was quite possible that in that 
interval of time fresh prominences had come into view ; and if the sun 
was constantly boiling up, and these protuberances were fumes, it could 
not be wondered at if there was a change during that period. There was 
no perceptible change, however, during the short interval of time between 
the observations in Spain. 

If the prominences belonged to the sun, the question arose, could we 
see them at other times than during a total eclipse ? With the assistance 
of Mr Nasmyth, who had contributed the most important part of the 
apparatus, he had made many attempts, but had not succeeded. The appa- 
ratus had been lent to Prof. Piazzi Smyth when he went to the Peak of 
Teneriffe, but he failed to see the prominences. These negative results 
did not in the least detract from the evidence of the prominences belong- 
ing to the sun, because we never could get rid of the effect of the highly 
illumined atmosphere through which we viewed the sun, and which, do 
what we would, extinguishes even brighter objects than the luminous 

The Astronomer-Royal then said, that time had run out faster than he 
had anticipated, but he would, nevertheless, ask Mr De la Rue to exhibit 
his photographs by means of the electric light. Mr De la Rue complied 
with the request ; but being called upon by the audience to explain the 
photographs, Dr Tyndal kindly took charge of the electric lamp. 

Besides these evening meetings the first week, there was also on 
Tuesday evening a Natural History Soiree, in which the hall was adorned 
by a fine exhibition of botanical and zoological specimens, contributed by 
members of the Manchester Field Naturalists' Association, at which Dr 
Lankester was requested to address the meeting on this interesting subject. 
This he did in a very pleasing and appropriate manner, closing with some 
remarks on the connection between science and religion. It may be safely 
said, that the interest both of the general meetings and sections was 
maintained to the last. And so zealous were the local reporters, that up- 
wards of 250 quarto columns were devoted to reports of the meetings in 
some of the Manchester papers. In the foregoing pages, however, along 
with the papers which we publish in full, will, we believe, be found the 
most interesting facts, of a purely scientific nature, which were brought 

The next meeting is appointed for Cambridge, under the presidency 
of Professor Willis, but the date has not yet been fixed upon. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

Thursday, July 11, 1861. — Professor Balfour, V.P., in the Chair. 

Dr Balfour stated, that in a recent letter received from Mr A. G. More 
of Bembridge, the death of Mr Albert John Hambrough of Steephill, 
near Ventnor, Isle of Wight, is recorded. Mr Hambrough was a dis- 
tinguished naturalist in that part of England, and was always ready to 
assist botanists who visited the island. He made important additions to 
the flora of the island, and his name is noticed frequently in Mr W. A. 
Broomfield's "Flora Vectensis." Mr More says,' — " His death is a sad 
loss to natural history in this island. In him I have lost a most kind and 
valued friend, the only fellow botanist in the island." Mr Hambrough 
became a non-resident Fellow of the Edinburgh Botanical Society on 14th 
February 1839, and he contributed many valuable plants to the her- 

306 Proceedings of Societies. 

The following Communications were read :■ — 

1. Notice of a Botanical Trip to Ben Lawers and Schihallion in Sep- 
tember 1860. By William Keddie, Esq., Lecturer on Natural Sci- 
ence, Glasgow. 

Professor Balfour having taken up his autumn residence at Aberfeldy 
last year, the writer gladly accepted of an invitation from his old friend 
and teacher to join him in a quiet botanical ramble to Ben Lawers and 
Schihallion. At Aberfeldy they were joined by William Bell, who was 
commissioned from the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, to collect ferns. We 
devoted the 4th and 5th of September to the exploration of Ben Lawers, 
and after strolling through the grounds and garden of Taymouth Castle 
on the 6th, visited Schihallion on the 7th. A notice of our excursions, 
however pleasing the recollection may be to our small party, will, it is 
feared, possess little interest to the Society, yet may not be altogether 
unprofitable, if it should induce any of the members who have not visited 
that delightful district, to follow the course we pursued. With the aid 
of the morning coach from Aberfeldy, we were at the foot of Ben Lawers 
at a seasonable hour, and having engaged our lodging at a comfortable 
inn, situated on Loch Tay, at a spot convenient for commencing the 
ascent, w T e at once buckled on our vasculums and began our journey. 
Ben Lawers is known to be one of our loftiest Scottish mountains, being 
4015 feet high, and consisting of mica-slate mingled with chlorite-slate, 
and exhibiting remarkably contorted forms where the surfaces are ex- 
posed in the upper precipices. The water- courses below show beds of 
limestone interstratified with the schist. The mountain is equally cele- 
brated for its alpine plants and the extensive and varied views obtained 
from its summit. Dr Macculloch gave the palm to Ben Lawers, after 
having ascended almost every principal mountain in Scotland ; and, 
oddly enough, he mentions that on the hill he met " two missionaries 
from the Edinburgh garden, with huge tin boxes slung over their shoul- 
ders, who seemed to be in a perfect ecstacy of happiness." The lapse of 
some forty or fifty years since then had, on the present occasion, di- 
minished neither the bulk of the boxes, the gaiety of their bearers, nor 
the prospects with which they made their way directly over the shoulder 
of the hill to the corrie overlooking Loch-na-Chat, the field of their 
operations for the day. The following were among the plants collected 
this day : — Draba incana, Cerastium alpinum, Cherleria sedoides, 
Silene acaulis, Sagina sabulata, Rabus saxatilis, R. Chamcemorvs, 
Sibbaldia procumbent, Epilobium alpinum, E. alsinifolium, Cornus 
suecica, Hieracium alpinum, Saussureaalpina, Erigeron alpinus , Arcto- 
staphylos Uca-ursi, Polystickum Lonchitis, and Polypodium alpestre. 
Various cliffs and crevices were examined for Cystopteris montana, not 
a vestige of which could be detected in its old haunts, but Woodsia hy- 
perborea was found in considerable quantity on the precipitous face of 
the corrie, which was ascended by Bell with the fearlessness of a crags- 
man. The ascent to the summit was reserved for the succeeding day. 
The corrie occupies a secluded recess in the north-eastern declivity, 
where the view is closed in on the south by a ridge of the mountain, and 
only some glimpses of the distant heights of Strath Tay are revealed. 
The snow of the previous winter still lay in thick wreaths among the 
crevices of the rocks. The lofty cliffs overhanging the corrie were cast 
into shade by the mists drifting down the ravines from the upper ridges, 
unvisited by the sunshine which, in the valley below, was diffusing 
cheerfulness and warmth over the green strath and the yellow corn fields. 
The weathered micaceous rocks, twisted into a thousand fantastic forms, 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 307 

and grouped in fanciful combinations, imparted additional wildness to the 

Next day we started betimes, and took a straight course for the sum- 
mit of the hill, which was reached after a stiff climb without our meeting 
with many plants which we had not picked the day before. With the 
exception, perhaps, of Ben Lomond, the view from the top of Ben Lawers 
is not equalled by that of any other mountain in the Highlands, and the 
day was favourable for enjoying it. Although the lake below appeared 
without a ripple on its surface, the mountain top was swept by a strong 
breeze, which rendered it difficult to maintain one's footing on the more 
exposed ridges. The sun shone brightly, and the mountain and vale 
were disclosed in the clear atmosphere as far as the eye could reach. 
The fertile banks of the loch lay extended below, from the rich woods of 
Killin to where the sylvan beauties of Taymouth mingle in the view 
with the remoter hills and plantations of Tayside. Ben More is the 
most prominent mountain to the westward, beyond which rise the peaks 
of Ben Lomond and the other hills overlooking Loch Lomond. Schi- 
hallion is recognised by its graceful outline and isolated position on the 
north ; and far beyond, in the same direction, may be descried the 
rounded summit of Ben Cruachan and the conical peaks of the hills over- 
looking Glencoe and Loch Etive. The eye could take in on the north- 
east the outlines of the snow-capped summits of the mountains surrounding 
the sources of the Dee, and southwards were discernible the ranges of 
Strathmore and Strathearn, the Sidlaws and the Ochils. We proceeded 
to explore the disrupted rocks in the cavity to the south-west of the sum- 
mit, the part exposed to the prevailing winds, and where the storms of 
ages have worn the ridge into the appearance of a volcanic crater. The 
moist rocks on this unpromising height have long been known as a station 
for Saxifraga cernua, one of the rarest of British plants. We were 
fortunate in obtaining a few specimens, which, as is usually the case, 
were in an immature state, but readily identified by their bulbiferous 
stem and well-marked leaves. Saxifraga rivularis we did not observe, 
although it has been found on the mountain. Draba rupestris occurs 
also sparingly in the crevices of these exposed rocks. Thalictrum al- 
pinum, and some of the more common alpines, are comparatively plenti- 
ful. Following the course of the bare inhospitable ridge to the north- 
ward, we again sought the productive cliffs of the corrie, and examined 
the side opposite to that which occupied our attention on the previous 
day. Here, in the channels of the rills and the crevices of the dripping 
rocks, were found quantities of Myosotis alpestris, which, although not 
absolutely amongst the rarest, was by far the most beautiful of our alpine 
treasures. The first sight of this lovely Myosotis, with its bright azure 
flowers glistening in the spray, would have been an ample reward for 
more than the toil of twice ascending Ben Lawers ; and its frequent re- 
currence on the moist cliffs- — sometimes within reach, sometimes (happily 
for our too eager acquisitiveness) beyond it- — was a source of ever new 
delight. Haunting the same humid rocks were Saxifraga nivalis and 
S. stellaris. 

On the 6th the party examined the grounds of Taymouth, under the 
guidance of Mr Peter Murray, the head gardener. On the 7th they 
visited Schihallion, without any definite idea of its botanical character, 
but with a lively interest in the hill itself, not only as forming a conspi- 
cuous and imposing feature in the scenery of the district, but still more 
particularly on account of its having been chosen by Dr Charles H utton 
and Dr Maskelyne for their experiments to determine the density of the 
earth, and also from the subsequent observations of Professor Playfair 
on its geological structure. The lower part of the hill exhibits, in sec- 

308 Proceedings of Societies. 

tions cut by the streams, beds of micaceous and hornblende slate interstra- 
tified with crystalline limestone, but the upper part, forming the great 
bulk of the hill, consists of granular quartz, compact and homogeneous, 
and capable only of supporting a meagre vegetation. The summit, which 
terminates in a narrow plain about a mile in length, is covered almost 
exclusively with lichens and a few mosses. To the botanist it affords 
probably as few attractions as any mountain in Scotland. The plants 
gathered on the flanks and lower slopes were the following, viz. — Thalic- 
trum alpinum, Genista anglica, Rubus Chammmorus, Hippuris vulgaris, 
Saxifraga • aizoides , S. hypnoides, var., S. stellaris, Cornus suecica, 
Vaccinium Myrtillus, Pyrola secunda, Empetrum nigrum, Salix arbu- 
tifolia, Lislera cordata, Tofieldia palustris, Carex rigida, Festuca 
ovina, var. vivipara, and LycopodiumSelago. Aspecimen of Poly stichum 
Lonchitis was gathered, having 130 fronds. At the summit, the rocks 
were crusted over with Lecidea gcographica, and amongst other lichens, 
Cetraria Islandica, Scyphophorus bellidiflorus, and Gladonia rangi- 
ferina were not unfrequent. Among the mosses — Pogonatum alpinum, 
Dicranum fuscescens, Andrecea ru])estris, Hypnum denticulatum, Tri- 
chostomum lanuginosum, and Fissidens osmundoides. 

The remainder of the paper was occupied with an account of a visit to 
the Tummel, Killicrankie, Fortingal, Glen Lyon, and the Falls of Moness. 

2. On some of the Stages of Development in the Female Flower of Dam- 

mara Australis. By Alex. Dickson, M.D., Edinburgh. 

(This paper appears in the present number of the Journal.) 

3. On the Homologies of the Floral Organs of the Phanerogamous and 

higher Cryptogamous Plants. By John Lowe, M.D., Lynn. 

In this paper the author attempts to explain homologies which exist 
between the Phanerogams and Phylloid Cryptogams. He says — " My 
view is briefly this : that the spores of ferns should be regarded strictly 
as flower-buds, containing in embryo the reproductive organs, which be- 
have just as we might imagine a phanerogamous floral bud to do if de- 
tached from the parent tree, and made to complete its development after- 
wards. The prothallus I regard as the calyx or phylloid expansion, pro- 
tecting the male and female organs ; the rootlets of it as the nutrient 
vessels of the buds, true roots not being produced until the development 
of the embryonic cell. That this view is a correct one I am strongly led 
to believe, from having observed since I wrote out the above idea a sin- 
gular monstrosity in the spores of Adiantum tenerum. These I have 
found developed as terminal buds from the extremities of the veins of the 
pinnules. The buds, which are covered by and produced from the under 
surface of the spore case, which is distinctly shown to be a folding of the 
margin of the leaf, are now developed into living plants instead of spores, 
and were in the initial state surrounded by paraphyses. 

4. Notice of Localities in Scotland for some Rare Plants. By Professor 


Chelidoiiiummajus, near Hopetoun ; Alyssum calycinum, Lochleven ; 
Silene noctiflora and Carduus arvensis, var. setosus, St Andrews ; 
Mentha .sylvestris, near Perth ; Carex irrigua, along with Carex limosa, 
Methven Bog; Uordeum pratense, St Andrews (Mr Howie). 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 


5. List of Plants growing in the Bangalore Garden, Mysore. By Dr 

a. Dicotyledons. 

Iberis odorata, L. 
Malcomia maritima, L. 
var. alba. 
Erysimum Peroffskianum, F. et 

Lepidium sativum, i, 
Brassica oleracea, L. 
Raphanus sativus, L. 
Heliophila arabioides, Sims. 
Schizopetalon Walkeri, Sims. 

10. Resedacece. 
Reseda odorata, L. 

1. Ranunculacew. 
Naravelia zeylanica, Dec. 
Clematis Gouriana, Roxb. 

coriacea, Dec. 
Adonis autumnalis, L. 
Nigella damascena, L. 
Aquilegia vulgaris, L. 
Delphinium Consolida, L. 
Ajacis, L. 

2. Dilleniacece. 
Dillenia speciosa, Thunb. 

3. Magnoliacece. 
Michelia Champaca, L. 

Nilagirica, Zenker. 

4. Anonaceo3. 
Uvaria sp. (Anamalais.) 
Anona squamosa, L. 

reticulata, L. 

muricata, L. 
Artabotrys odoratissimus, Br. 
Guatteria longifolia, Wall. 

5. Berberacew. 
Berberis aristata, Dec. 

6. Nymphmacem. 
Nymphsea Lotus, L. 
Nelumbium speciosum, Willd. 

7. Papaveraceoe. 
Papaver Rhoeas, L. 

somniferum, L. 

dubium, L. 
Argemone mexicana, L. 
Chryseis californica, Lindl. 

tenuifolia, Lindl. 
Glaucium luteum, Sm. 

8. Fumariaceo3. 
Fumaria parviflora, Lam., var. 


9. Crucifero3. 
Matthiola annua, R. Br. 
Cheiranthus Cheiri, L. 
Nasturtium officinale, L. 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris, L. 
Iberis umbellata, L. 

11. Capparidacew. 
Gynandropsis pentaphylla, Dec. 
Cleome purpurea, L. 

12. Bixaceas. 
Bixa Orellana, L. 

13. Cistacece. 
Cistus purpureus, Lam. 
Helianthemum vulgare, G&rt. 

14. Violacew. 
Viola odorata, L. 

tricolor, L. 

Walkeri, Wight. 
Ionidium suffruticosum, Ging. 

15. Droseraceo3. 
Drosera intermedia, Hayn. 

16. Polygalaceo3. 
Polygala speciosa, Dec. 

arvensis, Willd. 

17. Pittosporaceo3. 
Pittosporum flavum, Hoolc. 

undulatum, Vent. 
coriaceum, Ait. > 
salicinum, Lindl. 

18. Caryophyllaceai. 
Gypsophila elegans, Bieb. 
Stellaria media, L. 
Cerastium vulgatum, L. 
Dianthus barbatus, L. 

deltoides, L. 

* Drawn up at Dr Cleghorn's request by Mr Win. New, superintendent. 
NEW SERIES. VOL. XIV. NO. II. — OCT. 1861. 2 R 


Proceedings of Societies. 

Dianthus Caryophyllus, L. 
var. plena, 
plumarius, L. 
sinensis, L. 
var. plena. 
Saponaria calabrica, Bieb. 
Silene Armeria, L. 

quinquevulnera, L. 
pendula, L. 
Viscaria oculata, Lindl. 
Lychnis Chalcedonica, L. 

19. Linacece. 
Linum usitatissimum, L. 

var. alba, 
grandiflorum, Desf. 
trigynum, L. 

20. Malvacece. 
Malope trifida, Cav. 
Malva sylvestris, L. 
Althaea rosea, Cav. 
Urena lc-bata, L. 
Pavonia odorata, Willd. 
Lavatera Thuringiaca, L. 
Hibiscus tricuspis, Cav. 

Lindleyi, Wall. 
vitifolius, L. 
cannabinus, L. 
Rosa-sinensis, L. 
radiatus, Cav. 
mutabilis, L. 

var. plena. 
Sabdariffa, L. 
syriacus, L. 

var. plena, 
liliiflorus, Cav. 
Lampas, Cav. 
esculentus, L. 
vesicarius, Cav. 
Thespesia populnea, Corr. 
Gossypium herbaceura, L. 
Barbadense, L. 
acuminatum, L. 
Abutilon striatum, Dicks. 

21. Bombaceos. 
Adansonia digitata, L. 
Eriodendron anfractuosum, Dec. 
Ochroma Lagopus, L. 
Bombax malabaricum, Dec. 
Helicteres Isora, L. 
Kleinhovia hospita, L. 

Guazuma tomentosa, H. B. K. 
Dombeya palmata, Cav. 
Brachychiton acerifolium, Schott. 
Visenia ve lutina, Voigt.' t 

22. Tiliacece. 
Corchorus acutangulus, Lam. 
Triumfetta angulata, Lam. 
Grewia asiatica, L. 
Berrya Ammonilla, Roxb. 
Elaeocarpus serratus, L. 

23. Ternstroemiacece. 
Cochlospermum Gossypium, Dec. 
Thea viridis, L. 
Camellia japonica, L. 

24. Aurantiacece. 
Atalantia monophylla, Dec. 
Triphasia trifoliata, Dec. 
Glycosmis pentaphylla, Corr. 
Bergera Kcenigii, L. 
Murray a exotica, L. 
Feronia Elephantum, Corr. 
JEgle Marmelos , Corr. 
Citrus decuman a, L. 

Aurantium, Eisso. 

Bergamia, Risso. 

Limonum, Risso. 

medica, Risso. 

25. Hypericacece. 
Hypericum mysurense. 

26. Guttiferm. 
Calophyllum inophyllum, L. 
Calysaccion longifolium, Wight. 
Garcinia coniocarpa, Wight. 

27. Erythroxylacece. 
Sethia indica, Dec. 

28. Malpighiacece. 
Malpighia punicifolia, Dec. 

heteranthera, Wight. 
Banisteria laurifolia, L. 
Stigmaphyllon aristatum, A. de J. 
Hiptage Madablota, Gcert. 

29. Sapindacem. 
Cardiospermum Helicacabum, L. 
Sapindus emarginatus, Vahl. 

fruticosus, Roxb. 
Nephelium Litchi, W. et A. 

30. Meliacem. 
Melia Azedarach, L. 
Azadirachta indica, Juss. 
Munronia Nilagirica, Wight. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 


31. Cedrelacece. 
Cedrela Toona, Roxb. 
Chloroxylon Swietenia, Dec. 

32. Ampelidacem. 
Vitis quadrangularis, Wall. 

vinifera, L. 
Ampelopsis Roylii, Hort. 

33. Geraniacece. 
Pelargonium inquinans, Ait. 
Radula, L'Herit. 
zonale, Willd. 

34. Tropceolacem. 
Tropaeolum majus, L. 
minus, L. 
canariense, L. 
Lobbianum, Hook. 

35. Balsaminacece. 
Balsamina hortensis, Dec. 
var. plena. 

36. Oxalidacece. 
Averrhoa Bilimbi, L. 
Oxalis corniculata, L. 

variabilis, J acq. 

sensitiva, L. 

37. Zygophyllacece. 
Guaiacum officinale, L. 

38. Rutacem. 
Diosma virgata, Thurib. 
Ruta graveolens, L. 

39. Ochnacece. 
Ochna squarrosa, L. 

40. Coriariacece. 
Coriaria nepalensis, L. 

41. Celastracem. 
Celastrus emarginata, Willd. 
Ilex cornuta, Lindl. 

42. Rhamnacece. 
Zizyphus Jujuba, Lam. 
Ceanothus triquetrus, Dec. 

43. Homaliacem. 
Aristotelia Macqui, L. 

44. Terebinthacem. 
Odina Wodier, Roxb. 
Rhus lanceolata, L. 

Mangifera indica, L. 
Anacardium occidentale, L. 
Semicarpus Anacardium, L. 
Spondias Mangifera, Pers. 

45. Moringaceas. 
Moringa pterygosperma, Gcert. 

46. Leguminosm. 
Piptanthus nepalensis, Don. 
Podalyria sericea, Lam. 
Lupinus Hartwegii, Benth. 

mutabilis, Sweet. 
luteus, L. 
pubescens, Benth. 
polyphyllus, L. 
Crotalaria juncea, L. 
retusa, L 
bifaria, L. 
verrucosa, L. 
laburnifolia, L. 
mysorensis, Roxb. 
Rothia trifoliata, Pers. 
Ulex nanus, Willd. 
Spartium junceum, L. 
Cytisus albus, L. 

Laburnum, L. 
intermedium, Mam. 
Lotus jacobaeus, L. 
Trifolium pratense, L., var. 
Trigonella Foenum-graecum, L. 
Medicago sativa, L. 
Indigofera enneaphylla, L. 
hirsuta, L. 
pulcherrima, L. 
atropurpurea, Ham. 
violacea, Roxb. 
Tephrosia Candida, Dec. 
Wistaria sinensis, Dec. 
Robinia pseudo-acacia, L. 
Sesbania aagyptiaca, Pers. 
Agati grandiflorum, Desv. 

var. alba. 
Clianthus puniceus, Sol. 
Sutherlandia frutescens, Br. 
Swainsonia galegifolia, Salisb. 
Cicer arietinum, L. 
Pisum sativum, L. 
Vicia Faba, L. 
Lathyrus grandiflorus, L. 

odoratus, L. 
Arachis hypogsea, L. 
iEschynomene aspera, L. 
Desmodium triflorum, L. 
Hedysarum coronarium, L. 
Onobrychis sativa, L. 
Clitoria ternatea, L. 


Proceedings of Societies. 

Kennedy a rubicund a, Ven. 

monophylla, Ven. 
Canavalia gladiata, Dec. 
Mucuna prurita, Hook. 
Erythrina indica, L. 

var. alba, 
ovalifolia, Roxb. 
Blakii, B. N. 
secundiflora, Brot. 
suberosa, Roxb, 
laurifolia, J acq. 
Butea frondosa, Roxb. 
Dolichos uniflorus, Lam, 
Lablab vulgare, Savi. 
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, 

Cajanus indicus, Spreng. 
Cantharospermum pauciflorum, 

W. et A. 
Abrus precatorius, L. 
Pterocarpus marsupium, Roxb. 
Brachypterum scandens, Bth. 
Pongamia glabra, Vent. 
Dalbergia latifolia, Roxb. 

Sissoo, Roxb. 
Edwardsia grandiflora, Salisb. 
Sophora tomentosa, L. 
Virgilia capensis, L. 
Castanospermum australe, A. 

Haematoxylon campechianum, L. 
Parkinsonia aculeata, L. 
Poinciana pulcherrima, L. 
var. lutea. 
regia, Bojer. 
elata, L, 
Caesalpinia Sappan, L. 

sepiaria, Roxb. 
coriaria, Willd. 
digyna, Rottl. 
Cathartocarpus Fistula, Pers. 

Roxburghii, Dec. 
Cassia alata, L. 

florid a, Vahl. 
auriculata, Roxb. 
glauca, Lam. 
Amherstia nobilis, Wall. 
Jonesia Asoca, Roxb. 
Tamarindus indica, L. 

var. in occ. 
Bauhinia purpurea, L. 
var. alba, 
acuminata, L. 
variegata, L. 
tomentosa. L. 
Adenanthera pavonina, L. 
Prosopis spicigera, L. 

Mimosa rubicaulis, L. 
Acacia robusta, Burch. 
lophantha, Willd. 
mucronata, Willd. 
verticillata, Willd. 
speciosa, Willd. 
suaveolens, Willd. 
longifolia, Willd. 
stricta, Willd. 
Albizzia Julibrissin, Durazz. 
Inga Haematoxylon, Willd. 
Houstoni, Willd. 
dulcis, Willd. 

47. Rosacece. 
Amygdalus persica, L. 
Armeniaca vulgaris, Lam. 
Prunus domestica, L. 
Kerria japonica, Dec., var. plena. 
Geum coccineum, L. 
Rubus biflorus, Ham. 

rossefolius, /Sm.,var. plena. 
Fragaria virginiana, Mill. 
Rosa Damascena, Mill. 
rubiginosa, L. 
indica, L. 
multiflora, Thunb. 
moschata, Mill. 
centifolia, L. 
Lawrenciana , Sweet. 
pomponia, Dec, var. De 
Eriobotrya japonica, Lindl. 
Cotoneaster affinis, Lindl. 
Pyrus communis, L. 
Malus, L. 

48. Granatece. 
Punica Granatum, L. 

49. Combretacece. 
Terminalia Catappa, L. 

Belerica, Roxb. 
Poivrea purpurea, Commers. 
Combretum densiflorum. 

grandiflorum, G. Don. 

comosum, G. Don. 
Quisqualis indica, L. 

50. Onagracece. 
Fuchsia serratifolia, Hook. 

corymbiflora, Lindl. 

(many vars.) 
Gaura Lindheimerii, Spach. 
Eucharidium concinnum, F. et M. 
Clarkia pulchella, Pursh. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 


Godetia Lindleyana, Spach. 
(Enothera suaveolens, L. 

51. Haloragacece. 
Myriophyllum intermedium, Dec. 

52. Lythracece. 
Ameletia indica, Dec. 
Cuphea platycentra, Benth. 
Lawsonia inermis, L. 
Lafoensia Vandelliana, Dec. 
Lagerstroemia indica, L. 

var. alba. 
Reginae, Roxb. 

53. Myrtacece. 
Psidium pyriferum, L. 

var. variegata. 
pomiferum, L. 
Cattleyanum, Sabine. 
Eucalyptus robusta, Sm. 
globulus, Lab. 
perfoliata, Desf. 
virgata, Sieb. 
Myrtus communis, L. 
Khodomyrtus tomentosus, Dec. 
Jambosa vulgaris, Dec. 

malaccensis, Dec. 
Barringtonia speciosa, Forst. 

racemosa, Blum. 
Careya arborea, Roxb. 

54. Cucurbitacece. 
Zanonia indica, L. 
Bryonia scabrella, L. 
Momordica Charantia, L. 
Benincasa cerifera, Savi. 
Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser. 
Cucumis Melo, L. 

sativus, L. 
Trichosanthes anguina, L. 

palmata, Roxb. 
Cucurbita maxima, Duch. 
Citrullus, L. 
ovifera, L. 

55. Papayacece. 
Carica Papaya, L. 
Modecca palmata, L. 

56. Passijloracece. 
Passiflora alata, Ait. 

minima, J acq. 
Leschenaultii, Dec. 

Passiflora laurifolia, L. 

serratifolia, L. 

cuneifolia, Cav. 

caerulea, L. 

kermesina, SJc. et Otto. 
var. purpurea. 

fcetida, Cav. 

Middletoniana, Paxt. 
Murucuja ocellata, Pers. 

57. Turneracece. 
Turnera ulmifolia, L. 

var. angustifolia. 

58. Loasacece. 
Bartonia aurea, Sims. 
Blumenbachia insignis, Schr. 
Cajphora lateritia, Hook. 

59. Portulaceod. 
Portulaca quadrifida, L. 

Thellusonii, Dec. 

grandiflora, HooJc. 

oleracea, L. 
Calandrinia Lindleyana, Dec. 

60. Crassulacece. 
Kalanchoe crenata, Haw. 
Bryopliyllum calycinum, Sal. 

pinnatum, Hook. 
Sempervivum tabulaeforme, Haw. 

61. Ficoideo3. 
Mesembry anthem um tricolor, L. 

crystallinum, L. 

pomeridianum, L. 
Glinus trianthemoides, Heyne. 
Tetragonia expansa, L. 

62. Cactacece. 
Opuntia Dillenii, Haw. 

spinosissima, Haw. 

cochinellifera, Haw. 
Cereus erectus, Haw. 
Cereus crenatus, Hook, 
Epiphyllum truncatum, Pfeiffer. 
Pereskia Bleo, H. B. K. 

63. Saxifragacecz. 
Hydrangea hortensis, L. 
japonica, L. 

64. Umbelliferce. 
Hydrocotyle asiatica, L. 
Didiscus caeruleus, Dec. 
Apium graveolens, L. 
Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm. 
Carum Carui, L. 


Proceedings of Societies. 

Fceniculum vulgare, Adans. 
Pastinaca sativa, L. 
Daucus Carota, L. 
Coriandruin sativum, L. 

65. Araliacecti. 
Panax fruticosum, L. 
cochleatum, L. 
Hedera Helix, L. 

66. Caprifoliacece. 
Cornus macrophylla, Wall. 
Benthamia fragifera, Lindl. 
Lonicera Leschenaultii, Wall. 

67. Loranthacece. 
Loranthus loniceroides, L. 

68. Rnbiaceaz. 
Spermacoce bispida, L. 
Chasalia thyrsiflora, Thwaites. 
Coffea arabica, L. 
Pavetta indica, L. 
Ixora coccinea, L. 

parvifiora, Vahl. 

Bandhuca, Roxb. 

undulata, Roxb. 
Cbiococca racemosa, Jacq. 
Hamelia patens, Jacq. 
Pentas carnea, Benth. 
Rondeletia speciosa, Lodd. 
Bouvardia triphylla, L. 
Manettia glabra, L. 
Cinchona Calisaya, L., vars. 
Nauclea parvifiora, Roxb. 
Randia dumetorum, L. 
Gardenia florida, L. 

var. plena. 
Mussaenda frondosa, L. 

69. Valerianaceas. 
Centranthus ruber, Dec. 

macrosiphon, Bee. 

70. Dipsacacea. 
Scabiosa atropurpurea, L. 
Knautia orientalis, L. 

71. Composite. 
Ageratum mexicanum, L. 
Aster amelloides, L. 
Callistephus chinensis, Dec. 
Vittadenia triloba, Dec. 
Bellis perennis, L. 
lirachycorae iberidifolia, Benth. 
Centauridium Drummondii, Tor. et 


Pluchea indica, L. 
Eclipta prostrata, L. 
Dahlia variabilis, Desf. 
Siegesbeckia orientalis, L. 
Melampodium macranthum. 
Xanthium orientale, L. 
Zinnia elegans, L. 

var. plena. 
Guizotia oleifera, Dec. 
Rudbeckia digitata, Ait. 
Dracopis amplexicaulis, Cass. 
Gymnopsis uniserialis, Hook. 
Calliopsis bicolor, Rchb. 

Drummondii, Hook. 

coronata, Hook. 
Coreopsis lanceolata, L. 
Helianthus tuberosus, L. 

annuus, L. 
Bidens chilensis, L. 
Spilantbes oleracea, L. 
Ximenesia encelioides, Cass. 
Sanvitalia procumbens, Juss. 
Tagetes patula, L. 
erecta, L. 
Gaillardia picta, Hook. 
Gutierrezia gymnospermoides, Tor. 

ct Gray. 
Helenium tenuifolium, Nutt. 
Galinsoga brachystephana, R. et 

Sogalgina triloba, Dec. 
Sphenogyne speciosa, R. Br. 
Madia viscosa, Dec. 
Madaria elegans, Dec. 
Cladanthus proliferus, Dec. 
Achillea Millefolium, L. 
Leucanthemum vulgare, Dec. 
Pyrethrum Parthenium, L. 
Chrysanthemum indicum, L. 
tricolor, L. 
Argyranthemum frutescens, Webb. 
Dimorphotheca pluvialis, Dec. 
Cotula australis, Hook. fil. 
Cenia turbinata, Commers. 
Artemisia indica, Willd. 

Abrotanum, L. 
Ammobium alatum, R. Br. 
Humea elegans, Sm. 
Rhodanthe Manglesii, Lindl. 
Acroclinium roseum, Hook. 
Helichrysum bracteatum, Don. 

var. alba. 
Cacalia sempervirens, Vahl. 
Cineraria lanata, Willd., var. 
Senecio Cineraria, Dec. 

Jacobasa, L. 
Calendula arvensis, L. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 


Osteospermum spinosum, L. 
Echinops echinatus, Roxb. 
Xeranthemum cylindraceum, Dec. 
Centaurea Cyanus, L. 
Amberboa moschata, Dec. 
Carthamus tinctorius, L. 
Onopordum Acanthium, L. 
Cynara Scolymus, L. 
Cichorium Intybus, L. 
Tragopogon porrifolius, L. 
Lactuca sativa, L. 

72. Lobeliacece. 
Lobelia Erinus, L. 

heterophylla, Cav. 

syphilitica, L. 
Pratia angulata, Hook. fit. 

73. Campanulacece. 
Campanula Vidalii, H. C. Wat. 

rapunculoides, L. 
Specularia Speculum, Dec. 
Trachelium caeruleum, L. 

74. Gesneracece. 
Gesneria tubiflora, L. 
Achimenes longiflora, HooTc. 

pedunculata, Benth. 
Gloxinia speciosa, Bot. Reg. 

75, Myrsinacece. 
Ardisia crenulata, Ven. 

polycephala, Wall. 
Jacquinia ruscifolia, L. 
Corynocarpus laevigatus, Forst. 

76. Sapotacece. 
Achras Sapota, L. 
Mimusops Elengi, L. 
Bassia latifolia, Roxb. 

longifolia, L. 

77. Ebenacece. 
Diospyros Sapota, Roxb. 

78. Oleacece. 
Noronhia emarginata, Poir. 
Ligustrum sinense, Hort. 

79. Jasminacece. 
Jasminum Sambac, Ait. 
var. plena, 
latifolium, Roxb. 
auriculatum, Vahl. 
ligustrifolium, Wall. 
trinerve, Vahl. 
beteropnyllum, Roxb. 

Jasminum revolutum, Sims. 

officinale, L. 
Nyctanthes arbor tristis, L. 

80. Asclepiadacece. 
Cryptostegia grandiflora, R. Br. 
Hemidesmus indicus, R. Br. 
Calatropis gigantea, R. Br. 
Sarcostemma brevistigma, W. et 

Oxystelma esculentum, R. Br. 
Gomphocarpus fruticosus, R. Br. 
Asclepias curassavica, L. 
Tylophora asthmatica, R. Br. 
Pergularia odoratissima, L. 
Stephanotis floribunda, Thouars. 
Hoya carnosa, Browne. 
imperialis, Hook. 
Ceropegia ensifolia. 

fimbriata, E. Mey. 
juncea, Roxb. 
Boucerosia umbellata, W. et A. 
Stapelia revoluta, Mass. 

81. Apocynacece. 
Allamanda eathartica, L. 
Schottii, Pohl. 
Thevetia neriifolia, Juss. 
Cerbera Odollam, Gairtn. 
Tabernaemontana coronaria, R. Br. 
Vinca rosea, L. 

var. alba. 
Plumieria acuminata, Ait. 

alba, Jacq. 
Vallaris dichotoma, Wall. 
Beaumontia grandiflora, Wall. 
Wrightia mollissima, Wall. 

antidysenterica, R. Br. 
Nerium odorum, Ait. 
var. plena. 
Echites suberecta, Willd. 
paniculata, Roxb. 

82. Strychnece. 
Strycbnos Nux-vomica, L. 
potatorum, L. 

83. Pedaliacece. 
Sesamum indicum, L. 
Pedalium Murex, L. 
Martynia fragrans, L. 

craniolaria, Swz. 

84. Bignoniacem. 
Bignonia suberosa, Roxb. 


Proceedings of Societies. 

Bignonia venusta, Ker. 

gracilis, B. Cav. 
xylocarpa, Roxb. 
Amphilophium Mutisii, H. Birk. 
Spathodea adenophylla, Wall. 
crispa, Wall. 
campanulata, Bot. Mag. 
Stereospermum suaveolens, Dec. 
chelonoides, Dec. 
Tecoma capensis, Lindl. 

jasminoides, G. Don. 
stans, Juss. 
Eccremocarpus scaber, Ruiz et 

85. Cobwacem. 
Cobaea scandens, Cav. 

86. Polemoniaceaz. 
Phlox Druramondii, Hook. 
Collomia linearis, Nutt. 
Gilia tricolor, Benth. 
Leptosiphon densiflorus, Bth. 

aureus, Benth. 
Ipomopsis elegans, Rich. 

87. Convolvulacece. 
Evolvulus alsinoides, L. 
Porana volubilis, Burnt. 
Convolvulus parvinorus, Vahl. 

tricolor, L. 
var. alba. 
Jacquemontia violacea, Chois. 
Exogonium Purga, Chois. 
Calonyction Roxburghii, Chois. 
Ipomcea sinuata, Ort. 

Pes-capra3, Sweet. 
sessiliflora, Roth. 
coccinea, L. 
Nil, L. > 
Quamoclit phoeniceum, Choisy. 

var. alba. 
Batatas edulis, Choisy. 

betacea, Choisy. 
Pharbitis hispida, Choisy. 
caerulea, Choisy. 
Argyreia speciosa, Swt. 
cuneata, Ker. 

88. Cuscutacece. 
Cuscuta reflexa, Roxb. 

89. Boraginacece. 
Cerinthe major, L. 
Echium vulgare, L. 
Nonea lutea, Dec. 

Myosotis arvensis, L. 
palustris, L. 
Borago officinalis, L. 
Trichodesma indicum, R. Br. 
Tiaridium indicum, Lehm. 
Heliotropium peruvianum, L. 
Omphalodes linifolia, Lehm. 

90. Cordiacece. 
Cordia Myxa, L. 

Sebestena, L. 

91. Hydrophyllacece. 
Nemophila insignis, Dougl. 

maculata, Benth. 

atomaria, Fisch. 

discoidalis, Fisch, 
Eutoca viscida, R. Br. 
Whitlavia grandiflora, Harv. 
Phacelia congesta, Hook. 

92. Solanacece. 
Habrothamnus elegans, Endl. 
Petunia nyctaginiflora, Juss. 
Nicotiana Tabacum, L. 
Datura Stramonium, L. 
fastuosa, L. 
chlorantha, var. plena. 
Nicandra physaloides, Qcertn. 
Capsicum annuum, L. 

frutescens, i. 
Physalis peruviana, L. 

flexuosa, L. 
Solanum arboreum, H. et B. 

Balbisii, Duval. 

tuberosum, L. 

nigrum, L. 

giganteum, J acq. 
Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill. 
Brugmansia suaveolens, Wen. 

93. Scrophulariacea. 
Browallia elata, L. 

demissa, L. 
Brunsfelsia americana, L. 
Salpiglossis sinuata, R. et P. 
Schizanthus pinnatus, R. et P. 
Calceolaria hybrida, Hort. 
Verbascum Thapsus, L. 
Alonsoa Warcewitzii. 
Angelonia salicariaefolia, Kth. 
Linaria bipartita, Desf. 
Antirrhinum majus, L. 
Maurandia Barclayana, Ldl. 
Lophospermum scandens, Hook. 
Phygelius capensis, Mey. 
Collin sia bicolor, Bth. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 


Collinsia grandiflora, Bth. 
Pentstemon Hartwegii, Bth. 

campanulatus, Willd. 
Russelia juncea, Zucc. 

multiflora, H. B. K. 
Mimulus moschatus, L. 
Torenia asiatica, L. 
cordifolia, Roxb 
Digitalis purpurea, L. 
Veronica spicata, L. 
Franciscea eximia, Scheidw. 

uniflora, Pohl. 
Crescentia alata, H. B. K. 

94. Lahiatce. 
Ociraum canum, Sims. 
basilicum, L. 
sanctum, L. 
Plectranthus tuberosus, Roxb. 
Coleus barbatus, Bth. 

aromaticus, Bth. 
Lavandula vera, Dec. 
Salvia argentea, L. 

sclarea, L. 

coccinea, L. 

officinalis, L. 

splendens, Sello. 

patens, L. 
Salvia tricolor, Lam, 

Horminum, L. 
Monarda didyma, L. 
Origanum Majorana, L. 
Thymus vulgaris, L. 

citriodorus, Pers. 
Hyssopus officinalis, L. 
Leonurus tataricus, Burm. 
Holmskioldia sanguinea, Retz. 
Mentha Piperita, L. 
Melissa officinalis, L. 

95. Verbenacece. 
Aloysia citriodora, Ort. 
Verbena venosa, HooJc. et Gill. 

urticifolia, L. 

melindres, HooJc, var. 

officinalis, L. 
Stachytarpheta mutabilis, Vahl. 

jamaicensis, Vahl. 
Lantana indica, Roxb. 

melissaefolia, Ait. 

aculeata, L. 

mixta, Spreng. 
Vitex trifolia, L. 
Premna latifolia, Roxb. 
Tectona grandis, L. 
Gmelina asiatica, L. 


Volkameria Kaempferii, Willd. 
Clerodendron fragrans, Ait. 
var. plena, 
siphonanthus, R. Br. 
sp. ? (Mauritius), 
roseum, Wall. 
Duranta Ellisia, L. 

Plumieri, L. 
Petraea volubilis, L. 
Callicarpa Reevesii, Wall. 

96. Acanthacem. 
Thunbergia grandiflora, Roxb. 

alata, Hook. 
laurifolia, HooJc. 
Meyenia erecta, Nees. 

Hawtayneana, Nees. 
Hexacentris coccinea Nees. 

mysorensis, HooTc. 
Ruellia formosa, Andr. 
Goldfussia isophylla, Nees. 
Asteracantha longifolia, Nees. 
Barleria Gibsoni. 

cristata, L. 
acuminata, Wight. 

nov. sp? (Anamalais). 
Crossandra axillaris, Nees. 

infimdibuliformis, Ait. 
Aphelandra cristata, Ait. 

aurantiaca, Lindl. 
Graptophyllum hortense, Nees. 
var. picta. 
var. atropurpurea. 
Gendarussa vulgaris, Nees. 
Eranthemum pulchellum, Andr. 
Rhinacanthus communis, Nees. 
Dicliptera spinosa, Nees. 
Peristrophe lanceolaria, Nees. 

97. Primulaceai. 
Anagallis indica, L. 

98. Plumbaginaceo?. 
Plumbago zeylanica, L. 
rosea, L. 
capensis, Thurib. 

99. Nyctaginaceoz. 
Boerhaavia erecta, L. 
Abronia umbellata, Juss. 
Mirabilis Jalapa, L. 
Bugahivillea spectabilis, Commers. 
Pisonia aculeata, L. 

morindifolia, R. Br. 

100. Plantaginacea'. 
Plantago asiatica, L. 

-OCT. 1861. 2 s 


Proceedings of Societies. 

101. Amarantacece. 
Gomphrena globosa, L. 
Achyranthes aspera, L. 
Pupalia orbiculata, Wight. 
Amaranthus polygamus, L. 

spinosus, L. 
caudatus, L. 
hypochondriacus, L. 
Celosia argentea, L. 
cristata, L. 

102. Chenopodiacew. 
Atriplex hortensis, L. 
Spinacia oleracea, L. 
Beta vulgaris, L. 
Chenopodium ambrosioides, L. 

103. Basellacece. 
Basella alba, L. 
Boussingaultia baselloides, H. B. 

104. Begoniacece. 
Begonia fuschioides, Hook. 

dipetala, Graham. 
nitida, Ait. 
discolor, Ait. 
ulmifolia, Haw. 
palmata, Don. 
toraentosa, Schott. 

105. Potygonacece. 
Rheum rhaponticum, L. 
Polygonum orientale, L. 

Fagopyrum, L. 
rivulare, Rott. 
Rumex sanguineus, Sm. 
vesicarius, L. 
Acetosa, Z. 

106. Lauraceas. 
Cinnamomum Cassia, L. 
Persea gratissima, Gcert. 
Tetranthera monopetala, Roxb. 

ferruginea, R. Br. 

107. Proteacece. 
Leucadendron argenteum, R. Br. 
Grevillea robusta, A. Cunn. 

linearis, R. Br. 
Telopea speciosissima, R. Br. 
Stenocarpus Cunninghamii, R. Br. 

108. Santalacece. 
Santalum album, L. 

109. Aristolochiacece. 
Aristolochia labiosa, Kcr. 

Aristolochia bracteata, Retz. 
indica, L. 

110. Euphorbiacece. 
Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Neck. 
Euphorbia neriifolia, L. 

Tirucalli, L. 

Bojeri, Hook. 

antiquorum, L. 

pilulifera, L. 
Poinsettia pulcherrima, Grah. 

var. alba, 
Hura crepitans, L. 
Stillingia sebifera, Willd. 
Sapium indicum, Willd. 
Acalypha indica, L. 
Aleurites triloba, Forst. 
Jatropha panduraefolia, Roxb. 
multifida, L. 
glandulifera, Roxb. 
Curcas purgans, Adans. 
Janipha Manihot, Kth. 
Ricinus communis, L. 
Codiaeum variegatum, L. 

var. longifolia. 
Rottlera tinctoria, Roxb. 
Trewia nudiflora, Z. 
Croton Tiglium, L. 
Phyllanthus Niruri, L. 
Emblica officinalis, Gcert. 
Cicca disticha, L. 
Securinega nitida, Commers. 
Buxus sempervirens, L. 
Reidia floribunda, Wight. 

111. Urticacece. 
Urtica scabrella, Roxb. 
Boehmeria sp. (Sikkim. 
Cannabis sativa, L. 
Humulus Lupulus, L. 

112. Moracece. 
Morus indica, L. 
Ficus elastica, Roxb. 

repens, L. 

Carica, L. 

religiosa, L. 

indica, L. 

113. Artocarpacece. 
Artocarpus integrifolia, L. 
incisa, L. 

114. Piperacece. 
Chavica Betle, Miq. 

115. AmentifercB. 
Salix indica, L. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 


Corylus Avellana, L. 
Quercus Robur, L. 

116. Casuarinacece. 
Casuarina muricata, Roxb. 

equisetifolia, Forst. 

117. Coniferce. 
Pinus longifolia, Roxb. 

Pseudo-strobus, Lindl. 
sylvestris, L. 
Araucaria excelsa, R. Br. 

Cunninghami, Ait. 
Bidwilli, Hook. 
Cookii, #. Br. 
Dammara orientalis, Lam. 

Juniperus recurva, Ham. 

Thuja orientalis, L. 

var. Warcana. 
Cryptomeria japonica, Hook 
Cupressus torulosa, Don. 


funebris, Endl. 

lusitanica, Thumb. 

Lawsoniana, Murr. 

sempervirens, L. 
Callitris quadrivalvis, Vent. 
Podocarpus longifolia, Hort. 
Frenula Gunnii, Hook. fit. 
sp? (Sydney.) 

118. Cycadacece. 
Cycas revoluta, Thunb. 
Macrozamia sp. ? 

b. Monocotyledons. 

119. Dioscoreacece. 
Dioscorea sativa, L. 
alata, L. 
bulbifera, L. 
Batatas, Thunb. 

120. Smilacece. 
Srailax ovalifolia, Roxb. 

121. Roxburghiacece. 
Roxburghia gloriosioides, Dry an- 

122. Orchidacece. 
Dendrobium chrysanthum, Wall. 
Eria densiflora, Wall. 

Bletia hyacinthina, Lindl. 
Vanda spathulata, Spreng. 

Roxburghii, R. Br. 

teres, Lindl. 
Aerides odoratum, Lour. 
Cymbidium ensifolium, Sw. 
Satyrium sp ? (Nilgiris.) 
Co3logyne media, Wall. 
Vanilla aromatica, Swz. 

123. Zingiber acece. 
Alpinia calcarata, Roscoe. 

nutans, Roscoe. 
Zingiber Zerumbet, Roscoe. 
officinalis, Roscoe. 
Ksempferia ovalifolia, Roxb. 
Amomum angustifolium, Son. 
Curcuma longa, Roxb. 
Costus speciosus, Sm. 

124. Marantacece. 
Canna indica, L. 

lutea, Roscoe. 
edulis, Ker. 

125. Musacece. 
Musa sapientum, Roxb., var. 

Strelitzia regina, Banks. 

126. Iridacece. 
Iris germanica, L. 

florentina, L. 
Pardantbus sinensis, Ker. 
Tigridia Pavonia, Juss. 
Antholyza aethiopica, L. 
Tritonia crocata, Ker. 
Crocus speciosus, L. 

127. Hcemadoracece. 
Anigozanthus rufus, R. Br. 

128. Hypoxidacece. 
Curculigo orchioides, Roxb. 

129. Amaryllidacece. 
Amaryllis formosissima, L. 

psittacina, Ker. 
Zephyranthus Candida, Herb. 
Nerine sarniensis, Herb. 
Crinum asiaticum, Herb. 
Haemanthus coccineus, L. 
Cyrtantbus obliquus, Ait. 
Pancratium zeylanicum, L. 
Narcissus Tazetta, L. 
Alstroemeria aurea, L. 


Proceedings of Societies. 

Bomarea salsilla, Mlrb. 
Doryanthus excelsa, R. Br. 
Agave americana, L. 

var. variegata. 
vivipara, L. 

130. Liliacece. 
Tulipa suaveolens, L. 
Lilium longiflorum, Wall. 
Gloriosa superba, L. 
Agapanthus umbellatus, L'Herit. 
Polianthes tuberosa, L. 

var. plena. 
Kniphofia Uvaria, Hook. 
Phormium tenax, Forst. '■ 
Sanseviera zeylanica, Ros. 

Aloe indica, Royle. 
Yucca gloriosa, L. 

angustifolia, Pursh. 
Allium fragrans, L. 
Cepa, L. 
sativum, L. 
Porrum, L. 
Ornithogalum elatum, B. Rep. 
Hyacinthus orientalis, L. 
Asphodelus fistulosus, L. 
Asparagus sarmentosus, L. 

officinalis, L. 
Dracaena ferrea, L. 

terminalis, Willd. 

131. Bromeliacece. 
Ananas sativus, Schult. 

132. Pontederacew. 
Pontederia dilatata, Haw. 

133. Commelynacece. 
Tradescantia discolor, L. 
Commelyna coelestis, L. 

bengalensis, L. 
Cyanotis fasciculata, Rom. et Sch. 

134. Palmw. 

Areca oleracea, L. 
Seaforthia elegans, R. Br. 
Caryota urens, L. 
Borassus nabelliformis, L. 

I Corypha umbraculifera, L. 
australis, R. Br. 
Livistona mauritiana, Wall. 
Chamaerops bumilis, L. 
Phoenix sylvestris, Roxb. 
Cocos nucifera, L. 
Arenga saccharifera, Lab. 

135. Pandanacece. 
Pandanus odoratissimus, L. fil. 

136. Araceoe. 
Colocasia odora, Roxb. 
Amorphophallus campanulatus, 

Caladium bicolor. 
Dracontium polyphyllum, L. 

137. Orontiacece. 
Calla aatliiopica, L. 
Acorus Calamus, L. 

138. PistiacecB. 
Pistia Stratiotes, L. 

139. Gramineo3. 
Oryza sativa, L. 

Zea Mays, L. 
Coix Lachryma, L. 
Panicum miliaceum, Willd. 

jumentorum, Pers. 
Spinifex squarrosus, L. 
Cynodon Dactylon, L. 
Eleusine coracana, Gcert. 
Lagurus ovatus, L. 
Avena sativa, L. 
Poa annua, L. 
Briza maxima, L. 
Dactylis glomerata, L. 
Lamarckia aurea, Monch. 
Festuca duriuscula, L. 
Bambusa arundinacea, L. 
Lolium italicum, Braun. 
Triticum hybernum, L. 
Saccharum officinarum, L. 
Andropogon Schoenanthus, L. 
Sorghum saccharatum, Pers. 

vulgare, Pers. 

140. Filices. 
Drynaria quercifolia, Bory. 
Hemionitis cordata, Roxb. 
Platy cerium alcicorne, Gaud 
CheQanthes farinosa, Kaulf. 
Pellaea geraniifolia, Fee. 


Adiantum caudatum, L. 

Capillus-Veneris, L. 
Onychium auratum, Kaulf. 
Pteris longifolia, L. 
arguta, Vahl. 
serrulata, L. 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 321 

Blechnurn orientale, L. 
Asplenium prsemorsum, Sw. 

Nidus, L. 
Nephrodium molle, R. Br, 
Nephrolepis hirsutula, Presl. 
Gleichenia dichotoma, Hook. 

Lygodium scandens, Sw. 

141. Ophioglossacem. 
Ophioglossum yulgatum, L. 

142. Marsileacece. 
Marsilea quadrifolia, L. 

6. List of some of the Rarer Plants observed in the vicinity of Perth. 
By Mr Francis B. W. White. 

In reference to observations on the effects of frost last winter, already 
reported, Mr Thomas Thomson states that the pinetum of Balgowan is 
200 feet, and that of Keillour 560 feet above the level of the sea. The 
state of the thermometer placed on the snow at Balgowan during the 
week when the frost was most severe was as follows, viz. : — Dec. 24, 1860, 
6° below zero ; 25th, 3° below zero ; 26th, 4° below zero ; 27th at zero ; 
28th, 6* above zero ; 29th, 3° above zero ; 30th, 10° above zero. The 
thermometer on the north wall of the garden invariably indicated 2^° 
higher. In ordinary circumstances there is no difference between these 

Various monstrosities of roses have been sent to the Botanic Garden 
this summer. At St Colm, Trinity, by Edinburgh, Mr W. A. Parker 
reported that almost all the roses were proliferous, producing numerous 
grown buds from the receptacles, and all surrounded by a common calyx. 
From Broomhall Park, Sheffield, Mr James Allan sent similar teratolo- 
gical specimens. In some of them the calyx was developed in the form 
of large leaves, like the ordinary ones of the rose. 


Welwitsch on the Vegetation of the Plateau of Huilla in Benguela ; 
with Remarks by M. Be Candolle, — M. Welwitsch has just finished 
a series of most peculiar journeys, having been engaged for several 
years in traversing the territories of Angola and Benguela, the climate 
of which is usually fatal to Europeans, and from which we have not as 
yet received any important collection of plants. He has sent a letter 
on the subject to M. De Candolle, which has been published in the 
'* Bibliotheque Universelle" of Geneva for July 1861. 

M. Welwitsch says,— " At Benguela, 12°-13° Lat. S., we begin by 
finding Zygophyllacece, Loranthacece, and Sesameas in great quantity. 
On the banks of the streams, the small tree Herminiera Elaphroxylum 
is not rare. The Acacias and Capparids become more common ; a species 
of Cressa and the Salsolece appear in the saline marshes. Around Mossa- 
medes we see a Tamarix (T. senegalensis f) very abundant. It is a 
small tree, and bears on it a Cassytha ; a species of Ilydnor a grows on a 
leafless Euphorbia ; several Phytolaccacew (Limeum, Gisekia, &c.) live 
on the Zygophyllacem, two Mesembryanihemums, a Vogetia, and several 
species of Sesucium on the moving sands. More to the south, towards 
Cape Frio, Lat. 15° 40' S., I have found, over nine geographical miles 
of coast, a beautiful Hyphcene, which is probably my only new Palm. 
In the elevated sandy region occurs the new dwarf tree which I have 
called Tumboa, and which is probably the type of a new family, and 
which has affinities in structure with Conifers, Casuarinere, and Proteacecn. 
Near Mossamedes (Lat. 15° S.), in the interior, there are calcareous 
mountains covered in part with Acacias and Capparidacccv. Over sixty 

322 Scientific Intelligence. 

geographical miles of coast there are beautiful virgin forests of Sizygium, 
Nauclea, Mimosew, Ciesalpiniece, Combretacece, Spondiaceve, &c, with 
twining plants and epiphytic orchids. Over the last of these dark green 
forests there rises to the height of about 4000 feet (French) above the sea 7 
the majestic chain of Serra de Xella, covered to its summit with a light 
shade. It has a varied arborescent and herbaceous vegetation. On Go- 
lungo Alto (near St Paul's de Loanda, Lat. 9°-10° S.), I found a 
pretty Oncoba (0. spinosa ?) forming here and there small forests, and in 
the midst of most gigantic trees there rise like phantoms the triangular 
leafless stem of Euphorbia. At the summit of the mountain we met 
with Proteacece, Tarchonanthus, Echinodiscus (with a Rafflesiaceous 
parasite), Sapotacece, Parinarium, Combretacece, Brehmia (one of the 
Strychneae), Nathusia, Hymenodyction, and species of Lor anthus, with 
gorgeously coloured flowers. We thus reach the plateau of Huilla, the 
vegetation of which indicates an elevated and new region. A perpetual 
spring reigns on this extended plateau on the eastern side. On the bor- 
ders of streams are found species of Salix, Rubus, two Epilobiums, a 
Nasturtium, a Rumex, a Juncus, two species of Triglochin; in the 
streams, three Potamogetons. In the midst of European forms we see two 
Ottelias, a Blyxa (like a Valerian), a beautiful blue Nymphcea, and 
various Utricularias. A Serpicula creeps in the marshy places asso- 
ciated with Lobeliacece ; five species of Drosera, eight or nine Gentia- 
nacece, an Albuca, and a Kniphofia. On the soft surface of a mass of 
Sphagnum flourish numerous minute species of Scrophulariacece, ten 
species of Eriocaulon, a Burmannia, a Cyphia, two Trifoliums, a Ra- 
nunculus, two Scabiosas, and a gigantic Limosella, chiefly differing from 
the European species in the enormous size of its leaves. There are also 
small Cyperacece, a small Isostes, and a primulaceous plant allied to Jire- 
seJcia. In elevated moist places above, small species of Hypericum, Cen- 
tunculus, Phyllanthus, Commelyna, Polygala, Xyris, Hypoxis, Oxalis, 
Striga, Rhamphicarpa, and numerous delicate Rubiacece, there rises 
in a pompous manner a Protea with a large head, while near the streams 
are pretty Melastomacece. In the small lakes there is a Richardia (with 
a yellow spathe), two species of Iris, several species of Morcea and Gla- 
diolus. The great Lake of Ivantala presents a species of Cabombacece 
(Barteria africana, Welw.), not unlike Villarsia nymphceoides in its 
leaves and Butomus in its flowers. In the elevated meadows, about 5500 
feet (French) above the level of the sea, we meet with copses composed 
of Duranta, Cyclonema, Vitex, Lantana, and other Verbenacece, shrubby 
Mimosas, Carissa, Solanum, Strophanthus, and two Anonacece, &c. In 
this region we have the forms and colours of a subalpine zone ; but we 
find associated, in a limited space, representations of different and widely 
separated zones. The moist meadows present Polygala, Crotalaria, 
Ly thrum, several Composite, and a species of Gloriosa ; several Gladio- 
luses, twenty-two species of Orchidece (all terrestrial except one). The 
dry slopes and hillocks are clothed principally with woody or shrubby 
species of Labiates, Acanthacece, Hypoxidece, Convolvulacece, and Pa- 
pilionacece ; beautiful Liliacece (chiefly Asphodelece) , Daphnoidece, Com- 
posite, Euphorbiacece, Graminece, Cyperacece, and Santalacece ; but the 
greatest ornament are several beautifully flowering Selaginece and two 
species of Clematis with large, pale, violet flowers. The valleys traversed 
by the water-courses contain more than thirty species of ferns, amongst 
which European ferns, as Pteris arguta and Osmunda regalis, are asso- 
ciated with arborescent species of Cyathea, and Gymnogrammas with 
yellow and white fronds, and species of the genera Ancemia and Gleichenia. 
Some pretty pines are found in moist rocks, and amongst them new 
species of Streptocarpus (S. monophylla, Welw.) On the border of the 
wood are numerous small Asclepiadacew and some Apocynacece. Erect 

Botany. 323 

species of Cissus are also common. Out of three Geraniacece there is one 
Monsonia. A species of Ficus, one to two and a-half feet high, yields an 
edible fruit. 

" The dry forests are composed principally ofPittosporum, Tarchonan- 
ihus, Echinodiscus, Acacia, Strychnece (Brehmia?), Cassia, Combre- 
tacece, and Proteacece, while the humid forests are formed by Parinarium, 
Syzygium, Erythrina, Nathusia, Ficus, several Olacinece, and a tree 
allied to Poinciana, but which constitutes another genus. I have only 
met with two Ericacece, and the woody Rubiacece are only represented by 
a species of Ancylanthus and one of Gardenia. There are many woody 
Euphorbiacece not yet determined. A small Phyllanthus grows like 
Salix herbacea, and a Myrsine is found in the less umbrageous forests. 

"The people inhabiting the region are a fine race of hospitable 
negroes, who cultivate the soil and rear cattle. The cereals raised are 
Zea, Sorghum, Eleusine, and Penicillaria." 

M. de Candolle, in reporting this letter of Mr Welwitsch, remarks : — 

" The families most abundant at the Cape (Iridacece, Amaryllidaceoe, 
Santalacece, Composites, Lobeliacece, Euphorbiacece, &c), or, most charac- 
teristic of Southern Africa {Selaginacece , Cyphiacece, Proteacece, &c), are 
prolonged towards the equator along the western coast, on account of the 
elevation of the mountains. It is quite different, however, with the 
eastern coast of Africa, where the equatorial vegetation extends towards 
Port Natal (Lat. 30° S.) on account of the warm and humid climate. 
The analogies seem to be less intimate between the elevated parts of 
Benguela and the western part of Southern Africa, than in the eastern 
part between Mozambique and Port Natal. In truth, according to the 
indications of Mr Welwitsch, the analogy seems, in the first of them, to 
be founded on the families and genera, and rarely on the species; while 
in the case of the eastern coast, as in all coasts, the same species extends 
sometimes very far. We may therefore expect to find in the collections 
from Huilla many absolutely new species belonging to genera of different 

" If any species are found identical with those of the Cape, Abyssinia, 
or even the region of the Mediterranean Sea, it will in all probability be 
in the case of Aquatics, or plants of moist places, or amongst plants 
having a very extended range, as the Cyperaceas and Graminese. M. de 
Candolle has already determined the identity of Myrsine africana of the 
Cape, the Azores, and Abyssinia ; it is not astonishing that we should 
find it also on the mountains of Benguela. There are also some repre- 
sentations of American plants as regards families and genera. The 
presence in Africa of Cactacece (of the genus Rhipsalis), of Eriocaulons, 
Vellosia, and Rafflesiacece, is an unexpected fact. It seems to point to 
a far distant geological epoch, when there existed a general southern 
vegetation, the remains of which are found in New Holland, South 
America, and South Africa, under the form of Proteacece. , Xyridacece, 
Hcemodoracece, Eriocaulonacece, Santalacece, Composites, Campanulacece, 
Lobeliacece, Leguminosce, &c. — a vegetation once very rich, but reduced 
in each of the three continents to outposts under the form of isolated 

On the Composition of the Cone of the Coniferce. ByM. Ph. Paelatore. 
— The scales of the cone of Coniferse have been examined by many 
botanists, and various theories have been advanced to explain their 
nature. Botanists have considered the scales of the cones as being a 
single organ modified in different species ; some with L. C. Richard, re- 
garding them as bracts, others with R. Brown considering them as carpellary 
leaves ; while others, as Mirbel and Baillon, look upon them as bracts in 
the cypress and as flattened peduncles in pines. The researches of 
Parlatore on the different genera of Abietineae and Cupressinese have led 

324 Scientific Intelligence. 

him to consider the scales as being most frequently the result of the union 
of two different organs ; that is to say, of the bract and the scaly organ, 
which are distinct and separate only in a small number of genera. He 
concludes that in the cases of Abietinese and Cupressineae there are always 
bracts, which are either free or united with the scaly organ which is in 
their axil ; and the scale is most frequently formed of the bract and the 
scaly organ united, the extent of union varying in different genera; and 
hence arise the different forms of cones which the Coniferae present. It 
is probable that the scales of the cones of Cycadacere result also, in some 
genera at least, from a union of the bract and the scaly organ, and this 
view is confirmed by the occurrence of two points in the form of horns at 
the end of the scales in the genus Ceratozania. A similar view in re- 
gard to the bracts and scales of Coniferae has been already advocated by 
Dr Alexander Dickson of Edinburgh in papers published in this Journal. 


Salmon. — Report to the Tweed Commissioners, 2d and 3d September 
1861. — " In consequence of powers granted to me at the general meeting 
of last year, I beg to lay before you the following Report : — 

" Is*, In regard to the ' blacktail,' I have to report that, owing to 
the continuous floods in the river after the 1st of October 1860, the small 
nets would not work ; consequently I was only enabled to mark 108 of 
these fish, none of which, so far as I can ascertain, have been recaptured. 
Upon the 16th March 1861, I received a letter from Mr John Weather- 
ston of Horncliffe, enclosing a copper wire (which I produce) taken from 
the nose of a whitling caught near that village on that date ; weight 1£ 
or 2 lbs. I identify this wire as one of sixty-six used in marking the 
1 blacktail' on the 14th and 19th of October 1859. When marked, these 
fish were from 8 to 12 ounces in weight, thus showing, from that and 
former experiments, that at all events this species (so far as the River 
Tweed is concerned) takes a longer time of arriving at maturity than has 
hitherto been generally imagined. 

" 2d, As to the condition, quality, and number of fish landed after the 
14th September 1860, when the annual close time for nets commences, I 
have to report that, at different periods, comprising the 1st October, 5th 
and 21st of November, there were landed, under my superintendence, 
21 salmon, 15 grilse, and 375 trout, making a total of 411. The weight 
of these fish would average respectively 17 lbs., 7i lbs., and 5£ lbs. each ; 
and the whole, with a few exceptions, were in first-class condition, more 
like spring than autumn fish. I wish particularly to draw attention to our 
proceedings upon the 1st of October 1861. Upon that day, when upon 
one of my farms adjoining the banks of the river, I discovered that the 
river was flooded, upon which I mustered a boat's crew, and commenced 
operations at Scotch Newwater. In a short space of time we landed 
15 salmon, 8 grilse, and 73 trout. These fish were captured upon 
the fovd, when they were coming from the sea with the run of the 
tide. In the evening I was again upon the river side, when I saw 
not hundreds but thousands of splendid fish going back to the sea. 
This I attribute to the flood being from the River Till ; and the tide 
fish meeting this flood, they turned at Norham, and brought those lying 
in the river with them. In consequence of this, immense numbers were 
congregated at the mouth and within the statutory limits of the river, 
and hence commenced the active, diligent, and lucrative proceedings of 
the poachers. Before leaving this subject I may mention, that, upon the 
21st November, the day was dreadfully wet and cold ; and the men having 
commenced work before daylight, and being completely soaked and in a 
state of starvation, I killed a ' bull trout/ 14 lbs. weight, and cooked it 

Zoology. 325 

for them : he was quite black ; but a better fish of his kind was never 
eaten, showing the absurdit} r of imagining a fish unwholesome because 
dark in the skin. On this day we landed 131 trout, 1 salmon, and 1 

" I would also draw attention to the enormous proportion of bull trout 
to that of salmon and grilse. I am afraid, if the present legislative 
enactments remain in existence, that in a few years we shall have the 
Tweed an entire trout river, like those south of it ; although at one time 
those rivers, as well as the Tweed, abounded with salmon proper. 

" I have now to report regarding the kelts. Of these there were 
marked this spring, under the surveillance of our superintendent, be- 
tween the 14th March and 13th June, 27 salmon, not one grilse, but 
302 trout, with galvanized wire in the under lip. None of these fish so 
marked have been recaptured, so far as I am aware. Of the 1028 marked 
in the spring of 1860 with labels and wires through the gill-cover (I pro- 
duce one of the wires), I have ascertained three only to have been retaken 
—one at South Bells upon the 1st July last — one at Scotch New water on 
the 9th of the same month — and one at Hugh Shiel upon the 21st of last 
month. These fish weighed respectively 6 lbs., 6^ lbs., and 6| lbs. ; they 
were all of the trout species, and in excellent condition. From the above 
remarks, and former observations, it leads one almost to the conclusion, 
that the kelts only return to the river every alternate season, and that 
too at a late period. I may also remark, that the return of the kelts to 
the sea appears to be annually becoming later, especially the salmon ; of 
grilse there are few or none. Of the 27 salmon marked this spring, 
none were marked before the 14th Mav, and so many as ten upon the 13th 
June ; showing, apparently, that early closing does not tend to create an 
early return to the sea. 

" The next subject which my report embraces is that connected with 
salmon fry. During the last spring, upon the 26th April, the 11th, 
17th, and 25th of May, and the 1st and 4th of June, I made repeated 
trials between Wilford and the mouth of the River Whitadder, and upon 
each of these days we landed many thousands of smolts. Upon the two 
first, although the river was literally alive with, bull trout smolts, there 
were few or no salmon or grilse smolts. Upon the third day there was 
only one draught where salmon and grilse smolts prevailed, although at 
every shot we landed thousands of bull trout smolts. Upon each of the 
succeeding days the same result ensued ; and upon the last two we only 
got five smolts of salmon and grilse, the bull trout being still most abun- 
dant. The trout smolts this season were stronger and larger than I ever 
recollect of seeing them, many resembling the smaller class of ' Blacktail ' 
I cut some open, and in each and all found some of the ■ fry ;' in one as 
many as seven. I may also mention one peculiarity in regard to the ex- 
periments of the past season, viz., that large numbers of 'perch' (on 
some days many hundreds) were captured during several of the days of 
experimenting, and also to the extraordinary circumstance of a pike 5 or 
6 lbs. weight being caught by myself when angling for salmon upon the 
7th June, nearly a quarter of a mile below the Union Bridge, and where 
the tide flows daily. Pike in the lower parts of the Tweed were never 
before known. What is to be the consequence to the salmon if these fish 
increase to any extent? 

"At the annual meeting in 1858, 1 received permission to mark a species 
of fish locally called ' Blacktail,' which are generally captured in the 
tideway, and which, by the old fishermen, are held to be adult fish. I 
was likewise empowered by the same meeting to follow out the marking 
of the Kelts in the spring — to try and ascertain, if possible, at what 
period they return from the sea to the river as clean fish. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XIV. NO. II. — OCT. 1861. 2 T 

326 Scientific Intelligence. 

" First, in regard to the Blacktail, I may mention that I cannot state 
the exact number marked in the autumn of 1858, owing to our late super- 
intendent, Mr Mitchell, having kept the statistics, and which by some 
means have fallen aside, but which, to the best of my recollection, 
amounted to somewhere about 240. These were all marked with gal- 
vanized wire in the upper part of the nose. In the autumn of 1859 I 
marked 166 in all, 100 of which were marked with silver wire as before, 
and the remaining 66 with copper wire, in consequence of the supply of 
silver wire running short. 

" Of the 240 marked in the autumn of 1858, none, to my knowledge, 
have been recaptured in the Tweed ; but I have received information of 
three that were caught in the north of Scotland — one near Montrose, one 
in the River Don near Aberdeen, and one at the Cove fishing on this side 
of the same town. I may mention that one of these (about 2f lbs. weight) 
was forwarded to the late Mr Paulin, when in London in July last, by a 
Mr Johnston of Montrose, with the wire in its nose, and which I would 
call a fine whitling or sea- trout, but which there, I believe, goes by the 
name of ' Finnock' or 'Herling.' As to the 166 marked last autumn, 
I can trace four marked with the galvanized wire, and one marked with 
copper wire, recaptured in the Tweed, all of which were caught in the 
tideway. One of those marked with silver wire I got an account of as 
having been caught in the North Esk during last week. I produce spe- 
cimens of the wires taken out of these fish. I may mention, when these 
fish were marked in the months of October and November, they would 
weigh from 8 to 12 ounces ; and when retaken in the succeeding summer 
months, their weight varied from 1^ lb. to 2f lbs. 

" As to the Kelts, from the disturbed state of the Commission in the 
spring of 1859, nothing was done. During the last spring I have marked 
and caused to be marked 54 salmon, 9 grilse, and 965 trouts ; in all, 1028. 
A part of these were marked by an ivory label attached to the gill-cover 
by a wire, of which label I now produce a specimen. Those not marked 
with labels were marked with wire attached to the same place. Up to 
the present day there has not, so far as I can ascertain, been one of these 
fish recaptured as clean fish on their return from the sea — showing the 
same result as in 1858. I may mention that these fish were marked from 
the fishery of Wilford downwards, or about six miles from the mouth of 
the river ; and as it would have been impossible to have marked this 
large number without considerable expense to the Commissioners, I 
would recommend that this meeting vote Mr Paxton, superintendent of 
the Berwick Shipping Company's fishermen, a sum of L.5 as a remune- 
ration to himself and others for the trouble he and they have taken in 
assisting to mark the kelts. 

" I may also state that in May last I accompanied our superintendent to 
the river to point out to him the different kinds of fish which it was illegal 
for persons to capture by the rod. Of course, in doing this, we had to 
use the small net, when the quantity of bull trout smolts brought ashore 
were to me and to all quite miraculous, but I am sorry to say those of the 
salmon proper were very meagre. In opening some of the trout smolts 
I found as many as five or six of the salmon-fry in their stomachs; and I 
much fear, if this fish is allowed to increase as at present, they will soon 
banish the salmon and grilse from the river. Before leaving this subject, 
I have again to ask permission to continue to mark the blacktail in 
autumn and the kelts in spring, as well as power to try the river with 
the long net to ascertain the quality of the fish, and more especially to 
see if we cannot capture some of the marked kelts. This will be attended 
with little expense, as the nets for the purpose are still in existence. 

" Geo. Smith, Superintendent." 

Geology. 327 


Slate in India. — Mr Oldham, superintendent of the Geological Survey 
of India, has written a long memorandum on the use of slates in India 
generally, and on the slabs of the Kurnool district particularly. After 
explaining, at length, the nature of true slate, namely, that it is " capable 
of almost infinite division, thin plates or slabs splitting with tolerably 
even surfaces of considerable size," he goes on to show that the Kurnool 
slabs and the same material found in other parts of India are incapable 
of this infinite division, &c. And he is of opinion that " the Kurnool slabs 
referred to by Lieutenant Beckley and the Madras Government are en- 
tirely unfitted for sloping roofs ; that they cannot be procured in slabs 
dividing naturally of such size and thickness as would adapt them for such 
roofs ; that sawing them would, even if practicable, be too expensive ; 
that the slabs thus procured would be either too thin to give the requisite 
strength, or, if of sufficient strength, would be too heavy and thick for 
economical or effective use. But for flat roofs or floors he thinks they 
may be used with advantage. Mr Oldham adds, — " I would further urge 
that such stone slab floors, where the proper material can be procured 
with a moderate amount of carriage, and at a fairly reasonable rate, will 
prove much more durable, economical, more cleanly, and in every respect 
better floors than either wood or ' pucka' for barracks, hospitals, court- 
houses, or any place where there is constant intercourse, and also for the 
verandahs of such buildings. I have just alluded to the cleanliness of 
such floors ; and I consider this to be by no means a trifling advantage. 
They can be mopped out with clean water, or washed with soap and 
water in the same way as ordinary wooden floors, and can thus be kept 
sweet, clean, and free from vermin with the smallest amount of labour. 
There are several localities in Bengal and the North- Western Provinces 
where such slabs could be obtained as would be suited for flooring. The 
hills to the south of Monghyr, the Sikkim Hills (poor), the Soane Valley, 
the Kumaon Hills, &c, the Gwalior Hills. But in few cases will such 
materials admit of any great length of carriage ; and they can therefore 
only be used economically when procured within a reasonable distance of 
the works where they are required." 


The Great Comet of 1861. — On Sunday evening, June 30th, between 
eight and nine o'clock, there was observed at New Haven, in the northern 
part of the heavens, in an opening between the clouds, and at an elevation 
of about ten degrees, a nebulous body of unusual brilliancy. Its appearance 
was similar to that of the planet Jupiter shining through a thin mist ; and 
it was nearly as conspicuous an object in the heavens as Jupiter, although 
this was due not wholly to the intensity of its light, but partly to its ex- 
tent of surface, its apparent diameter being about equal to that of the full 
moon. It was at once suspected that this body was a comet ; but this 
conclusion was adopted with some reserve, on account of the unusual 
brilliancy and sudden apparition of the meteor. This light was soon 
concealed by a cloud ; but about half an hour later, a larger opening in 
the clouds disclosed the tail of the comet, in the form of a bright streamer, 
with sides nearly straight and parallel, and pretty sharply defined. The 
head of the comet was now invisible ; but a little later both head and tail 
were seen simultaneously, forming together one of the most brilliant 
comets of the last fifty years, and astonishing every one by the suddenness 
of its development. Mr R. W. Wright of this city marked the position 
of the comet's head upon a star chart as accurately as he was able, and 
hence concludes that about a quarter before nine o'clock, June 30, its 
R. A. was 108° and Dec. 47° N. 

328 Scientific Intelligence. 

On Monday it was ascertained that on Saturday evening several in- 
dividuals had noticed in the north a bright streamer, rising to a great 
height above the horizon, and it was at once concluded that thfs was the 
tail of the same comet. The daily newspapers report, that the head of 
the comet was seen on Saturday evening at Columbus, in Ohio ; but it is 
not known that any one made any accurate determination of its place. 

On Monday night, at New Haven, the sky was overcast ; but on Tuesday 
evening, July 2d, the sky was mostly clear, and the comet very conspi- 
cuous ; although it was thought that its head was not as brilliant as it had 
been on Sunday evening. At 9 h 31 m p.m., the position of the head was 
in R. A. & h 41 ,n , and Dec. 63° 5' N. Seen through a telescope of five 
inches aperture, with a power of 55, the head was fully thirty minutes in 
diameter. Near the centre of the nebulosity appeared a very brilliant 
nucleus, from which emanated a luminous sector, whose opening was 
about 90°, one side being nearly vertical, and the other or right side was 
nearly horizontal. This brush of light extended two minutes from the 
nucleus. The tail of the comet could be traced to a distance of 90° from 
the head. 

On Wednesday evening the sky was again clear, and the comet was 
observed to great advantage, but its brilliancy had palpably declined 
since Sunday evening. At 9 h 5 m p.m., its head was in R. A. 9 h 52"*, and 
Dec. 60° 10' N. Seen through the telescope, the coma had about the 
same extent as on the preceding evening, but the luminous sector already 
mentioned had changed very noticeably. The sides of the sector were 
curved, the concavity being outwards, and the opening of the sector 
amounted to 136° when measured to the extremities of its arc ; but the 
initial directions of the two sides formed an angle at the nucleus of about 
90°. From the nucleus to the edge of the sector was 1' 34". Beyond 
this, there was a dark arch or band concentric with the nucleus ; and be- 
yond the dark band a luminous arch or envelope, faint and misty, the 
middle line of which was 2' 52" from the nucleus. Beyond this there 
were faint indications of a second envelope, with an intervening dark 
arch, the whole forming a series of nearly concentric light and dark 
arches, similar to those observed in Donati's comet in 1858, and in Hal- 
ley's comet in 1835. The tail of the comet on Wednesday evening could 
be traced through an arch of 95° ; and the deviation of its axis from the 
position of direct opposition to the sun was about 12° ; and toward the 
east the axis produced cuttin jthe ecliptic about 8° behind the sun's 

The tail of the comet was carefully observed on several clear evenings, 
but the observations were more detailed and complete on the evening of 
July 3d. The northern edge grazed the star Lambda Draconis, passed 
about 15' to the south of Kappa Draconis, and continued on through Iota 
Draconis, and far beyond it, in an arc of a great circle. The southern 
edge passed just to the north of H. 32, Ursae Majoris, grazed H. 30, 
Ursa) Majoris, and continued on through the stars 3 and 8 Draconis. 
(According to theB. A. Catalogue, these stars are Nos. 3496, 3358, 3968, 
and 4347.) 

It broke off, or suddenly became faint, before it reached the distance of 
Alpha Draconis, at about 20° from the nucleus. From that point the tail 
continued as a much fainter milky band, decreasing very gradually in 
luminosity, and varying but little in apparent breadth. This breadth 
was less than one-half the breadth of the extremity of the brighter por- 
tion, which wab about 3°. The southern edge of the narrower and fainter 
Stream passed through Alpha Draconis, and grazed the stars Tau, Sigma, 
hikI Eta Ilerculis. The decreasing light of this stream vanished in the 
immediate vicinity of the Milky Way, to the cast of ,3 Ophiuchi. The 

Miscellaneous. 329 

extreme length of the tail was about 95°. The train of the comet was 
apparently made up of two distinct streams of luminous matter, differing 
greatly in width and length. The northern edges of the two were in the 
same line, but the extreme breadth, of the shorter stream was much 
greater than that of the other. Its southern edge was badly defined, 
and somewhat concave outward. A very faint diffused light, rapidly 
widening out, could be traced far beyond the point where the sudden 
falling off of brightness occurred. This diffused light extended, on the 
evenings of July 4th and 5th, to the vicinity of Corona Borealis, or more 
than 40° from the nucleus, and attained to a width of 12° or 15°. Its 
southern edge passed just to the north of the star Theta Bootis. The 
breadth of the tail, as distinctly seen, at its broadest part, was about 3°. 
On the evening of June 30th, the estimated breadth was 5° ; but a faint 
light on the south side was traced 5° farther, giving an extreme breadth 
of 10°. On July 4th, the tail was visibly forked about 2° below the star 
Alpha Draconis, or 15^° from the nucleus. On the following evening, 
the point of forking was 3° or 4° above the same star. The nucleus had 
advanced 5^° toward it in the interval. 

It was also observed, on the evening of July 4th, that by examining 
carefully it could be discerned that the long narrow stream increased in 
breadth about in proportion to the distance from the nucleus. At the 
point where first seen as a distinct stream, its breadth was about 1^°. 

Since July 5th the tail of the comet has decreased, from night to night, 
in brightness, as well as in length and breadth. 

The following places of the comet, as observed at the U. S. Naval Obser- 
vatory, Washington, have been communicated by Lieut. J. M. Gillies, 
Superintendent of the Observatory. The observations were made by Mr 
Ferguson with the large equatorial. 

M. T. Washington. No. of Corap. * 

1861, July 2, 9h 55™ 19»'3 10 8 h 43™ 6»-97 

3, 8 46 46 -3 2 9 51 41 -15 

3, 9 10 7 '3 5 9 52 52 -55 

4, 8 51 20 -5 12 10 58 36 -26 
6, 9 52-5 4 12 31 12-57 

On the night of the 3d, it was observed on the meridian with the transit 
instrument by Professor Robinson, U. S. N., and with the mural circle by 
Professor Hubbard. 

M.T.Washington. « £ 

July 3, 15^ 21*" 46«-7 K) h ll m 7 8 25 66° 33' 31"-5 

From the observations of the 2d, 4th, and 6th, the following elements 
of its orbit were computed by Prof. Hubbard : — 

Perihelion passage 1861. June 11.43955. Washington mean time. 
Longitude of the Perihelion, 249° 11' 28"'4 \ Mean eqx. 

Longitude of ascending node, 278 58 32 -1 J 18610 

Inclination of the orbit, 85 37 35 *5 

Perihelion distance, 0-821531 

Motion direct. 

These elements give for the middle observation 

aZ = - 15"7(c-o) 
±b — - 10 -6. 

It is obvious, from these elements, that this comet is not the same as 
the comet of 1556 (called Charles the Fifth's comet), whose return has been 
anticipated for several years ; nor do these elements bear any resemblance 
to those of any comet in the published catalogues. We must conclude, 


+ 63° 


14'/. 7 



52 -5 



6 -0 



20 -6 



7 -6 

330 Scientific Intelligence. 

then, that this comet is a new one, whose orbit has never before been 

The Comet, as seen at the Observatory of Harvard College, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. Communicated by G. P. Bond, Director. — The comet was 
first seen at the observatory of Harvard College in the early twilight, on 
the evening of Tuesday, July 2d. The sky was clouded on the 1st and on 
the 30th. On Saturday the 29th of June the air was hazy, preventing 
the usual sweeping for comets, although observations near the meridian 
were prosecuted until about ll h i\m Had the sky been clear, the tail of 
the comet would probably have been seen. A day or two previous, the 
western twilight had been explored with an opera-glass ; but at this time 
only the upper part of the tail could have been in sight, and it must have 
been too faint to attract notice. The condition of the theory of cometary 
formation makes it very desirable that astronomers should devote more 
attention than they have hitherto been accustomed to do to the accurate 
delineation of the curve of the tail among the stars. The present oppor- 
tunity has been improved at the observatory of Harvard College, by 
making careful tracings of the boundaries of the rays through their entire 
extent upon star-charts. The Uranometria Nova of Argelander was 
found to be especially convenient for the purpose, both from the exact- 
ness of the projection, and the care taken in giving the proper magnitudes 
to the stars, which greatly facilitates their identification. An uninter- 
rupted series of clear nights, from the 2d of July to the present time, has 
very much favoured us in preserving the continuity of the phenomena, 
which is a condition of the utmost importance for their future discussion. 

The suddenness of the apparition of the comet in northern latitudes 
was one of the most impressive of its characteristics. On the 2d of July 
after the twilight had disappeared, the head, to the naked eye, was much 
brighter than a star of the first magnitude, if only the effective impres- 
sion be taken into account, although as to intensity it was far inferior to 
a Lyrae, or even to oc Ursae Majoris. I should describe the head as nearly 
equal in brightness to that of the great comet of 1858 between the 30th 
of September and the 5th of October ; it should be considered however 
that the present comet was better situated, from its higher position above 
the horizon at the end of twilight. 

The aspect of the tail suggested a resemblance to the comet of March 
1843. It was a narrow, straight ray projected to a distance of one hundred 
and six degrees (106°) from the nucleus, being easily distinguishable quite 
up to the borders of the milky way. The boundaries for the most part 
were well defined and easily traced among the stars. It was not until 
after two or three hours of observation that I could gain a clear compre- 
hension of the structure of the tail or tails as they presented themselves 
to the naked eye and through a small opera-glass. It was then evident 
that a diffuse, dim light, with very uncertain outlines, apparently com- 
posed of hazy filaments, swept off in a strong curve towards the stars in 
the tail of Ursa Major — the southern edge directed as low as towards 
Mizar. This was evidently a broad curved tail, intersected on its curved 
side at the distance of a few degrees from the nucleus by the long straight 
ray which at the first glance, from its greatly superior brightness, 
seemed alone to constitute the tail. The two were in fact counterparts of 
the principal tail and the supplementary rays of the great comet of 1858, 
with this remarkable difference, that in the latter the straight rays were 
so far inferior in brightness to the curved tail as to have been recognised 
at only three observatories — those of Poulkova, Gottingen, and Cambridge, 
U.S. — while with the present comet the predominating feature was the. 
straight ray, to which the curved tail seemed scarcely more than a wisp- 
like appendage. 

Miscellaneous. 331 

On further scrutiny, with the aid of an opera- glass, two sharply cut and 
very narrow dark channels, bounding the principal ray, could be traced 
for ten or fifteen degrees from the nucleus ; while outside of them, on 
either side, were two additional faint rays. The whole issue of nebulous 
matter, from the nucleus far into the tail, was curiously grooved and 
striated. It was noticed that both the principal ray and the dark chan- 
nels penetrated within the outline of the curved tail, the latter being clearly 
separated from the principal ray, even to the naked eye, by a dark cleft 
just above their intersection. The well-defined margin of the principal 
ray admitted of a very exact delineation, even as far as a, Ophiuchi, 100° 
from its origin. 

On the 3d, the bright rays and dark channels were traced to a dis- 
tance of 40° from the nucleus, the principal ray to nearly 100°. Five or 
six alternations were distinguished, besides the hazy filaments consti- 
tuting the curved tail. Some of the streaks could be traced quite up to 
the nucleus. The rays were not only separated by the dark channel par- 
rallel to their axes, but they were disconnected at intervals in the direc- 
tion of their length. 

On the 4th, there were two or more regions of contrary flexure on 
the north following margin of the ray, which, in a theoretical point of 
view, are of very great interest when taken in connection with the direc- 
tion of the ray almost precisely in a great circle from the sun continued 
through the nucleus. This peculiarity presented itself still more deci- 
sively on the 5th, when the tortuous path of the ray could not be over- 

The very singular aspect of the northern edge of the principal ray for 
the first thirty or forty degrees of its course attracted particular atten- 
tion, and the charts were revised with all possible care. The sky was 
perfectly clear, and the outlines so distinct that there could be no room for 
doubt as to the reality of the reflexure of the curve. Subsequently, on 
projecting an arc of a great circle from the sun through the nucleus, it 
• was found to lie clearly within the margin of the ray as far as a distance 
of thirty degrees (30°) from the nucleus, and there was still haziness be- 
yond "it, almost to the distance of sixty degrees (60°). The charts on 
other dates indicate similar results, but the data cannot be properly dis- 
cussed without requiring more labour than be at present devoted to 

Within the last few days the principal ray in the part near the nucleus, 
has assumed a more regular sweep in the direction opposed to that 
of the diffuse tail,, which now reaches nearly to the centre of Corona 
Borealis, scarcely changing the course of its southern limit between x 
and / Bootis and £ Coronas Borealis from night to night. 

The telescope phenomena, though interesting, have not presented equally 
strongly defined features with those which characterised the great comet 
of 1858. We should perhaps except from this remark their structure for 
a day or two after their first emission from the nucleus. In this stage 
they were intersected by jets of luminous matter projected from the nu- 
cleus, and these limits were clearly outlined. 

On the 2d, portions of three were visible ; the inner one showing a 
variety of details. In its outline and general aspect it was, like others 
which followed it, almost a fac simile on an enlarged scale of some of 
those exhibited by the great comet of 1858. They rapidly faded, or were 
lost in the surrounding haze, and their places were filled with new ones. 
Latterly, two, at most, could be seen at one time. It is quite important 
to remark that the successive envelopes resembled their predecessors not 
only in their general aspect but quite closely in the details of their struc- 
ture ; the luminous jets not issuing at random from all points alike of the 

332 Scientific Intelligence. 

nucleus, but continuing to follow a nearly similar course at each new dis- 
charge from its surface. 

The most natural inference from this would seem to be that the nucleus, 
if it rotates at all upon an axis, does so very slowly. Of the pendulum- 
like vibrations of the luminous sectors ascribed by Bessel to the comet of 
Halley, nothing was seen ; although the opportunity of witnessing them, 
had they existed, was very favourable, as the sectors were well displayed. 

The nucleus was throughout brilliant, and, to appearance, solid, with 
a diameter of from 2" to 3". 

The disposition of the nebulosity, in the part of the tail contiguous 
to the head, was nearly uniform throughout; the axial darkness being 
scarcely distinguishable, excepting on one occasion, July 3d. 

The following positions have been derived from comparisons with 
neighbouring stars : — 



Cambridge Mean 



ar Time. 


f 2, . 




8 h 

37 m 


+ 62° 

51' 17"-1 

3, . 






15 85 


6 15 -3 

3, . 






6 58 


16 05 -1 

4, • 








53 26 -4 

5, . 








3 22 -0 

6, . 








51 33 -3 

8, . 








46 13 -7 

9, . 








21 45 -2 

10, . 








9 34 -1 

12, . 








54 47 -2 

13, . 








5 25 -7 

The nucleus admitted of very precise observations; indeed it is a 
curious fact, that it would be quite possible, by means of proper com- 
parisons with neighbouring stars, to obtain the diiferences of terrestrial 
longitudes of the principal points at which it was observed, with a de- 
gree of precision only surpassed by the more refined methods known in 

The near approach of the present comet to the earth, and the sharply 
defined point of its nucleus, illustrates the practicability of a method of 
determining the solar parallax with perhaps greater exactness than can 
be attained by any other means. Many comets have stellar points for 
their nuclei, visible in the larger telescopes, which admit of as accurate 
comparisons with neighbouring stars as is practicable in measurements 
among the stars themselves. Many such have appeared within the last 
fifteen years. Suppose such a comet to be suitably placed so as to be ob- 
served simultaneously in different quarters of the globe, when at a dis- 
tance from the earth of less than one-twentieth of the sun's distance : 
under favourable circumstances it would not be hazarding too much to 
say, that in the course of its apparition the probable error of the solar 
parallax could be reduced within smaller limits than is possible by means 
of transits of Venus or of any other method. Such an opportunity might 
possibly afford an improved value of the mass of the earth. 

The following elements of the comet have been computed at the Obser- 
vatory by Messrs Safford and Hall : — 

Elements of Comet II., 1861. By T. H. Safford. 

T = 1861, June 11.1878 Cambridge m. t. 
log. 7= 9-91299 

n- ^l— 329° 10'-81 

ft = 278 59-28 

i = 85 41 -43 

Motion direct. 



By A. Hall 

T = June 11.280. 

SI = 

log. q = 

Washington m. t 

248° 51' 50" 

278 59 23 

85 41 27 


Motion direct. 

From the above, Mr Safford finds the following approximate ephemeris 
for 10 h 24 m m. t. Washington, A and r representing the distances from 
the earth and sun respectively. 




log. A 

log. r. 

ruly 5, . 

. 178° 42' 

4-66° 8' 



„ 6, . 

. 188 21 

64 45 

m T, • 

. 195 24 

63 13 



„ 8, . 

. 200 37 

61 42 

.. . 


„ 9, • 

. 204 34 

60 18 



„ 10, . 

. 207 39 

59 2 


„ 11, • 

. . 210 5 

57 54 



n 12, . 

. 212 5 

56 52 

„ 13, . 

. 213 44 

+ 55 57 



The following, computed by Mr Hall for Washington mean midnight, 
will give an idea of the path of the comet previous to its becoming visible 
in the northern hemisphere: — 

log. A. 

The comet passed its ascending node June 28'086, Washington m. t., 
when the difference between the heliocentric longitude of the comet and 
of the earth was 2° 0'. The difference between the geocentric longitude 
of the comet and of the sun was 12° 29'. Log. of distance of the comet 
from the earth = 91529. Calling its brilliancy unity on July 25, we 
have, — 

June 12-5, brilliancy = 0-11 

W. m. t. 


June 12-5, . 

. . . 61° 39'-l 

„ 16-5,. 

. . 63 16-3 

„ 20-5, . 

. . . 66 4-9 

„ 24-5,. 

. .. 71 56-9 

„ 28-5,. 

. . 85 17-9 

July 2-5, . 

. . 132 15-9 

„ 6-5, . 

. . 188 53-9 

M 10-5, . 

. . 207 50-1 

June 29-0, . 

. . 89 30-4 









- 3 



+ 27 









+ 58 



+ 33 



„ 16-5, 


„ 20-5, 



„ 24-5, 



„ 28-5, 



uly 2-5, 



„ 6-5, 



„ 105, 


computed by the equation, brilliancy 

,2 A ; 

It will be seen that the comet, at about the time of its perihelion, must 
have been well situated for observation at the Cape of Good Hope and 
other points in southern latitudes. The calculated brilliancy is indeed 
much less than on the 2d of July, being only about one-tenth ; but it is 
well known that the formula cannot be relied upon for the variations of 

NEW SEMES. VOL. XIV. NO. II. — OCT. 1861. 2 U 

334 Scientific Intelligence. 

the light of comets, which is greatly influenced by their positions rela- 
tively to their perihelia. 

It is probable that at least the head of the comet was much brighter at 
the middle of June than it was after the 1st of July, and we shall wait 
with much interest for accounts of it from southern observatories, espe- 
cially from the Cape of Good Hope, which has often, in similar emer- 
gencies, proved itself the most important astronomical position occupied 
by any existing observatory. 

From the above elements, the diameter of the nucleus may be variously 
estimated at from 1.50 to 300 or 400 miles. On July 2d the breadth of 
the head at the nucleus was 156,000 miles, the height of the inner enve- 
lope 11,500 miles, and the length of the tail about 15,000,000 miles. 

The comet was seen between one and two o'clock on Sunday morning, 
June 30th, by Dr Brunnow, at the Observatory of Ann Arbor. This is 
the earliest authentic account of its visibility which has come to my notice. 
The head could not have been seen on Friday evening, although observa- 
tions to that effect have been reported. The extremity of the tail, how- 
ever, must have been within view for some time previous, though too 
faint to attract notice. 

The reports current of the identity of the comet with those of 1264 and 
1556 are without any foundation. {From the advanced sheets of '* Silli- 
marts Journal" for September 1861.) 

The Livingstone Expedition. 

Kingare Mouth, Zambezi, 
21st January 1861. 

My dear Mr Young, — The discovery we have made of abundance ot 
coal existing on the Zambezi above Kelvabassa will be of importance 
some day, when the obstacles thrown in the way of civilisation by the 
Portuguese have been removed. The first coal-field is that at Chicova, 
just where the river becomes narrowed by the hills ; it is to be seen when 
the river is low, being then disclosed in the bed on the north side ; it 
seems of good quality — burns freely without requiring a furnace. Strange 
the people seem to have no name for it. It has been broken up by trap- 
rock being forced in among it ; but I have no doubt it may be had nearer 
the surface through the whole of the Chicova plain. The next seam is 
that near " Mangenene Hill," where it crops out on the face of the rock 
on the south of the river. On the north we found coal and shale in the 
bed of a stream coming from the hills, but failed to reach the seam itself; 
but we found pipe-clay which had undergone the action of fire. Pipe-clay 
is very common in the country. 

Again, in the country beyond the Kafue, there is abundant evidence of 
coal at the foot of the hills to the north, and in the Batoka country, 
where we left the Zambezi. As we ascended the River Zangue, we came 
to beds of alum slate, covered with an efflorescence of the salt, under 
this was shale and coal containing large stems of vegetables, which seemed 
like Stigmarias ; but I was unable to gather fossils, showing anything 
definite. From the sections we saw in that ascent, I was quite satisfied 
that the schist rocks of this country are modifications of the sandstone and 
slates altered by heat, and tilted up by the igneous rocks of granite, 
syenite, and massive quartz, which have been injected. The latest change 
has been the eruption of trap ; but this seldom changes the position of 
other rocks. It has been forced through holes and between strata, but 
seems not to have possessed sufficient heat to render the rocks plastic. To 
this belongs the change which has caused the great Victoria Falls, the 

Miscellaneous. 335 

real wonder of the world. As to the great central lake, which seems to 
have existed in the centre, there is a good deal yet to be proved ; for the 
country at Lesheke, composed of calc tufa, is on a higher level than the 
rocks at the falls ; and therefore the dyke which would be necessary to 
confine the water must be sought for in front ; and as we did not follow 
the Zambezi there, we cannot speak positively, but I think it will be 
found that the Batoka highlands will prove to be continuous with others 
leading to the Matebele country ; and that the Zambezi now flows in a 
chasm between these elevated plains. When we left the Zambezi, only six 
miles below the falls, the chasm had deepened both by the fall in the 
river bed, which was very steep, and the rise of the surrounding country 
above that at the falls. A thorough examination of the river in this part 
of its course will well repay the trouble. 

The Batoka highlands are composed of syenite rocks. On the south the 
slopes are steep, and present many peaks, forming a ridge to the plains ; 
these peaks consist of quartz rocks, and are in immediate contact with the 
gneiss mica schist, and ending near the Zambezi in sandstone. The Ba- 
toka plains are about 3000 to 4000 feet; the surface is undulating. To the 
west, there is no steep slope, but a gentle fall in the country ; for whereas 
the Zambezi valley to the south is only 1000 feet above the sea, that 
above the falls is 3000 feet, being only a diiference of 1000 feet ; yet that 
small amount is accompanied by a different climate. The valley above the 
falls is most unhealthy, as the missionary party found, by losing six out 
of nine of the Europeans in little more than a month ; but the highlands 
are very healthy, and seem quite free of the fevers. 

It is a great pity that the Makololo are so far from the coast ; they are 
the people of whom most could be made. The coast tribes are all very 
suspicious of strangers. 

Prizes offered by the Society of Arts and Sciences of Utrecht. — The 
Society in 1861 has given its gold medal to the following naturalists :• — > 
1. Dr Carl Semper of Altona, for a Memoir on the Development of Am- 
pullaria polita, Desb. — 2. Dr E. Clarapede of Geneva, for Researches on 
the Evolution of Spiders. 

The following are proposed as subjects for Prizes in 1862 and 1863 : — 

1. An expose of the principles which, from the time of the Treaty of 
Munster up to the present day, have been announced and applied on the 
occasion of the recognition of the independence of people who had been 
under a yoke, or of changes made in the form of government. 

2. In reviewing the history of the Greeks and Romans, to ascertain 
the influence which the ideas and theories of philosophers exercised on 
the views and political conduct of statesmen, and to demonstrate the 
consequences of this influence in their attempts at political and social 

3. Historical Sketch of the state of our knowledge regarding the Island 
of New Guinea. 

4. The determination in the most exact manner, and as much as pos- 
sible by various methods, of the atomic weight of two elements at least, 
chosen by preference from those which have not been already published 
in the researches of M. Stas. 

5. Account of the evolution of one or more species of Invertebrate 
animals whose history has not been already described ; accompanied by 
illustrative plates. 

The Prizes for each Memoir, if deemed satisfactory, will be a Gold 
Medal of the value of 300 Dutch Florins (about £24 sterling). The 
Memoirs may be written in English, French, Dutch, German, or Latin. 
They must be addressed (free by post), before 30th November 1862, to 

336 Publications received. 

Dr J. W. Gunning, Secretary of the Society at Utrecht. The memoirs on 
questions 3 and 4 must be given in not later than 30th November 1863. 

It is recommended that the Essays should not be written in the authors' 
handwriting. They must be accompanied by a sealed letter, containing 
the name of the author, and bearing on the address the letter L , if he is 
a member of the Society. The Memoirs which are deemed worthy of 
prizes will be inserted in the Memoirs of the Society. 


Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Janu- 
ary to March 1861.— From the Academy. 

Annual Report of the Geological Survey of India. Calcutta, I860.— 
From Professor Oldham. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. II. Part II. By 
Thomas Oldham. — From the Author. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. No I. for 1861 .—From the 

Schriften der Konigl. Physikalisch cekonomischen Gessellschaft zu 
Konigsberg, Erster Jahrgang. 1st and 2d Part. Konigsberg, 1860-61. 
— From the Society. 

The Climate of England. By George Shephard, C.E. — From the 

The Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society. July 1861. From the 

The Forests and Gardens of South India. By Dr Hugh Cleghorn, 
F.L.S., Conservator of Forests, Madras. — From the Ptiblishers. 

Dublin Quarterly Journal of Science. No. III. July 1861. — From the 

Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool, 
1860-61. No. XV.— From the Society. 

The Canadian Naturalist and Geologist. February, April, June, and 
August 1861. — From the Editor. 

A Short Treatise on the Construction of Steam-boilers, &c. By J. R. 
Smith, Engineer, Devon.— From the Author. 


Anamalai Hills, South India, Excursions to, by Dr Cleghorn, 147 

Andaman Islands, Natives of, described, 300 

Arsenic-eating in Styria, by Dr Roscoe, 164 

Atractylis coccinea, 150 

Bangalore Garden, Plants cultivated in, 309 _._... 

Barrow, Isaac, Mathematical Works, edited by Whewell — Noticed, 121 

Beke, Charles T., on the Mountains forming the Eastern Side of the Basin of 
the Nile, 240 

Ben Ledi, Botanical Excursion to, 158 

Ben Lawers and Schihallion, Botany of, 306 

Botanical Society, Proceedings of, 154, 305 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, September 1861* 290 . 

North America, Capabilities for Settlement of the Central Part of, 262 

North America, Physical Features of the Central Paft of* 212 

Brodie, Rev. P. B., on the Discovery of an Ancient Hammer-head in Super- ; 
ficial Deposits near Coventry, 62 

Caves, Ancient British, 201 .' 7 , . 

Chemical Science, 294 

Cleghorn, Dr H., on the Coco-nut Tree and its Uses, 173 

on the Forests and Gardens of South India — Noticed, 286 • 

on Plants cultivated in the Bangalore Garden, 309 

Coco-nut Tree and its Uses, 173 

Comet of 1861, 327 

Coniferae, Composition of the Cone of, 323 

in Canada, Geographical Distribution" of, 206 

Dammara australis, Stages of Development in the Female Flower, ;183 

Davis, Joseph Barnard, on Sixteen Ancient Human Skulls found at St An- 
drews, 191 

Davy, Dr John, on the Production of Mist, 16 

De Candolle, Alphonse, on Vegetation of Huilla in Benguela, 323 

Dendrophya radiata, 153 ' 

Dickson, Dr Alexander, on the Female Flower of Dammara australis, 183 

Dioscorea, the Species of, by Dr Cleghorn, 156 

Diseases in connection with Meteorology, by Dr T. Moffat, 160 

Drifts of Severn, Avon, Wye, and Usk, some Phenomena connected with, 281. 

Earthquakes and Agitations of the Sea, 203 

Eclipse of Sun of 1860, 303 

Edmonds, R., on Ancient British Caves, 201 

on Earthquakes and Extraordinary Agitations of the Sea, 203 

Everett, J. D., on the Method of Reducing Observations of Temperature, 19 

Firth of Forth, Recent Rise of the Coast of, 102 

338 Index. 

Flowering of Plants in Botanic Garden, by Mr M'Nab, 156 

Gases, their Condensation, 296 

Geikie, Archibald, on a Rise of the Coast of the Firth of Forth, 102 

Geography and Ethnology, 300 

Geology, 297, 327 

of Country between Lake Superior and the Pacific Ocean, 159 

Gingidium Haastii, 157 

Glaciers, Notes on Ancient, 46 

Gorilla described, 298 

Granite, Aqueous Origin of, by A. Bryson, 144. 

Hanibrough, Albert John, Death of, 305 

Hammer-head, Ancient, near Coventry, 62 

Hector, Dr, on the Physical Features of the Central Part of British North 

America, with reference to Botanical Physiognomy, 212 
on the Capabilities for Settlement of the Central Part of British North 

America, 262 
on the Geology of the Country between Lake Superior and the Pacific 

Ocean, 159 
Henslow, Professor, Obituary of, 169 
Horticultural Experience at Russelconda, South India, by Dr William Traill, 

How, Henry, on Natro-boro-calcite in Gypsum of Nova Scotia, 112 
Huilla in Benguela, Vegetation of, 321 
Iceland, Flora of, 64 

Keddie, W., on Botany of Ben Lawers and Schihallion, 306 
Kew Observatory, 292 
King, William, on Certain Species of Permian Shells said to occur in Car 

boniferous Rocks, 37 
Lecythia elegans, 153 
Lightning Figures, 254 

Lindsay, W. Lauder, on the Flora of Iceland, 64 
Livingstone's Researches in Africa, 165, 334 
Lowe, Dr John, on Homologies of Floral Organs of Phanerogams and higher 

Cryptogams, 308 
Macvicar, Dr, on Morphology and Organic Development, Geometrically con- 
sidered, 1 
Manatus s«negalensis x Skull of, by Dr J. M'Bain, 152 
Mango Fruit, Varieties of, by Dr Cleghorn, 155 
Meteorological Observations, Tweeddale Prize for, 161 
Meteorology in connection with Diseases, 160 

Milne-Home, David, Notes on Ancient Glaciers, made at Charaouni, 46 
Mist, the Production of, 16 

Molecular Theory of Organisation, by Dr Bennett, 137 
Mountains of the Moon in Africa, 240 
- ■ forming Eastern Side of Basin of the Nile, 240 

Morphology and Organic Development, 1 
Natro-boro-calcite, in Gypsum of Nova Scotia, 112 
New Zealand Plants, by Dr F. Mueller, 157 
Oldham on Slate in India, 327 
Olefines, Derivatives from, by F. Guthrie, 145 
Ophryodendron, Reproduction of, 153 

Index. 339 

Page, David, Past and Present Life of the Globe— Noticed, 129 

Pancreas, Human, Secretion of, by W. Turner, 133 

Parlatore on the Cone of Coniferae, 323 

Permian Shells said to occur in Carboniferous Rocks, 37 

Photography, 293, 295 

Physical and Mathematical Science, 293 

Pratt, J. H., on Attractions, Laplace's Functions, and the Figure of the Earth 
—Noticed, 128 

Reviews, 118, 286 

Rhizopod Structure, 150 

Royal Physical Society, 150 

'• Society of Edinburgh, 133 

Salmon, Report on, to the Tweed Commissioners, 324 

Scientific Intelligence, 159, 321 

Scotch Planting, Notices of Early, by Professor Tnnes, 138 

Senecio Traversii, 157 

Sheppard, Hon. Win., on the Geographical Distribution of the Coniferae in 
Canada, 206 

Skull, Human, peculiar Forms of, in their Ethnic relation, 269 

Skulls, Ancient Human, found at St Andrews, 191 

Slate in India, 327 

Smith, George, Report on Salmon, 324 

on Quadrature of Circle — Noticed, 118 

Societies, Proceedings of, 133, 290 

Society of Arts and Sciences at Utrecht, Prizes offered by the, 335 

Solar Eclipse, Observation of, 290 

Symonds, Rev. W. S., on some Phenomena connected with the Drifts of the 
Severn, Avon, Wye, and Usk, 281 

Temperature of the Earth's Crust, by W. Fairbairn, 163 

" Reduction of Observations on, 19 

Toad, Acrid Fluid of, by Dr Davy, 134 

Tomlinson, Charles, on Lightning Figures, 254 

Trap-Rocks, Chronology of, by A. Geikie, 143 

Veronica Hulkeana, 157 

Victoria Falls, 168 

Welwitsch, on Vegetation of the Plateau of Huilla in Benguela, 321 

Wilson, Dr Daniel, on some Modifying Elements affecting the Ethnic Signifi- 
cance of peculiar Forms of the Human Skull, 269 

Zoology and Botany, 298 

Zoophytes and Protozoa, by Dr T. S. Wright, 150, 153